|Elite & Special Forces Main Page||US Elite & Special Forces Main Page|
This article is structured as follows:
- Part 01: Background to Special Operations Weather Team Officer.
- Part 02: Entry Standards and Applications.
- Part 03: Outline of Special Operations Weather Team Officer Selection & Training
- Part 04: Miscellaneous.
PART ONE: BACKGROUND
There have been significant changes in the recruitment and training of special warfare operators, as they are now known, as well as a change in some roles. Detailed information on the changes can be found at:
- US Air Force Special Reconnaissance (SR) Selection & Training.
- US Air Force Recruitment & Training Units & Organisations.
This is now a legacy page.
SOWT Officers are one of three officer specialities along with four enlisted specialities that form what are known as Battlefield Airmen (Table 1). Weather personnel that support conventional Army and special operations are considered Battlefield Airmen (BA) according to Air Force Policy Directive 10-35, ‘Battlefield Airmen’. In brief, these Battlefield Airmen include:
- Combat Controllers (CCT): Are specialists who focus on air-to-ground terminal control.
- Pararescuemen (PJs): These are the guys you see in all the movies (think Black Hawk Down). They deliver battlefield trauma care, as well as personnel recovery and combat search and rescue.
- Combat Weather Teams: Meteorological interpretation, which can affect how the battlefield is going to change and how commanders conduct operations.
- Tactical Air Control Party (TACP): Are air-to-ground specialists, but they focus primarily on close air support (CAS).
- Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE): Perform duties as the name implies. Not strictly a special operations role, but has significant input in training and exercises conducted by special operations.
These Air Commandos form the special operations element of the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) Special Operations Forces (SOF) community, which is the air component of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).
The role of a US Air Force Special Operations Weather Team Officer is to command, manage and perform weather operations for US Air Force and US Army support organisations activities. Their role includes:
- Integrating current and forecast atmospheric and space weather conditions into operations and operational planning.
- Developing, directing and coordinates meteorological and space weather studies and research.
- Supporting and executing weather operations through leadership and management of weather groups, squadrons, flights, detachments and operating locations.
- Supporting US Air Force core weather responsibility to provide meteorological and space weather information for air, ground, and space operations.
Consequently, SOWTs are experts in weather operations. SOWT’s are part of the 10th Combat Weather Squadron, a unit of the 720th Special Tactics Group, based at Hurlburt Field in Florida. There are approximately 100 SOWT operators, around 25 of which are officers.
From boot camp to first deployment, a SOWT officer may undertake up to two years of training.
It must be emphasised that a candidate must be physically fit at the beginning of the SOWT Officer training process if they are to stand any chance of success. The course requires far greater expenditure of physical energy than is normally required in other peace time training. It is essential that candidates arrive fully fit, carrying no injuries and with a sound grasp of basic leadership techniques.
It should be noted that the US Air Force announced in May 2015 that the SOWT-O pipeline would end (US Air Force, 2015). Special Operations Weather Teams would now be commanded by Special Tactics Officers.
The aim of this article is to describe the fundamental entry requirements, selection process and training for personnel seeking to become a US Air Force Special Operations Weather Team Officer.
1.2 Women and US Air Force Special Tactics
From January 2016, in accordance with current US Federal Government policy on the employment of women in the US military, service in the US Air Force’s SOF community is open to both male and female volunteers (Pellerin, 2015).
Women in the US military have, for a number of years, been able to serve in a variety of SOF-related roles, including:
- Military information support;
- Civil affairs units;
- Female engagement teams;
- Cultural support teams; and
- Air Force special operations aviation roles.
As of March 2015, approximately two-thirds of the roles in USSOCOM were integrated (Vogel, 2015).
1.3 Air Force Special Operations Specialty Codes
There are a number of Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC) within the USAF special operations community, known as Battlefield Airmen, as outlined in Table 1.
|Table 1: Air Force Specialty Codes for Battlefield Airmen|
|Officer Roles||AFSC Code|
|Special Tactics Officer (STO)||13CX|
|Combat Rescue Officer (CRO)||13DX|
|Special Operations Weather Team – Officer (SOWT-O)||15WXC|
|Combat Controller (CCT)||1C2XX|
|Tactical Air Control Party (TACP)||1C4XX|
|Special Operations Weather Team – Enlisted||1W0XX|
|Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE)||1T0XX|
|Source: US Air Force, 2014a; 2014b|
- For officers, there are three levels, with each level represented by the suffix: 1 (Entry); 3 (Qualified); and 4 (Staff).
- For enlisted personnel there are five levels, with each level represented by the suffix: 11 (Helper); 31 (Apprentice); 51 (Journeyman); 71 (Craftsman); and 91 (Superintendent); replace the 1 with 2 for SOWT-E.
- For SOWT-O, the C suffix represents special operations trained.
PART TWO: ENTRY STANDARDS AND APPLICATIONS
The US Air Force does not accept direct entry applicants, i.e. civilians with no prior military experience, for the SOWT Officer role. As a result, volunteers for SOWT Officer may be accepted from US Air Force officers from the weather utilisation field to serve with the US Air Force’s Special Operations community.
Consequently, there is one recognised pathway to becoming a US Air Force SOWT Officer:
- Enlist while in the US Air Force and apply for training.
2.1 Special Operations Recruiting Liaison
Recruitment for SOWT Officers is conducted through a number of Special Operations Recruiting Liaison Operating Locations (OL-C to O) throughout the US.
The OL’s fall within the 24th Special Operations Wing.
2.2 General Requirements and Eligibility for All Candidates
Subject to the requirements outlined below, all weather-qualified US Air Force officers are eligible to attend the SOWT Officer training programme.
General Requirements for all candidates:
- Completed Weather Officer Course (WOC).
- Completed Weather Flight/Detachment Officer Course.
- Qualification and possession of 15W3.
- Completion of specialty training courses.
- Meet physical qualification for parachutist duty.
- Maintain physical fitness standards.
- Completion of a current Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI).
- Able to obtain a Top Secret Security clearance.
- Pass relevant Physical Fitness Test (PAST, BAPFT or ROPFT: view Section 2.6).
- USAF Class III Flight Physical (Special Warfare Initial Clearance).
- Have normal colour vision; and
- Have vision of 20/70 or better, correctible to 20/20.
- Candidates are selected from US Air Force Active Duty officers (up to Captain (OF-2), with maximum 2-years’ time in grade).
2.3 General Requirements and Eligibility for Air National Guard Candidates
As I understand it, qualifying National Guard candidates must become full-time Active Duty to pursue careers in all Special Tactics career fields (needs verification).
2.4 General Requirements and Eligibility for Reserve Candidates
Qualifying Reservists must become full-time Active Duty to pursue careers in all Special Tactics career fields.
2.5 Candidates from another Branch of Military Service
Candidates from another branch of military service can apply for service as a Combat Rescue Officer.
2.6 Rescue Operator Physical Fitness Test
The ROPFT is utilised as an initial physical screening tool that must be passed in order to start training (and also during training where the standards become more stringent).
The AFSC’s identified in Table 1 undertake ROPFT tests that have slightly different minimum standards based on the requirement of each role, as well as different components.
On some documents the test is known as the Battlefield Airman Physical Fitness Test (BAPFT) and has four tiers: recruitment test; accession test; training test; and operator test (Scott, 2016). A number of the tried and tested components remain, but there are a number of new components. Scott provides a good initial overview of the (proposed) test. The test from another angle can be seen here.
With this in mind, Table 2 provides an outline of the ROPFT test for the SOWT-O Selection process (completed in the order shown). Each event is graded and a composite score created which must exceed a minimum of 530.
You can view the updated fitness assessments here.
|Table 2: Air Force Rescue Operator Physical Fitness Test|
|Event||Component||Criteria||Time Limit||Rest Period|
|1a||Heaves||12 or more||1 minute||2 minutes|
|1b||Sit-ups||75 or more||2 minutes||2 minutes|
|1c||Press-ups||64 or more||2 minutes||15 minutes|
|2||3 Mile Run||Non-stop||22 minutes or less||30 minutes|
|3||Surface Swim||1500 metres non-stop||32 minutes or less||N/A|
PART THREE: OUTLINE OF US AIR FORCE SOWT OFFICER SELECTION AND TRAINING
3.0 SOWT Officer Selection and Training Phases
The journey to becoming a SOWT officer is not easy, and training is rigorous and highly selective, but the courage and strength individuals will gain as a candidate will stay with them for their entire life.
The SOWT officer training programme is the selection and training process for all candidates wishing to join the Air Force’s SOF community as a SOWT officer.
All candidates will undertake a number of distinct stages of training (Table 3), in which candidates are taught the fundamentals of Air Force special warfare through formal US Air Force schooling and on-the-job training.
|Table 3: SOWT Officer training pipeline|
|Officer Training School||9.5 weeks|
|Weather Officer Course (WOC)||?|
|Weather Flight/Detachment Officer Course||10 weeks|
|Assessment||Special Operations Weather Selection Course||2 weeks|
|Initial Qualification Training (IQT)||Basic Airborne Course (scroll down to Section 3,2)||3 weeks|
|SERE Training||2.5/3 weeks|
|Water Survival, Parachuting||2 days|
|USAF Underwater Egress Training (UET)||?17 days|
|Special Operations Weather Apprentice (SOWA) Course||13 weeks|
|Special Tactics Operational Readiness Course or equivalent combat skills field course||12 months|
|Evasion and Conduct After Capture (ECAC)||?|
|Battlefield Weather Course||?|
|Mission Qualification Training (MQT)||Consists of initial familiarisation and combat mission ready certification, followed by unit directed duty position requirements.||Variable|
|Continuation Training||As required training that is necessary to maintain proficiency||Variable|
|Source: Air Force Officer Classification Directory, 2014, p.71-72; CFETP AFSC 15WX, 2012, p.12-13 & 45|
The skills and knowledge gained during this programme of training includes:
- Weather observing and forecasting techniques, and procedures.
- Leadership of small weather teams/shifts.
- US Air Force weather activities.
- Special Operations Weather:
- Advanced field skills.
- Environmental reconnaissance tactics, techniques and procedures (TPPs).
- Leadership of small unit tactical operations in the joint special operations arena.
3.1 Training Hierarchy
The 342nd Training Squadron, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), is a unit of the 37th Training Group and is headquartered at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas.
The Squadron is the home of all US Air Force Battlefield Airman entry-level training for PJs, CCT, SOWT and TACP candidates, and has a number of geographically dispersed units (Table 4) that deliver Battlefield Airman Career field training to candidates.
|Table 4: 342nd Training Squadron Subordinate Detachments and Operating Locations|
|Detachment 1||Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico||Pararescue/Combat Rescue Officer School|
|Detachment 2||Naval System Agency, Panama City||Air Force Combat Dive Course|
|Detachment 3||Hurlburt Field, Florida||Tactical Air Control Party/Career Air Liaison Officer School|
|Operating Location A||Camp Bullis, Texas||Expeditionary Skill Training (Basic Combat Convoy Course (BC3) and Combat Airman Skills Training (CAST))|
|Operating Location B||Fort Benning, Georgia||Basic Airborne Course, Jumpmaster, Ranger School and Pathfinder|
|Operating Location C||Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina||Combat Control/Special Tactics Officer, Special Operations Weather School and Air Force Jumpmaster|
|Operating Location D||Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona||US Army Military Free-fall School|
|Source: US Air Force, 2011|
3.2 Preparation Prior to Assessment and Selection
A number of Air Force ROTC (Reserve Officer Training Corps) detachments have special clubs which are geared towards Air Force SOF aspirants. An example is the Red Rope Club, part of AFROTC Detachment 157 located at Daytona Beach, Florida, and hosted at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Embry-Riddle, 2016).
The AFROTC Detachments have training relevant to SOF candidates including physical fitness, water training etc.
There is (or was) a Battlefield Airman Development Course (BADC) which candidates undertook (at Lakeland Air Force Base in Texas) prior to entry in a Battlefield Airmen training pipeline (USA Jobs, 2014), although not sure if the BADC applied to SOWT officers.
3.3 Officer Training School
If not already done so, candidates will undertake the 9.5 week Officer Training School Course which is undertaken at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama.
3.4 Weather Officer Course
The Weather Officer Course (WOC) is delivered by the 81st Training Group at Kessler Air Force Base in Mississippi. The course provides the initial skills training for all 15W officers.
The WOC provides training for US Air Force officers (AFSC 15W1) with the skills and knowledge necessary to perform the duties of a Weather Officer. Training includes:
- Career development;
- Concepts of observing weather elements;
- Decoding meteorological reports;
- Weather analysis and prognosis;
- Weather support systems;
- Wartime weather support;
- Operations of an Operational Weather Squadron (OWS);
- WSR-88D, Doppler Radar;
- Meteorological satellite (METSAT);
- Space Environment; and
- Concepts of weather communications.
3.5 Weather Flight/Detachment Officer Course
The Weather Flight/Detachment Officer Course is 10-weeks in duration and is delivered by the 81st Training Group at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi. The course provides the initial skills training for all 15W officers, providing meteorological concepts focusing on tactical weather support.
The course is a prerequisite for an assignment at a Weather Flight or Army Detachment, and will improve a junior officer’s familiarity with running a weather flight or army detachment as a flight commander or officer in charge (OIC). Training includes:
- Joint Doctrine;
- Organisation of forces;
- Employing weather forces;
- Chain of command versus functional management; and
- Tactical equipment operations.
3.6 Special Operations Weather Selection Course
The Special Operations Weather Selection Course is delivered by the 342nd Training Squadron, located at Lackland Air Force Base Annex in Texas.
The selection process screens an applicant for mental fortitude and physical capabilities, while preparing candidates for future duties as a SOWT officer. Thus the selection process reduces the training attrition rate by ensuring that candidates selected are equipped to succeed in the specific mental and physical challenges of the training pipeline.
This two-week course focuses on sports physiology, nutrition, basic exercises, special operations weather history and fundamentals.
3.7 Basic Airborne Course
All candidates must attend the Basic Airborne Course delivered by the US Army at the Airborne School, Fort Benning in Georgia (CFETP, 2012).
During the 3-week course, candidates will learn the basic parachuting skills required to infiltrate an objective area by static line airdrop.
Detailed information on the 3-week Basic Airborne Course can be found here (scroll down to Section 3.2).
3.8 SERE Training
The 2.5-week (3-weeks?) SERE (Survival, Escape, Resistance and Evasion) training course is delivered by the US Air Force Basic Survival School, located at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington (CFETP, 2012).
The course teaches basic survival techniques for remote areas (using minimal equipment) and training include principles, procedures, equipment and techniques, which enable individuals to survive, regardless of climatic conditions or unfriendly environments and return home.
3.9 Water Survival, Parachuting
The Water Survival, Parachuting course is located at the Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida (CFETP, 2012).
This two-day course teaches principles, procedures, techniques, and equipment that enhance a candidate’s ability to survive in a water environment and assist in their safe recovery and return to friendly control.
3.10 USAF Underwater Egress Training
Underwater Egress Training (UET) is delivered at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington (CFETP, 2012). I believe the course is delivered over 17-days (needs verification).
SERE specialists train personnel how to safely escape from an aircraft that has landed in the water. Training includes principles, procedures and techniques necessary to escape a sinking aircraft.
The UET systems are a collection of mature technology training devices that provide emergency egress training techniques and procedures to passengers of aircraft, wheeled, and tracked vehicles from submerged water conditions.
Consequently, the purpose of UET is to enhance passenger survivability, regardless of platform or the causal factors that result in a rollover or submersion incident. UET provides this training in a coordinated physical environment in which knowledge based instruction is taught in the classroom which can then be applied and practiced in a safe, supervised and realistic environment.
UET includes a number of training devices:
- The Modular Amphibious Egress Trainer (MAET) is a simulated generic fuselage section representing specific aircraft, cockpit and cabin emergency escape exits.
- The Submerged Vehicle Egress Trainer (SVET) is a ground vehicle simulation of the High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) and a generic amphibious track platform.
- Shallow Water Egress Training (SWET) training, which includes the SWET chair.
- Familiarisation and operation of the Intermediate Passenger Helicopter Air Breathing Device (IPHABD).
3.11 Special Operations Weather Apprentice Course
The Special Operations Weather Apprentice Course/Combat Control Apprentice Course is a formal resident course for Special Operations Weather personnel.
This 13-week course provides final special operations weather qualifications. Training includes:
- Physical training;
- Austere weather operations;
- Tactical weather observations;
- Small unit tactics;
- Land navigation;
- Demolitions; and
- Field operations including parachuting.
3.12 Special Tactics Operational Readiness Training Course
Candidates must complete the Special Tactics Operational Readiness Training Course (or equivalent combat field skills course) in order to produce mission-ready operators for the Air Force and US Special Operations Command. The course is 12 months in duration and is delivered at Hurlburt Field.
3.13 Evasion and Conduct After Capture
Candidates must complete the Evasion and Conduct After Capture (ECAC) Course (since October 2008 this is taught at ASBC and meets this qualification).
Trains personnel in tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP), and equipment that enhance evasion, resistance, and escape prospects, in any hostile environment. This course is mandatory for all first time Army support weather personnel (1W0X1, J1W0X1, 15WX).
3.14 Battlefield Weather Course
Mission ready training for Weather personnel being assigned to their first Army-support assignment, and conducted by the 304th Military Intelligence Battalion at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Training includes task qualification in Army-unique skills for enlisted and officer personnel. This course is mandatory for all first time Army support weather personnel.
3.15 Battlefield Airmen Course
Currently all 15W Army support officers attend this course either prior to their first Army support assignment or while assigned to an Army support unit. This course provides training in the knowledge and skill to operate in an Army centred assignment.
Graduating from the Special Operation Weather Team Officer training pipeline, SOWT officers were assigned to the Combat Weather Squadron in AFSOC.
PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS
The Special Operations Weather Team Officer branch was open to all appropriately qualified male officers of the US Air Force. Special Operations Weather Team Officer Training sought to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the US Air Force’s SOF community. This article provided the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for Special Operations Weather Team Officer training.
4.1 Useful Books, Documents and Magazines
- Air Force Policy Directives (AFPD):
- AFPD 10-30 – Personnel Recovery. Dated 09 February 2012.
- AFPD 10-35 – Battlefield Airmen.
- AFPD 16-12 – Pararescue. Dated 01 July 1998.
- AFPD 16-13 – Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE). Dated 01 March 2000.
- Air Force Instructions (AFI):
- AFI 10-3502, Volume 01 – Pararescue & Combat Rescue Officer Training. Dated 16 February 2011.
- AFI 10-3502, Volume 02 – Pararescue & Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation & Evaluation Programme. Dated 30 April 2012.
- AFI 11-403 – Aerospace Physiological Training Programme.
- AFI 13-112, Volume 1 – Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Training Programme.
- AFI 13-112, Volume 2, Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Standardisation/Evaluation Programme.
- AFI 13-219, Volume 1 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Training. Dated 21 April 2011.
- AFI 13-219, Volume 2 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Standardisation & Evaluation. Dated 21 April 2011.
- AFI 15-135, Volume 01 – Special Operations Weather Training.
- AFI 15-135, Volume 02 – Special Operations Weather Standardisation & Evaluation.
- AFGCM Supplement 16-1202, Volume 2 – Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
- AFI 16-1202 – Pararescue Operations, Techniques & Procedures. Dated 19 November 2009.
- AFI 31-501 – Personnel Security Programme Management.
- AFI 36-2210 – Airfield Operations Officer Training Programme.
- AFI 48-123, Medical Examinations and Standards.
- Career Field Education & Training Plans (CFETP):
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 13DX, Combat Rescue Officer. Dated 01 February 2015.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 15WX, Weather Officer. Dated 15 March 2012.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1C2X1, Combat Control. Dated 01 September 2014.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1T2XX, Pararescue Specialty. Dated 15 May 2008.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC13MX, Airfield Operations Officer. Dated 01 September 2011.
- Reports and Studies:
- Acosta, H., Rose, M. & Manley, G. (2014) Battlefield Airmen and Combat Support: Selection and Classification Process. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.acq.osd.mil/rd/hptb/hfetag/meetings/documents/TAG_68_19_22_May_ABERDEEN_P_G_MD/Personnel/PresentationsPersonnel%20SubTAG/6_Personnel_SubTAG_2014_BA_CS_Brief_DSYX_%26_AFRS.pptx. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Allen, T.P. (2002) Improving USAF Special Tactics Readiness to meet the Operational Demands of the USAF and US Special Operations Command (SOCOM). Master’s Thesis. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404585. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Baumgartner, N. (2015) AF Tier Two Physical Fitness Tests and Standards Study. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.nsca.com/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=36507225370. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Coble, B.B. (1997) Benign Weather Modification. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air Univeristy Press.
- Manacapilli, T., Hardison, C.M., Gifford, B., Bailey, A. & Bower, A. (2007) Common Battlefield Training for Airmen. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG624.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Occupational Analysis Programme (1998) Occupational Survey Report: Weather, AFSCs 1WoX1/A and 15WX/A, AFPT 90-1W0-098. Available from World Wide Web: www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a343938.pdf. Accessed: 10 march, 2016].
- Physical Fitness Tests and Standards for Battlefield Airmen Study. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Physical%20Fitness%20Tests%20and%20Standards%20for%20Battlefield%20Airmen%20Study.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Rose, M.R. & Barron, L.G. (2015) Validation Review and Documentation for CRO, STO, CCT, and SOWT Assessment Programs. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Validation%20Review%20and%20Documentation%20for%20CRO%20STO%20CCT%20and%20SOWT%20Assessment%20Programs.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Walker, T.B., Lennemann, L.M., McGregor, J.N., Mauzy, C. & Zupan, M.F. (2011) Physiological and Psychological Characteristics of Successful Combat Controller Trainees. Journal Of Special Operations Medicine. 11(1), pp.39-47.
4.2 Useful Links
- MacDill Air Force Base: http://www.macdill.af.mil/
- US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM): http://www.socom.mil/
- Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC): http://www.afsoc.af.mil/
- Special Tactics Officer:
- Official Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/pages/United-States-Air-Force-Special-Tactics-Officer/546004918779600?fref=ts
- University of Minnesota Detachment 415: http://www.afrotc.umn.edu/SpecialTacticsPrep.html
- Hurlburt Field: http://www.hurlburt.af.mil/
- 24th Special Operations Wing: http://www.24sow.af.mil/FAQs.aspx
- 342nd Training Squadron (37th Training Group): http://www.37trw.af.mil/units/37traininggroup/index.asp
- US Air Force Liaison (for courses at Fort Benning): http://www.benning.army.mil/mcoe/airforce/
- US Air Force e-Publishing website: http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (2016) Air Force ROTC. Available from World Wide Web: https://daytonabeach.erau.edu/rotc/air-force/index.html. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
Pellerin, C. (2015) SecDef Opens all Military Occupations to Women. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.therecruiterjournal.com/secdef-opens-all-military-occupations-to-women.html. [Accessed: 04 December, 2015].
Scott, A. (2016) Upcoming Report: US Air Force Battlefield Airmen Physical Fitness Test. Available from World Wide Web: http://strongswiftdurable.com/military-athlete-articles/upcoming-report-analysis-proposed-us-air-force-battlefield-airmen-physical-fitness-test/. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
US Air Force (2011) 342D Training Squadron. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.37trw.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=18585. [Accessed: 06 March, 2016].
US Air Force (2014a) Air Force Officer Classification Directory (AFOCD). Randall Air Force Base, Texas: Air Force Personnel Centre.
US Air Force (2014b) Air Force Enlisted Classification Directory (AFECD). Randall Air Force Base, Texas: Air Force Personnel Centre.
US Air Force (2015) US Air Force Ends SOWT-O. Available from World Wide Web: https://m.facebook.com/pages/Special-Operations-Weather-Team-Recruiting/156014841107605. [Accessed: 09 March, 2016].
USA Jobs (2014) Training Instructor. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/PrintPreview/370209800. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
Vogel, J.L. (2015) Statement of General Joseph L. Vogel, U.S. Army Commander United States Special Operations Command before the House Armed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, March 18, 2015. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.socom.mil/Documents/2015%20USSOCOM%20Posture%20Statement.pdf. [Accessed: 29 December, 2015].