|Elite & Special Forces Main Page||US Elite & Special Forces Main Page|
Last Updated: 13 August, 2017
This article is structured as follows:
- Part 01: Background to the US Air Force’s SERE Specialist role.
- Part 02: Entry standards and applications.
- Part 03: Outline of US Air Force SERE Specialist selection and training.
- Part 04: Miscellaneous.
PART ONE: BACKGROUND
Although SERE Specialists are not considered special operations forces (SOF), they do have considerable input in the training and exercises conducted by SOF.
There are four enlisted specialities and three officer specialities that form what are known as Battlefield Airmen (Table 1). In brief, these Battlefield Airmen include:
- Combat Controllers (CCT): Are specialists who focus on air-to-ground terminal control.
- Pararescuemen (PJs): These are the guys you see in all the movies (think Black Hawk Down). They deliver battlefield trauma care, as well as personnel recovery and combat search and rescue.
- Combat Weather Teams: Meteorological interpretation, which can affect how the battlefield is going to change and how commanders conduct operations.
- Tactical Air Control Party (TACP): Are air-to-ground specialists, but they focus primarily on close air support (CAS).
- Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE): Perform duties as the name implies. Not strictly a special operations role, but has significant input in training and exercises conducted by special operations.
These Air Commandos form the special operations element of the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) Special Operations Forces (SOF) community, which is the air component of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).
The role of US Air Force SERE Specialists is to provide full spectrum SERE and Personnel Recovery (PR) operations and training.
Every member of an aircrew must be able to survive on their own in any environment under any condition should their aircraft go down. As members of US Air Force Special Operations, SERE Specialists teach Air Force personnel everything they need to know to do just that. From building shelters and procuring water to land navigation and evasion techniques, these highly trained experts impart the skills needed for Air Force personnel to survive on their own and evade the enemy until they can be rescued and brought home.
- Developing, conducting and managing US Air Force SERE programmes.
- Developing, conducting, managing and evaluating Formal SERE training and refresher SERE training.
- Providing direct support to combatant commanders in PR preparation, planning, execution and adaptation.
- Operating in eight geographic disciplines of Temperate, Arctic, Desert, Tropic, Coastal, Open Sea, Urban and Captivity, day or night, to include friendly, denied, hostile, or sensitive areas in support of operational preparation of the environment (OPE).
- Conducting foreign internal defence (FID).
- Conducting developmental and operational testing on and instructs the use of SERE related equipment.
- Performing and instructing basic, advanced and emergency military parachuting.
- Coordinating SERE activities and conducting observer and controller duties during PR exercises.
Consequently, SERE Specialists are experts in survival, evasion, resistance and escape, as well as personnel recovery techniques.
From boot camp to first deployment, a SERE Specialist may undertake approximately one year of training.
In 2013, 28 candidates successfully completed their SERE Specialist training from the approximately 6,000 candidates who initially aspired to become a SERE Specialist (The Wilson Post, 2013). The 28 candidates joined an elite and select group of approximately 325 US Air Force personnel (The Wilson Post, 2013).
“SERE Specialists make up a selected Special Forces team comprised of individuals who have proven their solid integrity, unwavering determination and absolute inner strength. The Air Force is extremely vigilant in their selection because, as SERE Commander Christopher Tacheny noted, ‘We can’t fix stupid, lazy and a lack of integrity. Imagine these men having been out in single digit temperatures for a week, having almost no sleep or food, and then having to lead a class in navigation with zeal so his students will listen and learn it.’” (The Wilson Post).
It must be emphasised that a candidate must be physically fit at the beginning of the SERE Specialist training process if they are to stand any chance of success. The course requires far greater expenditure of physical energy than is normally required in other peace time training. It is essential that candidates arrive fully fit, carrying no injuries and with a sound grasp of basic navigational techniques.
The aim of this article is to describe the fundamental entry requirements, selection process and training for personnel seeking to become a US Air Force SERE Specialist.
1.2 Women and US Air Force Special Tactics
From January 2016, in accordance with current US Federal Government policy on the employment of women in the US military, service in the US Air Force’s SOF community is open to both male and female volunteers (Pellerin, 2015).
Women in the US military have, for a number of years, been able to serve in a variety of SOF-related roles, including:
- Military information support;
- Civil affairs units;
- Female engagement teams;
- Cultural support teams; and
- Air Force special operations aviation roles.
As of March 2015, approximately two-thirds of the roles in USSOCOM were integrated (Vogel, 2015).
1.3 Air Force Special Operations Specialty Codes
There are a number of Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC) within the USAF special operations community, known as Battlefield Airmen, as outlined in Table 1.
|Table 1: Air Force Specialty Codes for Battlefield Airmen|
|Officer Roles||AFSC Code|
|Special Tactics Officer (STO)||13CX|
|Combat Rescue Officer (CRO)||13DX|
|Special Operations Weather Team – Officer (SOWT-O)||15WXC|
|Combat Controller (CCT)||1C2XX|
|Tactical Air Control Party (TACP)||1C4XX|
|Special Operations Weather Team – Enlisted (SOWT-E)||1W0XX|
|Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE)||1T0XX|
|Source: US Air Force, 2014a; 2014b|
- For officers, there are three levels, with each level represented by the suffix: 1 (Entry); 3 (Qualified); and 4 (Staff).
- For enlisted personnel there are five levels, with each level represented by the suffix: 11 (Helper); 31 (Apprentice); 51 (Journeyman); 71 (Craftsman); and 91 (Superintendent); replace the 1 with 2 for SOWT-E.
- For SOWT-O, the C suffix represents special operations trained.
1.4 Guardian Angel
GA provides PR capabilities to the Combatant Commanders, and has a presence in a number of US Air Force Commands:
- Air Education and Training Command (AETC);
- Air Combat Command (ACC);
- Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC); and
- Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC).
Missions typically undertaken by GA include:
- Extricating personnel from vehicle wreckage resulting from improvised explosive blasts;
- SCUBA dive search for personnel swept away or blown into canals and rivers;
- Augmenting US Navy SEAL teams or US Army Special Forces to provide embedded medical and technical rescue capabilities;
- Inserting into active fire-fights to recover injured US Marines;
- Providing casualty evacuation for injured local nationals;
- Reintegrating American citizens taken hostage by enemy forces;
- Military free-fall jump from an aircraft to injured personnel; and
- Confined space searches through earthquake rubble.
Although GA rescue squadrons report to the US Air Force’s Air Combat Command, as the lead command, and conduct conventional rescue operations, a large proportion of GA personnel are allocated to AFSOC where they conduct special operations.
PART TWO: ENTRY STANDARDS AND APPLICATIONS
The US Air Force does accept direct entry applicants, i.e. civilians with no prior military experience, for the SERE Specialist branch. As a result, volunteers for SERE Specialist may be accepted from US civilians and US military enlisted personnel from any branch of military service to serve with the US Air Force’s Special Operations community.
Consequently, there are three recognised pathways to becoming a US Air Force Enlisted SERE Specialist:
- Enlist as a civilian;
- Enlist while in the US Air Force and apply for a transfer; or
- Enlist from another Branch of Military Service.
2.1 Special Operations Recruiting Liaison
Recruitment for SERE Specialist is conducted through a number of Special Operations Recruiting Liaison Operating Locations (OL-C to O) throughout the US.
The OL’s fall within the 24th Special Operations Wing.
2.2 General Requirements and Eligibility for All Candidates
General Requirements for all candidates:
- Be a US citizen:
- Must be between the ages 17 and 39.
- High school diploma or GED with 15 college credits.
- Completion of Basic Military Training.
- Completion of specialty training courses.
- Meet physical qualification for parachutist duty and mission aircrew.
- Maintain physical fitness and water confidence standards.
- ASVAB score:
- General: 55
- Strength Aptitude Code: K (demonstrate weight lift of 70lbs).
- Completion of a current National Agency Check, Local Agency Checks and Credit (NACLC).
- Able to obtain a Secret Security clearance.
- Pass relevant Physical Fitness Test (PAST or BAPFT, ROPFT: view Section 2.3).
- USAF Class III Flight Physical (Special Warfare Initial Clearance);
- PULHES: 111121;
- Absence of any speech impediment and ability to read aloud and speak distinctly; and
- Have normal colour vision.
2.3 SERE Specialist Physical Fitness Test
The SERE Specialist Physical Fitness Test (ROPFT) is the new name for the Physical Ability and Stamina Test (PAST), which it is replacing during 2016.
The SERE Specialist PFT is utilised as an initial physical screening tool that must be passed in order to start training (and also during training where the standards become more stringent).
The AFSC’s identified in Table 1 undertake PFT tests that have slightly different minimum standards based on the requirement of each role, as well as different components.
On some documents the test is known as the Battlefield Airman Physical Fitness Test (BAPFT) and has four tiers: recruitment test; accession test; training test; and operator test (Scott, 2016). A number of the tried and tested components remain, but there are a number of new components. Scott provides a good initial overview of the (proposed) test. The test from another angle can be seen here.
PART THREE: OUTLINE OF US AIR FORCE SERE SPECIALIST SELECTION AND TRAINING
3.0 SERE Specialist Selection and Training Phases
The journey to becoming a SERE Specialist is not easy, and training is rigorous and highly selective, but the courage and strength individuals will gain as a candidate will stay with them for their entire life.
The SERE Specialist training programme is the selection and training process for all candidates wishing to join the Air Force’s SOF community as a SERE Specialist.
All candidates will undertake a number of distinct stages of training (Table 2), in which candidates are taught the fundamentals of Air Force special warfare through formal US Air Force schooling and on-the-job training.
|Table 2: SERE Specialist training pipeline|
|Basic Military Training||9.5 weeks|
|Assessment||SERE Specialist Selection (SSS) Course||15 days|
|Initial Qualification Training (IQT)||SERE Specialist Indoctrination Course||19 days|
|SERE Training||2.5/3 weeks|
|Water Survival, Non-Parachuting||2 days|
|Emergency Parachute Training||1 day|
|USAF Underwater Egress Training (UET)||1 day|
|SERE Specialist Training||6 months|
|Basic Airborne Course (scroll down to Section 3.2)||3 weeks|
|Modern Army Combatives Programme (MACP) Level 1 (or HAF/JPRA approved equivalent).||? days|
|Mission Qualification Training (MQT)||Consists of initial familiarisation and combat mission ready certification, followed by unit directed duty position requirements.||Variable|
|Continuation Training||As required training that is necessary to maintain proficiency||Variable|
|Source: Air Force Enlisted Classification Directory, 2014, p.79|
The skills and knowledge gained during this programme of training includes:
- The Code of Conduct;
- DoDI 1300.21, Code of Conduct (CoC) Training and Education and US Government policy for IP;
- Global SERE and PR principles and Joint Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (JTTP);
- Procedures for MAJCOM refresher requirements;
- Procedures for PR programme management;
- JPRC, UARCC and PRCC roles and missions;
- OPE in support of PR;
- Cultural and socio-political considerations that affect PR;
- Intentional and emergency parachuting procedures;
- Providing for personal protection and sustenance;
- Communication and signalling techniques;
- Methods of vectoring recovery assets;
- Escape and evasion TTP (both rural & urban);
- Apprehension avoidance (A2) and escape enhancements (E2);
- CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological/Nuclear, Explosive) survival skills;
- Dive physiology;
- Physiology and psychology of survival;
- Avoidance of hazardous terrain, rough land travel and emergency evacuation procedures for injured personnel;
- Survival medicine;
- Wilderness advanced first aid certification;
- Land and water navigation and travel;
- Special operations recovery teams and non-conventional assisted recovery mechanisms;
- Caring for and using post-egress, recovery, and aircrew flight equipment;
- Improvising and manufacturing clothing and equipment needed by an isolated person;
- Courseware development;
- Lecture, demonstration and performance, guided discussion, time and circumstance, and role-play instructional methods and techniques;
- Impact of international law on IP;
- Conduct after capture concepts for war, governmental detention, and hostage environments including, but not limited to, resistance to exploitation, organisation and communication, maintenance of psychological and physical health.
3.1 Training Hierarchy
The 336th Training Group is commanded by a Colonel (OF-5) and is headquartered at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington. It is responsible for training SERE Specialists and aircrews, and is composed of four squadrons:
- 36th Rescue Squadron: Flies UH-1Ns and aids in the SERE school’s jump training, while also supporting local authorities when needed for search and rescue operations.
- 336th Training Support Squadron: encompasses more than a dozen US Air Force specialties, including medical and logistics to support the 336th Training Group.
- 66th Training Squadron: is responsible for training SERE Specialists.
- 22nd Training Squadron: trains all of the US Air Force’s aircrews.
The 66th Training Squadron, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), is headquartered at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington.
The Squadron is the home of entry-level training for SERE Specialist candidates, and is composed of two subordinate detachments (US Air Force, n.d.), although on the same website it suggests three detachments (US Air Force, 2014c):
- Detachment 1: Located at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, delivers Arctic Survival Training. This five day course, delivered from October through March, is designed for aircrew personnel assigned to flying duties in the northern regions. Training includes food and water procurement, thermal shelter construction, fire-craft and various signalling techniques.
- Detachment 2: Located at Naval Air Station, Pensacola in Florida, delivers Water Survival Training. This four day course is designed for those aircrew members going to parachute-equipped airframes. The course includes training in signalling rescue aircraft, hazardous aquatic life, food and water procurement, medical aspects of water survival and life raft procedures. Candidates parasail to simulate in-flight over water emergency and parachute decent.
- Detachment 3: Located at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, delivers the:
- SERE Specialist Selection Course; and
- Evasion and Conduct after Capture Course (ECAC): is a Level B, four day course designed to prepare US Air Force personnel to survive the rigours of isolation. The course consists of full spectrum (wartime, peacetime and hostage) captivity training in academic classes and academic role-play laboratory (ARL) training environments and culminates with a hostage resistance training laboratory (RTL). ECAC also provides academic training on evasion; personnel recovery principles; TTPs; and an evasion laboratory (EL) that provides hands-on practice using evasion TTP.
The 22nd Training Squadron, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), is headquartered at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas.
The Squadron is composed of three subordinate detachments:
- Detachment No.: Located at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, is responsible for screening potential SERE Specialists.
- Detachment No.: Located at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alaska, delivers Evasion and Conduct after Capture training.
- Detachment No.: Located at the US Air Force Academy, Colorado, delivers combat survival training.
3.2 Basic Military Training
Since February 2011, pre-screened candidates for Battlefield Airmen careers (including TACP, CCT and PJs) have had a BATTLE plan in place during their basic military training (BMT). BATTLE being an acronym for Battlefield Airmen Technical Training Liaison Element (Joseph, 2011).
BATTLE training was incorporated for 320th and 331st Training Squadron trainees who receive the additional training (weeks 2 to 7) during BMT to better prepare them for their upcoming training/jobs.
Following BMT graduation, the journey continues at the 342nd Training Squadron, home to all Air Force Battlefield Airmen entry-level training. The curriculum includes Pararescue Indoctrination, TACP and PJ Development and the Combat Control Selection courses.
3.3 SERE Specialist Selection
The selection process screens an applicant for mental fortitude and physical capabilities, while preparing candidates for future duties as a SERE Specialist. Thus the selection process reduces the training attrition rate by ensuring that candidates selected are equipped to succeed in the specific mental and physical challenges of the training pipeline.
The SERE Specialist Selection Course (SSS), delivered immediately after BMT, is overseen by the 22nd Training Squadron at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas.
The SSS course, which has a 50% pass rate, is 15 days in duration (US Air Force, n.d.) and focuses on physical fitness with classes in sports physiology, nutrition, basic exercises, SERE Specialist history and fundamentals.
In 2003, the US Air Force began planning the Common Battlefield Airmen Training (CBAT) programme (GAO, 2009) for designated enlisted personnel. Initially, the CBAT programme had two goals:
- Annually provide standardised training to approximately 1,400 airmen within seven ‘battlefield airmen’ occupational specialties; and
- Assist in retaining airmen within these seven occupations.
However, after a review following a change in leadership, it was decided to cancel the CBAT programme in August 2008.
By January 2009, the US Air Force had begun developing another training programme (the Battlefield Airmen Screening Course) that would mirror the CBATs programme’s original goal of providing standardised combat skills training to personnel in the seven Battlefield Airmen occupations. The US Air Force, in 2009, did not expect the course to be implemented before 2013 due to an inability to request formal funding for the new course until 2012. It was noted, at the time, that the US Air Force had not yet validated the need for such a programme, but would do so (GAO, 2009).
In the summer of 2010, candidates faced another obstacle during their selection process, the Emotional Quotient Indicator (Tan, 2010); designed to “get a sense of how well they will do in training.”
Since 2014 (or possibly 2015), Battlefield Airmen candidates have faced a new screening process. Traditionally, candidates were selected on cognitive and physical tests (Acosta et al., 2014). Now candidates are assessed on:
- Cognitive (using ASVAB);
- Physical (using PAST or PFT);
- Personality (using TAPAS: Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System); “minimum score of 40 on SERE selection model” (AFECD, 2014, p.79).
The three scores are combined and provide a raw likelihood of training success. Early research by Acosta and colleagues (2014) suggest a correlation between a high percentile score and likelihood of completing training.
3.4 SERE Specialist Indoctrination
The SERE Specialist Indoctrination Course is overseen by the 22nd Training Squadron at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas.
The course, established in 1993 (Feldman, 2016), is 19 days in duration (US Air Force, n.d.) and is designed to prepare candidates for their SERE Specialist Training Course.
Approximately 100 candidates will attend this course, and those who pass the initial eligibility requirements will then go through a psychological evaluation and several interviews (Feldman, 2016).
3.5 SERE Training
The 2.5-week (3-weeks?) SERE (Survival, Escape, Resistance and Evasion) training course is delivered by the US Air Force Basic Survival School, located at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington (CFETP, 2008).
The course teaches basic survival techniques for remote areas (using minimal equipment) and training include principles, procedures, equipment and techniques, which enable individuals to survive, regardless of climatic conditions or unfriendly environments and return home.
3.6 Water Survival, Non-Parachuting
Water Survival Training (non-parachuting) is delivered at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington. The course trains aircrew members who do not carry parachutes and other designated personnel in the principles, procedures, techniques and equipment that improve their ability to survive and be recovered from water.
Water Survival Training (parachuting) is delivered at Pensacola Naval Air Station, Florida. The course trains aircrew members and other designated personnel in the principles, procedures, techniques and equipment that improve their ability to survive and be recovered after an over-water ejection, bailout, or ditching.
3.7 Emergency Parachute Training
Emergency Parachute Training is delivered at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington (CFETP, 2008).
3.8 USAF Underwater Egress Training
Underwater Egress Training (UET) is delivered at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington (CFETP, 2008). I believe the course is delivered over 1 day.
SERE specialists train personnel how to safely escape from an aircraft that has landed in the water. Training includes principles, procedures and techniques necessary to escape a sinking aircraft.
The UET systems are a collection of mature technology training devices that provide emergency egress training techniques and procedures to passengers of aircraft, wheeled, and tracked vehicles from submerged water conditions.
Consequently, the purpose of UET is to enhance passenger survivability, regardless of platform or the causal factors that result in a rollover or submersion incident. UET provides this training in a coordinated physical environment in which knowledge based instruction is taught in the classroom which can then be applied and practiced in a safe, supervised and realistic environment.
UET includes a number of training devices:
- The Modular Amphibious Egress Trainer (MAET) is a simulated generic fuselage section representing specific aircraft, cockpit and cabin emergency escape exits.
- The Submerged Vehicle Egress Trainer (SVET) is a ground vehicle simulation of the High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) and a generic amphibious track platform.
- Shallow Water Egress Training (SWET) training, which includes the SWET chair.
- Familiarisation and operation of the Intermediate Passenger Helicopter Air Breathing Device (IPHABD).
3.9 SERE Specialist Training
The SERE Specialist Selection Course (SSS) is overseen by the 66th Training Squadron at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington.
The course, which has a 50% pass rate, is approximately five and half months in duration (US Air Force, 2014c) and trains selected US Air Force personnel for the SERE Specialist role.
The course is designed to teach future survival instructors how to instruct aircrew members to survive in a broad variety of training environments. Future SERE specialists are trained while entrenched in each of those environments which include: temperate, desert, coastal, open-ocean, tropics, rough land (rocks), arctic and evasion.
SERE Specialist Training costs approximately $60,000 per candidate (Feldman, 2016).
3.10 Basic Airborne Course
During the 3-week course, candidates will learn the basic parachuting skills required to infiltrate an objective area by static line airdrop.
Detailed information on the 3-week Basic Airborne Course can be found here (scroll down to Section 3.2).
3.11 Modern Army Combatives Programme
The Modern Army Combatives Programme (MACP) is delivered at Fort Benning, Georgia. The MACP was established in 1995 with the 2nd Ranger Battalion (US Army, 2014).
The purpose of MACP is to train leaders and soldiers in close quarters Combatives in order to instil the Warrior Ethos and prepare soldiers to close with and defeat the enemy in hand to hand combat.
Upon graduation, candidates will be awarded the coveted beige beret signifying their entry into the SERE Specialist brotherhood.
PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS
The SERE Specialist branch is open to all male and female enlisted personnel of the US Air Force. SERE Specialist Training seeks to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the US Air Force’s SOF community. This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for SERE Specialist training.
4.1 Useful Books, Documents and Magazines
- Air Force Policy Directives (AFPD):
- AFPD 10-30 – Personnel Recovery. Dated 09 February 2012.
- AFPD 10-35 – Battlefield Airmen.
- AFPD 16-12 – Pararescue. Dated 01 July 1998.
- AFPD 16-13 – Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE). Dated 01 March 2000.
- Air Force Instructions (AFI):
- AFI 13-112, Volume 1, Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Training Programme.
- AFI 13-112, Volume 2, Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Standardisation/Evaluation Programme.
- AFI 13-219, Volume 1 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Training. Dated 21 April 2011.
- AFI 13-219, Volume 2 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Standardisation & Evaluation. Dated 21 April 2011.
- AFI 16-1202, Volume 1, Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Programme.
- AFI 16-1202, Volume 2, Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
- AFGCM Supplement 16-1202, Volume 2, Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
- AFI 31-501, Personnel Security Programme Management.
- AFI 36-2210, Airfield Operations Officer Training Programme.
- AFI 48-123, Medical Examinations and Standards.
- Career Field Education & Training Plans (CFETP):
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 13DX, Combat Rescue Officer. Dated 01 February 2015.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 15WX, Weather Officer. Dated 15 March 2012.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1C2X1, Combat Control. Dated 01 September 2014.
- Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1T2XX, Pararescue Specialty. Dated 15 May 2008.
- Reports and Studies:
- Allen, T.P. (2002) Improving USAF Special Tactics Readiness to meet the Operational Demands of the USAF and US Special Operations Command (SOCOM). Master’s Thesis. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404585. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Baumgartner, N. (2015) AF Tier Two Physical Fitness Tests and Standards Study. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.nsca.com/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=36507225370. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Cassidy, J.F. (2013) A History of the Implementing and Evolving of Medical Instruction and Medical Training given to USAF Pararescuemen from 1947 to 2000. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.alaska.net/~jcassidy/pdf_files/Pararescue%20Medical%20Training%20History.pdf. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].
- Jones, D. (2007) Air Force Personnel Recovery. Available from World Wide Web: proceedings.ndia.org/7040/28%20Air%20Force%20brief.pdf. [Accessed: 24 March, 2016].
- Kimbrell, A. (2003) Occupational Survey Report AFSC 1T0X1 Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape Operations. Available from World Wide Web: www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a421563.pdf. [Accessed: 24 March, 2016].
- Manacapilli, T., Hardison, C.M., Gifford, B., Bailey, A. & Bower, A. (2007) Common Battlefield Training for Airmen. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG624.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Physical Fitness Tests and Standards for Battlefield Airmen Study. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Physical%20Fitness%20Tests%20and%20Standards%20for%20Battlefield%20Airmen%20Study.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Rose, M.R. & Barron, L.G. (2015) Validation Review and Documentation for CRO, STO, CCT, and SOWT Assessment Programs. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Validation%20Review%20and%20Documentation%20for%20CRO%20STO%20CCT%20and%20SOWT%20Assessment%20Programs.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
- Rush, S., Boccio, E., Kharod, C.U. & D’Amore, J. (2015) Evolution of Pararescue Medicine During Operation Enduring Freedom. Military Medicine. 180(3), pp.68-73. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273318279_Evolution_of_Pararescue_Medicine_During_Operation_Enduring_Freedom. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].
- Walker, T.B., Lennemann, L.M., McGregor, J.N., Mauzy, C. & Zupan, M.F. (2011) Physiological and Psychological Characteristics of Successful Combat Controller Trainees. Journal Of Special Operations Medicine. 11(1), pp.39-47.
- Caldwell, M.F. (2015) Pararescue – It’s a Fine Madness: Volume One – Through the Looking Glass. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
- Allen, R.C. (ed) (2001) Pararescue Medication and Procedure Handbook. 2nd Ed. 28 February, 2001. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.ciomr.org/download/res/PARARESCUE_MEDICATION_AND_PROCEDURE_HANDBOOK-1.pdf. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].
4.2 Useful Links
- MacDill Air Force Base: http://www.macdill.af.mil/
- US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM): http://www.socom.mil/
- Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC): http://www.afsoc.af.mil/
- SERE Specialist:
- http://www.gosere.com/, defunct.
- Official Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/USAF-SERE-146360652084805/
- SERE Specialist (Instructor) Recruitment Video (2008): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tr20SWXXgAI
- USAF SERE PAST Test Video (2012): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XPpMw8OIAs
- USAF SERE School (2008) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVmuyqB1DTw
- Around the Air Force: SERE Training (2013): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDopZIfQEzQ
- University of Minnesota Detachment 415: http://www.afrotc.umn.edu/SpecialTacticsPrep.html
- Hurlburt Field: http://www.hurlburt.af.mil/
- 24th Special Operations Wing: http://www.24sow.af.mil/FAQs.aspx
- 342nd Training Squadron (37th Training Group): http://www.37trw.af.mil/units/37traininggroup/index.asp
- 336th Training Group (Fairchild Air Force Base): http://www.fairchild.af.mil/units/336traininggroup/index.asp
- US Air Force e-Publishing website: http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/
Acosta, H., Rose, M. & Manley, G. (2014) Battlefield Airmen and Combat Support: Selection and Classification Process. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.acq.osd.mil/rd/hptb/hfetag/meetings/documents/TAG_68_19_22_May_ABERDEEN_P_G_MD/Personnel/PresentationsPersonnel%20SubTAG/6_Personnel_SubTAG_2014_BA_CS_Brief_DSYX_%26_AFRS.pptx. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
Air Force Times (2015) What It Takes to be a Combat Controller and Special Tactics Officer. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.airforcetimes.com/story/military/careers/air-force/2015/12/14/what-takes-combat-controller-and-special-tactics-officer/77151426/. [Accessed: 02 March, 2016].
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