What was the Battle of Bedriacum (69 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69) near the village of Bedriacum (now Calvatone), about 35 kilometres (22 miles) from the town of Cremona in northern Italy. The fighting in fact took place between Bedriacum and Cremona, and the battles are sometimes called… Read More

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What was the Battle of Mutina (193 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Mutina was fought in 193 BC, near Mutina, between the Roman Republic and the Boii. Background The Roman army won the battle. The battle marked the total defeat of the Boian Gauls, but since consul Lucius Cornelius Merula’s victory cost the Romans dear, and his officers accused him of negligence on… Read More

What was the Battle of Forum Gallorum (43 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Forum Gallorum was fought on 14 April 43 BC between the forces of Mark Antony, and legions loyal to the Roman Senate under the overall command of consul Gaius Pansa, aided by his fellow consul Aulus Hirtius. The untested Caesar Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) guarded the Senate’s camp. The battle… Read More

What was the Battle of Mutina (43 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Mutina took place on 21 April 43 BC between the forces loyal to the Senate under Consuls Gaius Vibius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, supported by the legions of Caesar Octavian, and the Caesarian legions of Mark Antony which were besieging the troops of Decimus Brutus. The latter, one of Caesar’s assassins,… Read More

What is a Roman Ovation?

Introduction The ovation (Latin: ovatio from ovare: to rejoice) was a form of the Roman triumph. Ovations were granted when war was not declared between enemies on the level of nations or states; when an enemy was considered basely inferior (e.g. slaves, pirates); or when the general conflict was resolved with little or no danger… Read More

What was the Battle of Paxos (228 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Paxos was a naval battle between a coalition of Illyrian federation with their Acarnanian allies, against the allies of Corcyra (modern Corfu), the Achaean League and Aetolian League. The battle took place in the spring of 229 BC and was a direct consequence to the siege of Corcyra by the forces… Read More

What were the Illyrian Wars (229-168 BC)?

Introduction The Illyrian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei kingdom. In the First Illyrian War, which lasted from 229 BC to 228 BC, Rome’s concern was that the trade across the Adriatic Sea increased after the First Punic War at a time when Ardiaei power increased under… Read More