A Brief Overview of Roman Military Decorations and Punishments

Introduction As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions. Decorations, Awards, and Victory Titles Crowns Imperial Titles Synonyms for “Emperor” Victory Titles Victory titles were treated as Latin cognomina and were usually the name of the… Read More

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Who was Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)?

Introduction Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Latin: [ˈŋnae̯.ʊs pɔmˈpɛjjʊs ˈmaŋnʊs]; 29 September 106 BC to 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey the Great (/ˈpɒmpiː/), was a leading Roman general and statesman. He played a significant role in the transformation of Rome from Republic to Empire. He was also (for a time) a student of… Read More

What were the Marian Reforms (107 BC)?

Introduction The Marian reforms were reforms of the ancient Roman army implemented in 107 BC by the statesman Gaius Marius, for whom they were later named. The reforms originated as a reaction to the military and logistical stagnation of the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. Centuries of military campaigning throughout the Mediterranean… Read More

What was the Battle of Lake Trasimene (217 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought when a Carthaginian force under Hannibal ambushed a Roman army commanded by Gaius Flaminius on 21 June 217 BC, during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). It took place on the north shore of Lake Trasimene, to the east of Cortona, and resulted in a heavy defeat… Read More

What was the Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD)?

Introduction The Year of the Five Emperors was 193 AD, in which five men claimed the title of Roman emperor: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus, and Septimius Severus. This year started a period of civil war when multiple rulers vied for the chance to become Caesar. The political unrest began with the murder… Read More

What was the Year of the Six Emperors (238 AD)?

Introduction The Year of the Six Emperors was the year 238 AD, during which six men were recognised as emperors of Rome. Refer to the Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD) and the Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD). Background Maximinus Thrax The emperor at the beginning of the year was Maximinus Thrax,… Read More

What was the Pisonian Conspiracy (65 AD)?

Introduction The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso in AD 65 was a major turning point in the reign of the Roman emperor Nero (reign 54-68 AD). The plot reflected the growing discontent among the ruling class of the Roman state with Nero’s increasingly despotic leadership, and as a result is a significant event on the… Read More