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Last Updated: 28 March, 2016

This article is structured as follows:

  • Part 01: Background to US Air Force Special Operations Weather Teams (SOWT).
  • Part 02: Entry Standards and Applications.
  • Part 03: Outline of Special Operations Weather Team – Enlisted Selection and Training.
  • Part 04: Miscellaneous.

PART ONE: BACKGROUND

1.0     Introduction

Logo, AFSOC, Air Force Special Operations Command, US, Special Forces, USAFThis article provides an overview of the recruitment, selection and training process for the US Air Force’s Special Operations Weather Team – Enlisted (SOWT-E).

The specialty was officially created in May 2008 (US Air Force , 2010; Dokoupil, 2015). SOWT Enlisted personnel are one of four enlisted specialties along with three officer specialties that form what are known as Battlefield Airmen (Table 1). Weather personnel that support conventional Army and special operations are considered Battlefield Airmen (BA) according to Air Force Policy Directive 10-35, ‘Battlefield Airmen’. In brief, these Battlefield Airmen include:

  • Combat Controllers (CCT): Are specialists who focus on air-to-ground terminal control.
  • Pararescuemen (PJs): These are the guys you see in all the movies (think Black Hawk Down). They deliver battlefield trauma care, as well as personnel recovery and combat search and rescue.
  • Combat Weather Teams: Meteorological interpretation, which can affect how the battlefield is going to change and how commanders conduct operations.
  • Tactical Air Control Party (TACP): Are air-to-ground specialists, but they focus primarily on close air support (CAS).
  • Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE): Perform duties as the name implies. Not strictly a special operations role, but has significant input in training and exercises conducted by special operations.

These Air Commandos form the special operations element of the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) Special Operations Forces (SOF) community, which is the air component of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).

The role of a US Air Force Special Operations Weather Team Enlisted is to perform weather operations for US Air Force and US Army support organisations activities. In fulfilment of this role weather personnel characterise and enable exploitation of the environment through collection, processing, analysis and prediction, tailoring, and dissemination of atmospheric and space weather data and information from Department of Defence, allied military, interagency, and other sources. This processed information may be further tailored and is integrated for use by decision-makers at the strategic, operational and tactical levels. These processes contribute to two distinct, yet related, primary functions:

  1. Characterising the past, current, and future weather conditions; and
  2. Exploiting those conditions as actionable and authoritative information, injected at key decision points supporting military operations.

Consequently, SOWTs are experts in weather operations. SOWT’s are part of the 10th Combat Weather Squadron, a unit of the 720th Special Tactics Group, based at Hurlburt Field in Florida. There are approximately 100 SOWT operators, around 25 of which used to be officers.

In addition to the support that the 10th Combat Weather Squadron provides to the US Army’s Special Operations Command (USASOC) forces, SOWT personnel provide support including, but not limited to:

  • Environmental Special Reconnaissance (ESR): Defined as operations conducted to collect and report critical hydrographic, geological, and meteorological information, and is a subset of Special Reconnaissance (SR). ER is a multi-faceted mission undertaken to collect on all aspects of the environment in a given area.
    • Tactical Weather Observations.
    • Terrain and Route Reports (TERREPS/RTEREPS).
    • Avalanche Assessments.
    • Riverine Assessments.
    • Oceanographic, Surf and Littoral Assessments.
  • Austere Weather (AW) Operations: Defined as SOWT missions that are not part of ER. These missions are unique to SOWT units and are focused on non-traditional methods of collecting/utilising METOC data.
    • Nowcasting.
    • Weather Networks/Sensor Emplacement.
    • Establishing SOF and Indigenous Weather Networks.
    • Weather Site Surveys.
    • National Meteorological Service Assessments.
    • Aerial Weather Reconnaissance.
    • Operate Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) and Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA).

From boot camp to first deployment, a SOWT enlisted may undertake up to two years of training.

It must be emphasised that a candidate must be physically fit at the beginning of the SOWT Enlisted training process if they are to stand any chance of success. The course requires far greater expenditure of physical energy than is normally required in other peace time training. It is essential that candidates arrive fully fit, carrying no injuries and with a sound grasp of basic navigational techniques.

It should be noted that the US Air Force announced in May 2015 that the SOWT Officer pipeline would end (US Air Force, 2015). Special Operations Weather Teams would now be commanded by Special Tactics Officers.

1.1     Aim

The aim of this article is to describe the fundamental entry requirements, selection process and training for personnel seeking to become a US Air Force Special Operations Weather Team Enlisted.

1.2     Women and US Air Force Special Tactics

From January 2016, in accordance with current US Federal Government policy on the employment of women in the US military, service in the US Air Force’s SOF community is open to both male and female volunteers (Pellerin, 2015).

Women in the US military have, for a number of years, been able to serve in a variety of SOF-related roles, including:

  • Intelligence;
  • Military information support;
  • Civil affairs units;
  • Female engagement teams;
  • Cultural support teams; and
  • Air Force special operations aviation roles.

As of March 2015, approximately two-thirds of the roles in USSOCOM were integrated (Vogel, 2015).

1.3     Air Force Special Operations Specialty Codes

There are a number of Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC) within the USAF special operations community, known as Battlefield Airmen, as outlined in Table 1.

Table 1: Air Force Specialty Codes for Battlefield Airmen
Officer Roles AFSC Code
Special Tactics Officer (STO) 13CX
Combat Rescue Officer (CRO) 13DX
Special Operations Weather Team – Officer (SOWT-O) 15WXC
Enlisted Roles
Combat Controller (CCT) 1C2XX
Pararescue (PJs) 1T2XX
Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) 1C4XX
Special Operations Weather Team – Enlisted (SOWT-E) 1W0XX
Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) 1T0XX
Source: US Air Force, 2014a; 2014b
  • For officers, there are three levels, with each level represented by the suffix: 1 (Entry); 3 (Qualified); and 4 (Staff).
  • For enlisted personnel there are five levels, with each level represented by the suffix: 11 (Helper); 31 (Apprentice); 51 (Journeyman); 71 (Craftsman); and 91 (Superintendent); replace the 1 with 2 for SOWT-E.
  • For SOWT-O, the C suffix represents special operations trained.

1.4     Terms

  • Battlefield Weather (BW): US Air Force weather forces specially trained and equipped to execute weather operations in the forward battlespace independent of an established airbase or its perimeter defences in support of US Army combat operations.
  • Battlefield Weather Airman: Air Force Weather 1W0X1 and (formerly) 15WX personnel assigned to a conventional US Army support weather unit or any weather personnel with either the 1W0X2 or 15WXC AFSC.
  • Battlefield Weather Team (BWT): A team consisting of two or more Battlefield Weather Airmen that is task organised to support conventional US Army operations.
  • Battlefield Weather Squadron (BWS): Conventional US Army-support weather squadron.
  • Weather Flight (WF): Weather flights, detachments, and operating locations whose primary purpose is to facilitate exploitation of the environment through integration at every step of the operations planning and execution process. The WF may be located with the supported unit on a US Air Force base, US Army post, remotely located in another weather unit, or at a deployed location.

PART TWO: ENTRY STANDARDS AND APPLICATIONS

2.0     Introduction

US Army Ranger, Loaded March (3)Information regarding the basic requirements for enlistment or commissioning in the US Air Force can be found by clicking on the links, which the reader is advised to read if not already familiar.

The US Air Force does accept direct entry applicants, i.e. civilians with no prior military experience, for the SOWT Enlisted role. As a result, volunteers for SOWT Enlisted may be accepted from US civilian and US Air Force enlisted personnel from the weather utilisation field to serve with the US Air Force’s Special Operations community.

Consequently, there are two recognised pathways to becoming a US Air Force SOWT Enlisted:

  1. Enlist as a civilian; or
  2. Enlist while in the US Air Force and apply for training.

2.1     Special Operations Recruiting Liaison

Recruitment for SOWT Enlisted is conducted through a number of Special Operations Recruiting Liaison Operating Locations (OL-C to O) throughout the US.

The OL’s fall within the 24th Special Operations Wing.

2.2     General Requirements and Eligibility for All Candidates

US Recruiting Station, MEPSSubject to the requirements outlined below, all weather-qualified US Air Force enlisted personnel are eligible to attend the SOWT Enlisted training programme.

General Requirements for all candidates:

  • Be a US citizen
  • Education, for entry into this specialty:
    • A high school diploma or equivalent is required.
    • Courses in physics, chemistry, earth sciences, geography, computer sciences, and mathematics are desirable.
  • Qualification and possession of 1W051.
  • Completion of specialty training courses.
  • Meet physical qualification for parachutist duty.
  • Maintain physical fitness standards.
  • ASVAB score:
    • E?: 50
    • General: 66
    • Strength Aptitude Code: K (demonstrate weight lift of 70lbs).
  • Completion of a current National Agency Check, Local Agency Checks and Credit (NACLC).
  • Able to obtain a Secret Security clearance.
  • Pass relevant Physical Fitness Test (PAST or BAPFT, ROPFT: view Section 2.3).
  • Medical:
    • USAF Class III Flight Physical (Special Warfare Initial Clearance).
    • PULHES: all 1s.
    • Have normal colour vision; and
    • Have vision of 20/70 or better, correctible to 20/20.

2.3     Special Operations Weather Physical Fitness Test

US Army Special Forces, Green Beret (6)The Special Operations Weather Physical Fitness Test (SOWPFT) is the new name for the Physical Ability and Stamina Test (PAST), which it is replacing during 2016.

The SOWPFT is utilised as an initial physical screening tool that must be passed in order to start training (and also during training where the standards become more stringent).

The AFSC’s identified in Table 1 undertake ROPFT tests that have slightly different minimum standards based on the requirement of each role, as well as different components.

On some documents the test is known as the Battlefield Airman Physical Fitness Test (BAPFT) and has four tiers: recruitment test; accession test; training test; and operator test (Scott, 2016). A number of the tried and tested components remain, but there are a number of new components. Scott provides a good initial overview of the (proposed) test. The test from another angle can be seen here.

With this in mind, Table 2 provides an outline of the SOWPFT test across the SOWT-E training pipeline.

Table 2: Air Force Special Operations Weather Physical Fitness Test
Event Press-ups Sit-ups Heaves Run Swim Loaded March Obstacle Course
Special Operations Weather Selection Course
Exit 47 52 7 24:30 (3 miles) 37:00 (1500m) 4 miles in 80 minutes Complete 90% of obstacles
Special Operations Weather Initial Skills Course
Exit 58 67 10 23:30 (3 miles) 34:00 (1500m) 10 miles in 200 minutes Complete 90% of obstacles
Special Operations Weather Apprentice Course
Exit 64 75 12 22:00 (3 miles) 32:00 (1500m) 15 miles in 300 minutes Complete 90% of obstacles
Source: CFETP, 2009, Change 2
  • The Exit Events are utilised as an evaluation of a candidate’s progression and whether they should progress to the next stage of training.
  • The swims are conducted with fins using leading arm/trailing arm technique only (PAST is freestyle or sidestroke without fins).

PART THREE: OUTLINE OF US AIR FORCE SOWT ENLISTED SELECTION AND TRAINING

3.0     SOWT Enlisted Selection and Training Phases

The journey to becoming a SOWT enlisted is not easy, and training is rigorous and highly selective, but the courage and strength individuals will gain as a candidate will stay with them for their entire life.

The SOWT enlisted training programme is the selection and training process for all candidates wishing to join the Air Force’s SOF community as a SOWT enlisted.

All candidates will undertake a number of distinct stages of training (Table 3), in which candidates are taught the fundamentals of Air Force special warfare through formal US Air Force schooling and on-the-job training.

Table 3: SOWT Enlisted training pipeline
Stage Programme Sub-course/Element Duration
Preparation Enlistment Process Variable
Basic Military Training 9.5 weeks
Assessment Special Operations Weather Selection (SOWS) Course 2 weeks
Initial Qualification Training (IQT) Special Operations Weather Initial Skills Course (SOWISC) 30 weeks
Basic Airborne Course (scroll down to Section 3.2) 3 weeks
SERE Training 2.5/3 weeks
Water Survival, Parachuting 2 days
USAF underwater Egress Training (UET) 1 day
Special Operations Weather Apprentice (SOWA) Course 13 weeks
Mission Qualification Training (MQT) Consists of initial familiarisation and combat mission ready certification, followed by unit directed duty position requirements. Variable
Continuation Training As required training that is necessary to maintain proficiency Variable
Source: Air Force Officer Classification Directory, 2014, p.91; CFETP AFSC 1W0XX, 2009, Change 2 & 5

The skills and knowledge gained during this programme of training includes:

  • US Army Special Forces, Green Beret (4)Collecting, analysing, tailoring and integrating meteorological, oceanographic and space environmental information from data sparse, non-permissive, hostile and data denied areas into military decision-making processes.
  • Observing current environmental conditions.
  • Evaluating, recording and transmitting surface weather, oceanographic, geographic, riverine and space environment observations.
  • Operating atmospheric and space-sensing instruments and computer workstations to interrogate data from weather radars, meteorological satellites, and products provided by military, national, and international weather agencies.
  • Using detailed understanding of the atmosphere and space environment to translate raw data into actionable, decision quality environmental information.
  • Observing and forecasting meteorological and oceanographic conditions from data sparse, non-permissive, and hostile and data denied locations.
  • Issuing advisories, watches and warnings to alert combatant commanders of dangerous or inclement terrestrial and space environmental events.
  • Understanding war fighter tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs).
  • Integrating weather information into the decision-making process at all levels to mitigate and exploit environmental information on operations to maximise combat power.
  • Managing environmental collection operations, ensures quality, and adapts and manages resources to meet mission requirements.
  • Recognising and exploiting environmental analysis and data to enhance training and combat operations.
  • Performing tactical mission planning and preparation.
  • Participating in the Military Decision Making Process.
  • Briefing joint force commanders and staff on environmental predictions affecting operations.
  • Preparing personnel and equipment for military operations.
  • Conducting reconnaissance and surveillance of routes, areas, zones and objectives of interest.
  • Operating, emplacing and servicing ground based sensors and utilising unmanned aerial systems to support reconnaissance.
  • Reporting current battlefield information.
  • Deploying into semi- and non-permissive forward areas and forward operating locations by land (mounted, special purpose vehicle or dismounted), sea (surface or subsurface naval vessel, small watercraft, or surface swim) or air (parachute, airmobile, air-land) to participate in the full spectrum of military operations to include air expeditionary force, force projection, direct action, counterterrorism, counter-proliferation, foreign internal defence, humanitarian assistance, special reconnaissance, personnel recovery, non-combatant evacuation operations, counter narcotic, operational preparation of the environment, and advanced force operations.
  • Using demolitions to create or remove obstacles to manoeuvre and to prepare tactical sites.

3.1     Training Hierarchy

The 342nd Training Squadron, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), is a unit of the 37th Training Group and is headquartered at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas.

The Squadron is the home of all US Air Force Battlefield Airman entry-level training for PJs, CCT, SOWT and TACP candidates, and has a number of geographically dispersed units (Table 4) that deliver Battlefield Airman Career field training to candidates.

Table 4: 342nd Training Squadron Subordinate Detachments and Operating Locations
Unit Title Location Purpose
Detachment 1 Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico Pararescue/Combat Rescue Officer School
Detachment 2 Naval System Agency, Panama City Air Force Combat Dive Course
Detachment 3 Hurlburt Field, Florida Tactical Air Control Party/Career Air Liaison Officer School
Operating Location A Camp Bullis, Texas Expeditionary Skill Training (Basic Combat Convoy Course (BC3) and Combat Airman Skills Training (CAST))
Operating Location B Fort Benning, Georgia Basic Airborne Course, Jumpmaster, Ranger School and Pathfinder
Operating Location C Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina Combat Control/Special Tactics Officer, Special Operations Weather School and Air Force Jumpmaster
Operating Location D Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona US Army Military Free-fall School
Source: US Air Force, 2011

3.2     Basic Military Training

Since February 2011, pre-screened candidates for Battlefield Airmen careers (including TACP, CCT and PJs) have had a BATTLE plan in place during their basic military training (BMT). BATTLE being an acronym for Battlefield Airmen Technical Training Liaison Element (Joseph, 2011).

BATTLE training was incorporated for 320th and 331st Training Squadron trainees who receive the additional training (weeks 2 to 7) during BMT to better prepare them for their upcoming training/jobs.

Following BMT graduation, the journey continues at the 342nd Training Squadron, home to all Air Force Battlefield Airmen entry-level training. The curriculum includes Pararescue Indoctrination, TACP and PJ Development and the Combat Control Selection courses.

3.3     Special Operations Weather Selection Course

US Army Special Forces, Green Beret (8)The Special Operations Weather Selection (SOWS) Course is delivered by the 342nd Training Squadron, located at Lackland Air Force Base Annex in Texas.

SOWS is a formal resident course that assesses 1W012 trainees and provides progressive fitness training. The selection process screens an applicant for mental fortitude and physical capabilities, while preparing candidates for future duties as a SOWT officer. Thus the selection process reduces the training attrition rate by ensuring that candidates selected are equipped to succeed in the specific mental and physical challenges of the training pipeline.

This two-week course focuses on sports physiology, nutrition, basic exercises, special operations weather history and fundamentals.

In 2003, the US Air Force began planning the Common Battlefield Airmen Training (CBAT) programme (GAO, 2009) for designated enlisted personnel. Initially, the CBAT programme had two goals:

  1. Annually provide standardised training to approximately 1,400 airmen within seven ‘battlefield airmen’ occupational specialties; and
  2. Assist in retaining airmen within these seven occupations.

However, after a review following a change in leadership, it was decided to cancel the CBAT programme in August 2008.

By January 2009, the US Air Force had begun developing another training programme (the Battlefield Airmen Screening Course) that would mirror the CBATs programme’s original goal of providing standardised combat skills training to personnel in the seven Battlefield Airmen occupations. The US Air Force, in 2009, did not expect the course to be implemented before 2013 due to an inability to request formal funding for the new course until 2012. It was noted, at the time, that the US Air Force had not yet validated the need for such a programme, but would do so (GAO, 2009).

In the summer of 2010, candidates faced another obstacle during their selection process, the Emotional Quotient Indicator (Tan, 2010); designed to “get a sense of how well they will do in training.”

Since 2014 (or possibly 2015), Battlefield Airmen candidates have faced a new screening process. Traditionally, candidates were selected on cognitive and physical tests (Acosta et al., 2014). Now candidates are assessed on:

  • Cognitive (using ASVAB);
  • Physical (using PAST or PFT);
  • Personality (using TAPAS: Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System); “minimum score of 30 on SOWT selection model” (AFECD, 2014, p.91).

The three scores are combined and provide a raw likelihood of training success. Early research by Acosta and colleagues (2014) suggest a correlation between a high percentile score and likelihood of completing training.

3.4     Special Operations Weather Course

Once a candidate successfully complete the SOWS course they will then attend the Special Operations Weather (SOW) Initial Skills Course (ISC) at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi.

The core of SOW ISC is the weather ISC course. SOWISC adds routine, progressive fitness training and is not an AFSC-awarding course.

Training includes:

  • Basic, intermediate and advanced meteorology;
  • Meteorological reports and computer operations;
  • Satellite meteorology;
  • Weather chart analysis;
  • Weather radar;
  • Weather products;
  • Tropical meteorology;
  • Synoptic level analytical meteorology;
  • Weather prognosis techniques; and
  • Forecasting weather elements to include severe weather, synoptic lab, forecasting lab, and a unit on the weather career field and weather equipment.

This is the same course, with the inclusion of rigorous fitness progression training, that all Air Force weather apprentices attend and is the core skill of special operations weathermen.

In week 29, candidates will, in addition to meeting weather course graduation requirements, complete an exit standard Physical Fitness Test evaluation to assess their ability to meet the fitness requirements of en-route training and for the Special Operations Weather Apprentice Course (Section 3.10).

3.5     Basic Airborne Course

US Army, Airborne Training, Basic Airborne CourseAll candidates must attend the Basic Airborne Course delivered by the US Army at the Airborne School, Fort Benning in Georgia (CFETP, 2012).

During the 3-week course, candidates will learn the basic parachuting skills required to infiltrate an objective area by static line airdrop.

Detailed information on the 3-week Basic Airborne Course can be found here (scroll down to Section 3.2).

3.6     SERE Training

The 2.5-week (3-weeks?) SERE (Survival, Escape, Resistance and Evasion) training course is delivered by the US Air Force Basic Survival School, located at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington (CFETP, 2012).

The course teaches basic survival techniques for remote areas (using minimal equipment) and training include principles, procedures, equipment and techniques, which enable individuals to survive, regardless of climatic conditions or unfriendly environments and return home.

3.7     Water Survival, Parachuting

The Water Survival, Parachuting course is located at the Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida (CFETP, 2012).

This two-day course teaches principles, procedures, techniques, and equipment that enhance a candidate’s ability to survive in a water environment and assist in their safe recovery and return to friendly control.

3.8     USAF Underwater Egress Training

Royal Marines Dunker Drills
Royal Marines Dunker Drills

Underwater Egress Training (UET) is delivered at Fairchild Air Force Base in Washington (CFETP, 2012). I believe the course is delivered over 17-days (needs verification).

SERE specialists train personnel how to safely escape from an aircraft that has landed in the water. Training includes principles, procedures and techniques necessary to escape a sinking aircraft.

The UET systems are a collection of mature technology training devices that provide emergency egress training techniques and procedures to passengers of aircraft, wheeled, and tracked vehicles from submerged water conditions.

Consequently, the purpose of UET is to enhance passenger survivability, regardless of platform or the causal factors that result in a rollover or submersion incident. UET provides this training in a coordinated physical environment in which knowledge based instruction is taught in the classroom which can then be applied and practiced in a safe, supervised and realistic environment.

UET includes a number of training devices:

  • The Modular Amphibious Egress Trainer (MAET) is a simulated generic fuselage section representing specific aircraft, cockpit and cabin emergency escape exits.
  • The Submerged Vehicle Egress Trainer (SVET) is a ground vehicle simulation of the High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) and a generic amphibious track platform.
  • Shallow Water Egress Training (SWET) training, which includes the SWET chair.
  • Familiarisation and operation of the Intermediate Passenger Helicopter Air Breathing Device (IPHABD).

3.9     Special Operations Weather Apprentice Course

The Special Operations Weather Apprentice (SOWA) Course/Combat Control Apprentice Course is a formal resident course for Special Operations Weather personnel, delivered at Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina.

This 13-week course provides final special operations weather qualifications. Training includes:

  • Physical training;
  • Austere weather operations;
  • Tactical weather observations;
  • Small unit tactics;
  • Land navigation;
  • Communications;
  • Demolitions; and
  • Field operations including parachuting.

3.10     Graduation

Graduating from the Special Operation Weather Team Enlisted training pipeline, SOWT enlisted personnel are awarded their 3-skill level (Journeyman), Gray Beret, SOWT Crest, and assigned to the Combat Weather Squadron in AFSOC.

PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS

4.0     Summary

The Special Operations Weather Team Enlisted branch was open to all appropriately qualified male officers of the US Air Force. Special Operations Weather Team Enlisted Training seeks to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the US Air Force’s SOF community. This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for Special Operations Weather Team Enlisted training.

4.1     Useful Books, Documents and Magazines

  • Air Force Policy Directives (AFPD):
    • AFPD 10-30 – Personnel Recovery. Dated 09 February 2012.
    • AFPD 10-35 – Battlefield Airmen.
    • AFPD 16-12 – Pararescue. Dated 01 July 1998.
    • AFPD 16-13 – Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE). Dated 01 March 2000.
  • Air Force Instructions (AFI):
    • AFI 13-112, Volume 1 – Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Training Programme.
    • AFI 13-112, Volume 2 – Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Standardisation/Evaluation Programme.
    • AFI 13-219, Volume 1 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Training. Dated 21 April 2011.
    • AFI 13-219, Volume 2 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Standardisation & Evaluation. Dated 21 April 2011.
    • AFI 15-128 – Air Force Weather Roles & Responsibilities, Air Combat Command Supplement.
    • AFI 15-135, Volume 1 – Special Operations Weather Training.
    • AFI 15-135, Volume 2 – Special Operations Weather Standardisation & Evaluation.
    • AFI 15-135, Volume 3 – Special Operations Weather Team Operations.
    • AFI 16-1202, Volume 1 – Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Programme.
    • AFI 16-1202, Volume 2 – Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
      • AFGCM Supplement 16-1202, Volume 2, Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
    • AFI 31-501 – Personnel Security Programme Management.
    • AFI 36-2210 – Airfield Operations Officer Training Programme.
    • AFI 48-123 – Medical Examinations and Standards.
  • Career Field Education & Training Plans (CFETP):
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 13DX, Combat Rescue Officer. Dated 01 February 2015.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 15WX, Weather Officer. Dated 15 March 2012.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1C2X1, Combat Control. Dated 01 September 2014.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1T2XX, Pararescue Specialty. Dated 15 May 2008.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1W0X1-A, Weather. Dated May 2001.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1W0XX, Weather – Change 2. Dated 01 June 2010.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1W0XX, Weather – Change 5. Dated 15 March 2012.
  • Reports and Studies:
    • Allen, T.P. (2002) Improving USAF Special Tactics Readiness to meet the Operational Demands of the USAF and US Special Operations Command (SOCOM). Master’s Thesis. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404585. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Baumgartner, N. (2015) AF Tier Two Physical Fitness Tests and Standards Study. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.nsca.com/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=36507225370. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Cassidy, J.F. (2013) A History of the Implementing and Evolving of Medical Instruction and Medical Training given to USAF Pararescuemen from 1947 to 2000. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.alaska.net/~jcassidy/pdf_files/Pararescue%20Medical%20Training%20History.pdf. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].
    • Coble, B.B. (1997) Benign Weather Modification. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air Univeristy Press.
    • Manacapilli, T., Hardison, C.M., Gifford, B., Bailey, A. & Bower, A. (2007) Common Battlefield Training for Airmen. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG624.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Occupational Analysis Programme (1998) Occupational Survey Report: Weather, AFSCs 1W0X1/A and 15WX/A, AFPT 90-1W0-098. Available from World Wide Web: www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a343938.pdf. Accessed: 10 march, 2016].
    • Physical Fitness Tests and Standards for Battlefield Airmen Study. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Physical%20Fitness%20Tests%20and%20Standards%20for%20Battlefield%20Airmen%20Study.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Rose, M.R. & Barron, L.G. (2015) Validation Review and Documentation for CRO, STO, CCT, and SOWT Assessment Programs. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Validation%20Review%20and%20Documentation%20for%20CRO%20STO%20CCT%20and%20SOWT%20Assessment%20Programs.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Rush, S., Boccio, E., Kharod, C.U. & D’Amore, J. (2015) Evolution of Pararescue Medicine During Operation Enduring Freedom. Military Medicine. 180(3), pp.68-73. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273318279_Evolution_of_Pararescue_Medicine_During_Operation_Enduring_Freedom. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].
    • Walker, T.B., Lennemann, L.M., McGregor, J.N., Mauzy, C. & Zupan, M.F. (2011) Physiological and Psychological Characteristics of Successful Combat Controller Trainees. Journal Of Special Operations Medicine. 11(1), pp.39-47.
      Books:
    • Caldwell, M.F. (2015) Pararescue – It’s a Fine Madness: Volume One – Through the Looking Glass. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
    • Allen, R.C. (ed) (2001) Pararescue Medication and Procedure Handbook. 2nd Ed. 28 February, 2001. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.ciomr.org/download/res/PARARESCUE_MEDICATION_AND_PROCEDURE_HANDBOOK-1.pdf. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].

4.2     Useful Links

  • MacDill Air Force Base: http://www.macdill.af.mil/
  • US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM): http://www.socom.mil/
  • Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC): http://www.afsoc.af.mil/
  • Special Tactics Officer:
    • https://www.airforce.com/careers/detail/special-tactics-officer/
    • Official Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/pages/United-States-Air-Force-Special-Tactics-Officer/546004918779600?fref=ts
    • https://twitter.com/sto_recruiter
  • University of Minnesota Detachment 415: http://www.afrotc.umn.edu/SpecialTacticsPrep.html
  • Hurlburt Field: http://www.hurlburt.af.mil/
  • 24th Special Operations Wing: http://www.24sow.af.mil/FAQs.aspx
  • 342nd Training Squadron (37th Training Group): http://www.37trw.af.mil/units/37traininggroup/index.asp
  • US Air Force Liaison (for courses at Fort Benning): http://www.benning.army.mil/mcoe/airforce/
  • US Air Force e-Publishing website: http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/

4.3     References

Acosta, H., Rose, M. & Manley, G. (2014) Battlefield Airmen and Combat Support: Selection and Classification Process. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.acq.osd.mil/rd/hptb/hfetag/meetings/documents/TAG_68_19_22_May_ABERDEEN_P_G_MD/Personnel/PresentationsPersonnel%20SubTAG/6_Personnel_SubTAG_2014_BA_CS_Brief_DSYX_%26_AFRS.pptx. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].

Dokoupil, T. (2015) Send in the Weathermen. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.nbcnews.com/pages/weathermen. [Accessed: 10 March, 2016].

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (2016) Air Force ROTC. Available from World Wide Web: https://daytonabeach.erau.edu/rotc/air-force/index.html. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].

GAO (Government Accountability Office) (2009) GAO-09-220R Military Training: Navy and Air Force Need to More Fully Apply Best Practices to Enhance Development and Management of Combat Skills Training. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-09-220R. [Accessed: 04 March, 2016].

Joseph, M. (2011) New Element Assists TACP, CCT and PJ Trainees. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.jbsa.mil/News/News/tabid/11890/Article/462734/new-element-assists-tacp-cct-and-pj-trainees.aspx. [Accessed: 10 March, 2016].

Pellerin, C. (2015) SecDef Opens all Military Occupations to Women. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.therecruiterjournal.com/secdef-opens-all-military-occupations-to-women.html. [Accessed: 04 December, 2015].

Scott, A. (2016) Upcoming Report: US Air Force Battlefield Airmen Physical Fitness Test. Available from World Wide Web: http://strongswiftdurable.com/military-athlete-articles/upcoming-report-analysis-proposed-us-air-force-battlefield-airmen-physical-fitness-test/. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].

Tan, M. (2010) AETC Aims to Lower Warzone Job Washouts. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.socnet.com/showthread.php?t=94855. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].

US Air Force (2010) Special Operations Weather Team. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.af.mil/AboutUs/FactSheets/Display/tabid/224/Article/104529/special-operations-weather-team.aspx. [Accessed: 10 March, 2016].

US Air Force (2011) 342D Training Squadron. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.37trw.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=18585. [Accessed: 06 March, 2016].

US Air Force (2014a) Air Force Officer Classification Directory (AFOCD). Randall Air Force Base, Texas: Air Force Personnel Centre.

US Air Force (2014b) Air Force Enlisted Classification Directory (AFECD). Randall Air Force Base, Texas: Air Force Personnel Centre.

US Air Force (2015) US Air Force Ends SOWT-O. Available from World Wide Web: https://m.facebook.com/pages/Special-Operations-Weather-Team-Recruiting/156014841107605. [Accessed: 09 March, 2016].

USA Jobs (2014) Training Instructor. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/PrintPreview/370209800. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].

Vogel, J.L. (2015) Statement of General Joseph L. Vogel, U.S. Army Commander United States Special Operations Command before the House Armed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, March 18, 2015. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.socom.mil/Documents/2015%20USSOCOM%20Posture%20Statement.pdf. [Accessed: 29 December, 2015].

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