What was the Battle of Lake Trasimene (217 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought when a Carthaginian force under Hannibal ambushed a Roman army commanded by Gaius Flaminius on 21 June 217 BC, during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). It took place on the north shore of Lake Trasimene, to the east of Cortona, and resulted in a heavy defeat… Read More


What was the Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD)?

Introduction The Year of the Five Emperors was 193 AD, in which five men claimed the title of Roman emperor: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus, and Septimius Severus. This year started a period of civil war when multiple rulers vied for the chance to become Caesar. The political unrest began with the murder… Read More

What was the Year of the Six Emperors (238 AD)?

Introduction The Year of the Six Emperors was the year 238 AD, during which six men were recognised as emperors of Rome. Refer to the Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD) and the Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD). Background Maximinus Thrax The emperor at the beginning of the year was Maximinus Thrax,… Read More

What was the Pisonian Conspiracy (65 AD)?

Introduction The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso in AD 65 was a major turning point in the reign of the Roman emperor Nero (reign 54-68 AD). The plot reflected the growing discontent among the ruling class of the Roman state with Nero’s increasingly despotic leadership, and as a result is a significant event on the… Read More

What was the Aetolian War (191-189 BC)?

Introduction The Aetolian War (191-189 BC) was fought between the Romans and their Achaean and Macedonian allies, and the Aetolian League and their allies the kingdom of Athamania. The Aetolians had invited Antiochus III the Great to Greece, who came, but after his defeat by the Romans returned to Asia. This left the Aetolians and… Read More

What was the Achaean War (146 BC)?

Introduction The Achaean War of 146 BC was fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek Achaean League, an alliance of Achaean and other Peloponnesian states in ancient Greece. It was the final stage of Rome’s conquest of mainland Greece, taking place just after the Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC). Rome and Achaea had been… Read More

What was the Battle of Bedriacum (69 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69) near the village of Bedriacum (now Calvatone), about 35 kilometres (22 miles) from the town of Cremona in northern Italy. The fighting in fact took place between Bedriacum and Cremona, and the battles are sometimes called… Read More