What was a Colonia?

Introduction A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of a Roman city. It is also the origin of the modern term colony. Characteristics The Roman Republic, having no standing army, used to plant bodies of… Read More


What was the Battle for Trebia (218 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was the first major battle of the Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and a Roman army under Sempronius Longus on 22 or 23 December 218 BC. It took place on the flood plain of the west bank of… Read More

What was the Siege of Rome (546)?

Introduction The Sack of Rome in 546 was carried out by the Gothic king Totila during the Gothic War of 535-554 between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantine Empire. Totila was based at Tivoli and, in pursuit of his quest to reconquer the region of Latium, he moved against Rome. The city endured a siege lasting… Read More

What is the Fabian Strategy?

Introduction The Fabian strategy is a military strategy where pitched battles and frontal assaults are avoided in favour of wearing down an opponent through a war of attrition and indirection. While avoiding decisive battles, the side employing this strategy harasses its enemy through skirmishes to cause attrition, disrupt supply and affect morale. Employment of this… Read More

What was a Roman Triumph?

Introduction The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war. On the day… Read More

Waste No Time…

“Waste no time arguing what a good man should be. Be one.” Marcus Aurelius (121 to 180 CE) Marcus Aurelius, in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, original name (until 161 CE) Marcus Annius Verus, was Roman Emperor (161-180 CE), best known for his Meditations on Stoic philosophy. Marcus Aurelius has symbolised for many generations… Read More

What were the Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy (306-324 AD)?

Introduction The Civil wars of the Tetrarchy were a series of conflicts between the co-emperors of the Roman Empire, starting in 306 AD with the usurpation of Maxentius and the defeat of Severus and ending with the defeat of Licinius at the hands of Constantine I in 324 AD. Background The Tetrarchy refers to the… Read More