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Last Updated: 28 March, 2016
This article is structured as follows:
- Part 01: Background to US Air Force Combat Controllers.
- Part 02: Entry Standards and Application.
- Part 03: Outline of US Air Force Combat Controllers Selection and Training
- Part 04: Miscellaneous.
PART ONE: BACKGROUND
On most of the missions that US Army Special Forces and US Navy SEALs conduct, they bring a very special airman.
The US Air Force Combat Controller moves forward with other special operators, swimming, diving, parachuting, and shooting with their brethren. But, they act as an air traffic controller and ground observer while doing so. They can also conduct missions with other Air Force special operators, seizing enemy airports and controlling air power for follow-on forces.
Combat Controllers are one of several roles that are encompassed with the Battlefield Airmen field, which are the special operations forces of the US Air Force. In brief, Battlefield Airmen include:
- Combat Controllers (CCT): Are specialists who focus on air-to-ground terminal control.
- Pararescue (PJs): These are the guys you see in all the movies (think Black Hawk Down). They deliver battlefield trauma care, as well as personnel recovery and combat search and rescue.
- Combat Weathermen: Meteorological interpretation, which can affect how the battlefield is going to change and how commanders conduct operations.
- Tactical Air Control Party (TACP): Are air-to-ground specialists, but they focus primarily on close air support (CAS).
- Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE): Perform duties as the name implies. Not strictly a special operations branch, but has significant input in training and exercises conducted by special operations.
These Air Commandos form the special operations element of the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) Special Operations Forces (SOF) community, which is the air component of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).
The role of a US Air Force Combat Controller is to deploy, undetected, into combat and hostile environments to establish assault zones or airfields, while simultaneously conducting air traffic control, fire support, command and control, direct action, counter-terrorism and foreign internal defence. This role has four strands and includes:
- Providing command, control, communications, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C3ISR) to assist, control and enable the application of manned and unmanned, lethal and non-lethal airpower in all geographic and environmental conditions across the full spectrum of military operations.
- Terminal control (air traffic control, ATC) and targeting, and control of air strikes (including close air support, CAS) and use of visual and electronic aids to control airheads and enable precision navigation.
- Providing long-range voice and data command and control and communications.
- Performing tactical level surveillance and reconnaissance functions, fusing organic and remote controlled technologies and manned platforms to build the common operating picture (COP).
From boot camp to first deployment, a Combat Controller may undertake up to two years of training. In 2011, the attrition rate during training, on average, was between 50% and 80% (Joseph, 2011).
In 2014 the US Air Force was established for approximately 600 Combat Controllers (CFETP, 2014).
It must be emphasised that a candidate must be physically fit at the beginning of the Combat Controller training process if they are to stand any chance of success. The course requires far greater expenditure of physical energy than is normally required in other peace time training. It is essential that candidates arrive fully fit, carrying no injuries and with a sound grasp of basic leadership techniques.
The aim of this article is to describe the fundamental entry requirements, selection process and training for personnel seeking to become a US Air Force Combat Controller.
1.2 Women and US Air Force Special Tactics
From January 2016, in accordance with current US Federal Government policy on the employment of women in the US military, service in the US Air Force’s SOF community is open to both male and female volunteers (Pellerin, 2015).
Women in the US military have, for a number of years, been able to serve in a variety of SOF-related roles, including:
- Military information support;
- Civil affairs units;
- Female engagement teams;
- Cultural support teams; and
- Air Force special operations aviation roles.
As of March 2015, approximately two-thirds of the roles in USSOCOM were integrated (Vogel, 2015).
1.3 Air Force Special Operations Specialty Codes
There are a number of Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC) within the USAF special operations community, known as Battlefield Airmen, as outlined in Table 1.
|Table 1: Air Force Specialty Codes for Battlefield Airmen|
|Officer Roles||AFSC Code|
|Special Tactics Officer (STO)||13CX|
|Combat Rescue Officer (CRO)||13DX|
|Special Operations Weather Team – Officer (SOWT-O)||15WXC|
|Combat Controller (CCT)||1C2XX|
|Tactical Air Control Party (TACP)||1C4XX|
|Special Operations Weather Team – Enlisted (SOWT-E)||1W0XX|
|Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE)||1T0XX|
|Source: US Air Force, 2014a; 2014b|
- For officers, there are three levels, with each level represented by the suffix: 1 (Entry); 3 (Qualified); and 4 (Staff).
- For enlisted personnel there are five levels, with each level represented by the suffix: 11 (Helper); 31 (Apprentice); 51 (Journeyman); 71 (Craftsman); and 91 (Superintendent); replace the 1 with 2 for SOWT-E.
- For SOWT-O, the C suffix represents special operations trained.
PART TWO: ENTRY STANDARDS AND APPLICATIONS
The US Air Force does accept direct entry applicants, i.e. civilians with no prior military experience, for the Combat Controller specialty. As a result, volunteers for Combat Controller may be accepted from both US civilians and US military enlisted personnel from any branch of military service to serve with the US Air Force’s Special Operations community.
Consequently, there are three recognised pathways to becoming a US Air Force Combat Controller:
- Enlist as a civilian;
- Enlist while in the US Air Force and apply for a transfer; or
- Enlist from another Branch of Military Service.
2.1 Special Operations Recruiting Liaison
Recruitment for Combat Controllers is conducted through a number of Special Operations Recruiting Liaison Operating Locations (OL-C to O) throughout the US.
The OL’s fall within the 24th Special Operations Wing (Section 3.1).
2.2 General Requirements and Eligibility for All Candidates
General Requirements for all candidates:
- Be a US citizen:
- Completion of high school is desirable.
- Completion of specialty training courses.
- Meet physical qualification for marine diving, parachutist and air traffic control duty.
- Maintain certification as a combat controller and combat-ready status.
- Maintain physical fitness standards.
- Completion of a current National Agency Check, Local Agency Checks and Credit (NACLC).
- Completion of Basic Military Training.
- ASVAB score:
- Mechanical: 55
- General: 55
- Strength Aptitude Code: K (demonstrate weight lift of 70lbs).
- Able to obtain a Secret Security clearance.
- Pass relevant Physical Fitness Test (PAST or BAPFT, CCTPFT: view Section 2.7).
- USAF Class III Flight Physical (Special Warfare Initial Clearance).
- PULHES: all 1s.
- Have normal colour vision; and
- Have vision of 20/70 or better, correctible to 20/20.
2.3 Candidates within the US Air Force Applying for a Transfer
Active duty re-trainees must attend the CCT retraining assessment programme hosted by the 24th Special Operations Wing before entering the CCT 3-skill level training pipeline.
Candidates must be grade E-5 or below with less than 10 years Total Active Federal Military Service (Total Federal Military Service for Reserve of the Air Force personnel), and have current commander’s written recommendation.
2.4 General Requirements and Eligibility for Air National Guard Candidates
Air National Guard re-trainees are assessed through the Prior Service accession programme. Re-trainees attend the 3-skill level resident training course.
2.5 General Requirements and Eligibility for Reserve Candidates
Qualifying Reservists must become full-time Active Duty to pursue careers in all Special Tactics career fields.
2.6 Candidates from another Branch of Military Service
Candidates from another branch of military service can apply for service with AFSOC, but I am led to believe it is very uncommon.
2.7 Combat Control Team Physical Fitness Test
The Combat Control Team Physical Fitness Test (CCTPFT) is the new name for the Physical Ability and Stamina Test (PAST), which it is replacing during 2016.
The CCTPFT is utilised as an initial physical screening tool that must be passed in order to start training (and also during training where the standards become more stringent).
The AFSC’s identified in Table 1 undertake CCTPFT tests that have slightly different minimum standards based on the requirement of each role, as well as different components.
On some documents the test is known as the Battlefield Airman Physical Fitness Test (BAPFT) and has four tiers: recruitment test; accession test; training test; and operator test (Scott, 2016). A number of the tried and tested components remain, but there are a number of new components. Scott provides a good initial overview of the (proposed) test. The test from another angle can be seen here.
With this in mind, Table 2 provides an outline of the CCTPFT test across the CCT training pipeline.
|Table 2: Air Force Combat Control Team Physical Fitness Test|
|Event||Press-ups||Sit-ups||Heaves||Run||Swim||Loaded March||Obstacle Course|
|Combat Control Selection Course|
|Entry PAST||48||48||8||10:10 (1.5 mile)||11:42 (500m)||N/A||N/A|
|Exit||49||50||8||10:10 (1.5mile)||10:40 (500m)||4 miles in 80 minutes (carrying 45lb)||Complete 90% of obstacles|
|Pipeline Progression for Students Awaiting Training (SAT)|
|Pipeline SAT||As per Standard|
|Combat Control Operator Course|
|Entry||49||50||8||13:53 (2 miles)||10:40 (500m)||4 miles in 80 minutes (45lb)||N/A|
|30 day||51||54||8||17:37 (2.5 miles)||19:16 (900m)||5 miles in 100 minutes (50lb)||N/A|
|60 day||54||60||9||21:21 (3 miles)||25:36 (1200m)||7 miles in 140 minutes (60lb)||N/A|
|Exit||58||65||10||28:54 (4 miles)||34:00 minutes (1500m)||10 miles in 200 minutes (70lb)||Complete 90% of obstacles|
|Combat Control Selection Course|
|Entry||57||64||9||28:54 (4 miles)||35:00 (1500m)||6 miles in 200 minutes (70lb)||N/A|
|Mid||61||71||11||32:42 (4.5 miles)||33:00 (1500m)||N/A||N/A|
|Exit||64||75||12||36:32 (5 miles)||32:00 (1500m)||15 miles in 300 minutes (75lb)||Complete 90% of obstacles|
- The various events are utilised as a mixture of assessment and evaluation of a candidate’s progression and whether they should progress to the next stage of training.
- The Entry PAST also includes two 20 metre underwater swims.
- The swims are conducted with fins using leading arm/trailing arm technique only (PAST is freestyle or sidestroke without fins).
PART THREE: OUTLINE OF US AIR FORCE COMBAT CONTROLLER SELECTION AND TRAINING
3.0 Combat Controller Selection and Training Phases
The journey to becoming a Combat Controller is not easy, and training is rigorous and highly selective, but the courage and strength individuals will gain as a candidate will stay with them for their entire life.
The Combat Controller training programme is the selection and training process for all candidates wishing to join the Air Force’s SOF community as a Combat Controller.
All candidates will undertake a number of distinct stages of training (Table 3), in which candidates are taught the fundamentals of Air Force special warfare through formal US Air Force schooling and on-the-job training.
|Table 3: Combat Controller training pipeline|
|Basic Military Training (BMT)||9.5 weeks|
|Assessment||STO/Combat Control Selection Course||2 weeks|
|Initial Qualification Training (IQT)||Combat Control Operators Course||15 weeks|
|Combat Survival SERE Training||2.5/3 weeks|
|USAF Underwater Egress Training (UET)||?17 days|
|Basic Airborne Course (scroll down to Section 3.2)||3 weeks|
|Combat Control Apprentice Course||13 weeks|
|Mission Qualification Training (MQT)||Special Tactics Advance Skills Training (AST) Programme||12 months|
|Unit Specific Training||Variable|
|Continuation Training||As required training that is necessary to maintain proficiency||Variable|
|Source: Air Force Enlisted Classification Directory, 2014, p.42; CFETP for AFSC 1C2XX, 2014, p.13|
Enlisted Combat Controller receive the same initial training as Special Tactics Officers, a process that takes approximately 8-10 months, followed by 12 months on the Special Tactics AST Programme.
The skills and knowledge gained during this programme of training includes:
- Air traffic control, reconnaissance and air power control principles and procedures;
- Aircraft flight characteristics;
- Encompassing tactical airlift and weapons delivery;
- Air and surface firepower systems and effects;
- International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and military air regulations;
- Map, aeronautical chart, and publication use;
- Characteristics and use of tactical and ATC communications systems and equipment, air navigation aids, night vision equipment;
- GPS and other operational equipment; meteorology principles;
- Deployment procedures;
- Joint service operation;
- Infiltration techniques;
- Movement and route selection;
- Alternative insertion and extraction (AIE) methods;
- Parachute procedures and equipment;
- Jump master training;
- Small unit tactics;
- Amphibious and SCUBA operations;
- Small arms and crew served weaponry; and
- Destructive demolition applications.
3.1 Training Hierarchy
The Squadron is the home of all US Air Force Battlefield Airman entry-level training for PJs, CCT, SOWT and TACP candidates, and has a number of geographically dispersed units (Table 4) that deliver Battlefield Airman Career field training to candidates.
|Table 4: 342nd Training Squadron Subordinate Detachments and Operating Locations|
|Detachment 1||Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico||Pararescue/Combat Rescue Officer School|
|Detachment 2||Naval System Agency, Panama City||Air Force Combat Dive Course|
|Detachment 3||Hurlburt Field, Florida||Tactical Air Control Party/Career Air Liaison Officer School|
|Operating Location A||Camp Bullis, Texas||Expeditionary Skill Training (Basic Combat Convoy Course (BC3) and Combat Airman Skills Training (CAST))|
|Operating Location B||Fort Benning, Georgia||Basic Airborne Course, Jumpmaster, Ranger School and Pathfinder|
|Operating Location C||Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina||Combat Control/Special Tactics Officer, Special Operations Weather School and Air Force Jumpmaster|
|Operating Location D||Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona||US Army Military Free-fall School|
|Source: US Air Force, 2011|
3.2 Basic Military Training
Since February 2011, pre-screened candidates for Battlefield Airmen careers (including TACP, CCT and PJs) have had a BATTLE plan in place during their basic military training (BMT). BATTLE being an acronym for Battlefield Airmen Technical Training Liaison Element (Joseph, 2011).
BATTLE training was incorporated for 320th and 331st Training Squadron trainees who receive the additional training (weeks 2 to 7) during BMT to better prepare them for their upcoming training/jobs.
Following BMT graduation, the journey continues at the 342nd Training Squadron, home to all Air Force Battlefield Airmen entry-level training. The curriculum includes Pararescue Indoctrination, TACP and PJ Development and the Combat Control Selection courses.
3.3 Combat Control Selection Course
The selection process screens an applicant for mental fortitude and physical capabilities, while preparing candidates for future duties as a Combat Controller. Thus the selection process reduces the training attrition rate by ensuring that candidates selected are equipped to succeed in the specific mental and physical challenges of the training pipeline.
The Combat Control Selection Course (also known as the STO/Combat Control Preparatory Course; Combat Control Orientation Course; and Combat Control Screening Course) is overseen by the 342nd Training Squadron/Combat Training Flight at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas.
The course is 10 days in duration and focuses on physical fitness with classes in sports physiology, nutrition, basic exercises, CCT history and fundamentals.
Candidates are physically screened and have to pass tests in seven events to move on (Table 1): Press-ups, sit-ups, heaves, 1.5-mile run, 500-metre swim, 4-mile loaded march and an obstacle course.
In 2003, the US Air Force began planning the Common Battlefield Airmen Training (CBAT) programme (GAO, 2009) for designated enlisted personnel. Initially, the CBAT programme had two goals:
- Annually provide standardised training to approximately 1,400 airmen within seven ‘battlefield airmen’ occupational specialties; and
- Assist in retaining airmen within these seven occupations.
However, after a review following a change in leadership, it was decided to cancel the CBAT programme in August 2008.
By January 2009, the US Air Force had begun developing another training programme (the Battlefield Airmen Screening Course) that would mirror the CBATs programme’s original goal of providing standardised combat skills training to personnel in the seven Battlefield Airmen occupations. The US Air Force, in 2009, did not expect the course to be implemented before 2013 due to an inability to request formal funding for the new course until 2012. It was noted, at the time, that the US Air Force had not yet validated the need for such a programme, but would do so (GAO, 2009).
Since 2014 (or possibly 2015), Battlefield Airmen candidates have faced a new screening process. Traditionally, candidates were selected on cognitive and physical tests (Acosta et al., 2014). Now candidates are assessed on:
- Cognitive (using ASVAB);
- Physical (using PAST or PFT);
- Personality (using TAPAS: Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System); “minimum score of 30 on CCT selection model” (AFECD, 2014, p.42).
The three scores are combined and provide a raw likelihood of training success. Early research by Acosta and colleagues (2014) suggest a correlation between a high percentile score and likelihood of completing training.
3.4 Combat Control Operators Course
The Combat Control Operators Course is delivered at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi. This course provides candidates with essential air traffic control training.
Training during this 15 week course includes:
- Aircraft recognition and performance;
- Air navigation aids;
- Airport traffic control;
- Flight assistance service;
- Communication procedures;
- Conventional approach control;
- Radar procedures; and
- Air traffic rules.
This is the same course that all Air Force air traffic controllers attend and is the heart of a combat controller’s job.
3.5 Combat Survival SERE Training
The 2.5-week SERE (Survival, Escape, Resistance and Evasion) training course is delivered at the US Air Force Basic Survival School, located in Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington.
The course teaches basic survival techniques for remote areas and lessons include principles, procedures, equipment and techniques, which enable individuals to survive, regardless of climatic conditions or unfriendly environments and return home.
3.6 Water Survival
The Water Survival Course is delivered at Fairchild Air Force Base, Mississippi.
3.7 USAF Underwater Egress Training
The Underwater Egress Trainer (UET) systems are a collection of mature technology training devices that provide emergency egress training techniques and procedures to passengers of aircraft, wheeled, and tracked vehicles from submerged water conditions.
Consequently, the purpose of UET is to enhance passenger survivability, regardless of platform or the causal factors that result in a rollover or submersion incident. UET provides this training in a coordinated physical environment in which knowledge based instruction is taught in the classroom which can then be applied and practiced in a safe, supervised and realistic environment.
UET includes a number of training devices:
- The Modular Amphibious Egress Trainer (MAET) is a simulated generic fuselage section representing specific aircraft, cockpit and cabin emergency escape exits.
- The Submerged Vehicle Egress Trainer (SVET) is a ground vehicle simulation of the High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) and a generic amphibious track platform.
- Shallow Water Egress Training (SWET) training, which includes the SWET chair.
- Familiarisation and operation of the Intermediate Passenger Helicopter Air Breathing Device (IPHABD).
3.8 Basic Airborne Course
During the 3-week course, candidates will learn the basic parachuting skills required to infiltrate an objective area by static line airdrop.
Detailed information on the 3-week Basic Airborne Course can be found here (scroll down to Section 3.2).
3.9 Combat Control Apprentice Course
The 13-week Combat Control Apprentice Course is delivered by the Combat Control School located at Pope Air Force Base in North Carolina.
The course provides final combat controller qualifications. Training includes:
- Physical training;
- Small unit tactics;
- Land navigation;
- Assault zones;
- Fire support; and
- Field operations including parachuting.
3.10 Special Tactics Advance Skills Training Programme
The AST programme is for newly assigned Special Tactics officers and Combat Control operators, producing mission-ready operators for AFSOC and USSOCOM.
The AST programme is delivered in four distinct phases: water; ground; employment; and full mission profile. By full mission profile, Combat Controllers should be able to do their full job in simulated combat. The training at Hurlburt Field allows Combat Controllers to infiltrate enemy territory through a variety of means.
Examples of training include combat diver qualification, military free-fall (MFF) parachutist and personnel recovery 101).
- MFF Training: is delivered over 5-weeks at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. This MFF training is an initial skills course that provides academic, ground, and free-fall training to first time jumpers. Training includes: wind tunnel training; in-air instruction focusing on student stability; aerial manoeuvres; air sense; parachute opening procedures; and parachute canopy control.
- Combat Diver Training: is delivered at Panama City, Florida. This 6-week course teaches combat diving procedures. Training includes learning to use open circuit (SCUBA, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) and closed circuit diving equipment to covertly infiltrate denied areas. The course provides training to depths of 130 feet, stressing development of maximum underwater mobility under various operating conditions.
Upon graduation, candidates will be awarded the coveted scarlet beret and black jump boots signifying their entry into the Special Tactics brotherhood.
Upon graduating from the Special Tactics training pipeline, STOs are assigned to an operational Special Tactics Squadron (STS) in AFSOC.
PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS
The Combat Controller branch is open to all male and female enlisted personnel of the US Air Force. Combat Controller training seeks to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the US Air Force’s SOF community. This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for Combat Controller training.
4.1 Useful Books, Documents and Magazines
- Air Force Policy Directives (AFPD):
- AFPD 10-30 – Personnel Recovery. Dated 09 February 2012.
- AFPD 10-35 – Battlefield Airmen.
- AFPD 16-12 – Pararescue. Dated 01 July 1998.
- AFPD 16-13 – Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE). Dated 01 March 2000.
- Air Force Instructions (AFI):
- AFI 13-112, Volume 1, Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Training Programme.
- AFI 13-112, Volume 2, Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Standardisation/Evaluation Programme.
- AFI 13-219, Volume 1 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Training. Dated 21 April 2011.
- AFI 13-219, Volume 2 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Standardisation & Evaluation. Dated 21 April 2011.
- AFI 16-1202, Volume 1, Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Programme.
- AFI 16-1202, Volume 2, Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
- AFGCM Supplement 16-1202, Volume 2, Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
- AFI 31-501, Personnel Security Programme Management.
- AFI 36-2210, Airfield Operations Officer Training Programme.
- AFI 48-123, Medical Examinations and Standards.
- Career Field Education & Training Plans (CFETP):
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 13DX, Combat Rescue Officer. Dated 01 February 2015.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 15WX, Weather Officer. Dated 15 March 2012.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1C2X1, Combat Control. Dated 01 September 2014.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1T2XX, Pararescue Specialty. Dated 15 May 2008.
- Reports and Studies:
- Allen, T.P. (2002) Improving USAF Special Tactics Readiness to meet the Operational Demands of the USAF and US Special Operations Command (SOCOM). Master’s Thesis. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404585. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Baumgartner, N. (2015) AF Tier Two Physical Fitness Tests and Standards Study. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.nsca.com/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=36507225370. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Manacapilli, T., Hardison, C.M., Gifford, B., Bailey, A. & Bower, A. (2007) Common Battlefield Training for Airmen. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG624.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Physical Fitness Tests and Standards for Battlefield Airmen Study. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Physical%20Fitness%20Tests%20and%20Standards%20for%20Battlefield%20Airmen%20Study.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Rose, M.R. & Barron, L.G. (2015) Validation Review and Documentation for CRO, STO, CCT, and SOWT Assessment Programs. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Validation%20Review%20and%20Documentation%20for%20CRO%20STO%20CCT%20and%20SOWT%20Assessment%20Programs.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Walker, T.B., Lennemann, L.M., McGregor, J.N., Mauzy, C. & Zupan, M.F. (2011) Physiological and Psychological Characteristics of Successful Combat Controller Trainees. Journal Of Special Operations Medicine. 11(1), pp.39-47.
4.2 Useful Links
- MacDill Air Force Base: http://www.macdill.af.mil/
- US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM): http://www.socom.mil/
- Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC): http://www.afsoc.af.mil/
- Special Tactics Officer:
- Official Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/pages/United-States-Air-Force-Special-Tactics-Officer/546004918779600?fref=ts
- University of Minnesota Detachment 415: http://www.afrotc.umn.edu/SpecialTacticsPrep.html
- Hurlburt Field: http://www.hurlburt.af.mil/
- 24th Special Operations Wing: http://www.24sow.af.mil/FAQs.aspx
- 342nd Training Squadron (37th Training Group): http://www.37trw.af.mil/units/37traininggroup/index.asp
- US Air Force Liaison (for courses at Fort Benning): http://www.benning.army.mil/mcoe/airforce/
- US Air Force e-Publishing website: http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/
Acosta, H., Rose, M. & Manley, G. (2014) Battlefield Airmen and Combat Support: Selection and Classification Process. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.acq.osd.mil/rd/hptb/hfetag/meetings/documents/TAG_68_19_22_May_ABERDEEN_P_G_MD/Personnel/PresentationsPersonnel%20SubTAG/6_Personnel_SubTAG_2014_BA_CS_Brief_DSYX_%26_AFRS.pptx. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (2016) Air Force ROTC. Available from World Wide Web: https://daytonabeach.erau.edu/rotc/air-force/index.html. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
Joseph, M. (2011) New Element Assists TACP, CCT and PJ Trainees. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.jbsa.mil/News/News/tabid/11890/Article/462734/new-element-assists-tacp-cct-and-pj-trainees.aspx. [Accessed: 10 March, 2016].
Pellerin, C. (2015) SecDef Opens all Military Occupations to Women. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.therecruiterjournal.com/secdef-opens-all-military-occupations-to-women.html. [Accessed: 04 December, 2015].
Scott, A. (2016) Upcoming Report: US Air Force Battlefield Airmen Physical Fitness Test. Available from World Wide Web: http://strongswiftdurable.com/military-athlete-articles/upcoming-report-analysis-proposed-us-air-force-battlefield-airmen-physical-fitness-test/. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
US Air Force (2011) 342D Training Squadron. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.37trw.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=18585. [Accessed: 06 March, 2016].
US Air Force (2014a) Air Force Officer Classification Directory (AFOCD). Randall Air Force Base, Texas: Air Force Personnel Centre.
US Air Force (2014b) Air Force Enlisted Classification Directory (AFECD). Randall Air Force Base, Texas: Air Force Personnel Centre.
USA Jobs (2014) Training Instructor. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/PrintPreview/370209800. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
Vogel, J.L. (2015) Statement of General Joseph L. Vogel, U.S. Army Commander United States Special Operations Command before the House Armed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, March 18, 2015. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.socom.mil/Documents/2015%20USSOCOM%20Posture%20Statement.pdf. [Accessed: 29 December, 2015].