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Last Updated: 28 March, 2016
This article is structured as follows:
- Part 01: Background to the 75th Ranger Regiment
- Part 02: Entry Standards and Applications
- Part 03: Outline of 75th Ranger Regiment Selection and Training
- Part 04: Miscellaneous
PART ONE: BACKGROUND
US Army Rangers, widely known as the Rangers, are Tier 1 forces (i.e. undertake direct action) and are trained by the Ranger Selection and Training Company located at the Manoeuvre Centre of Excellence in Fort Benning, Georgia.
These Army Commandos form the raider element of the US Army Special Operations Command (ARSOC or USASOC) Special Operations Forces (SOF) community, which is the land component of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).
The mission of the 75th Ranger Regiment is to plan and conduct special missions in support of US policy and objectives. As such, the 75th Ranger Regiment conducts large-scale joint forcible entry operations while simultaneously executing surgical special operations raids across the globe. These missions include:
- Direct Action: These missions are designed to seize, destroy, or capture enemy facilities or materials. Rangers are trained and equipped to deliver maximum surprise and shock to opponents.
- Airfield Seizure: The Ranger Regiment is the Nation’s premier choice for forced entry operations. The Ranger Regiment’s capability to conduct airborne operations into hostile territory is strategically essential to our offensive military power and reach.
- Special Reconnaissance: These intelligence gathering activities are designed to monitor and assess, find and fix hostile forces for future operations or strategic decision making.
- Personnel Recovery: Rangers are trained to evacuate or rescue civilians and prisoners of war, or capture designated enemy personnel in politically sensitive areas, hostile terrain, or enemy held territory.
- Clandestine Insertion: To place maximum surprise and shock on the enemy, the Ranger Regiment uses special techniques and equipment to infiltrate enemy territory, seize the initiative, and achieve surprise over hostile forces.
- Sensitive Site Exploitation: Leveraging their combination of cutting edge equipment and lethal, responsive strike forces, the Regiment collects and analyses information gathered on missions to conduct rapid follow-on operations that keep aggressors off-balance and unable to react.
In synergy with these missions, the 75th Ranger Regiment has adopted the Big 4 Philosophy: marksmanship, physical training, medical training and small unit tactics for the success of the individual Ranger and the Ranger mission. The Philosophy became the Big 5 when mobility was added in 2006 (US Army, 2014).
As well as an assessment and selection course specific to the 75th Ranger Regiment, candidates must also undertake the notoriously difficult Ranger School (the US Army’s premier combat leadership course). In 2014, 4,057 students attempted the course and only 1,609 earned the right to wear the Ranger Tab (Macias, 2015).
It must be emphasised that a candidate must be physically fit at the beginning of the 75th Ranger Regiment’s training process if they are to stand any chance of success. The course requires far greater expenditure of physical energy than is normally required in other peace time training. It is essential that candidates arrive fully fit, carrying no injuries and with a sound grasp of basic navigational techniques.
The aim of this article is to describe the fundamental entry requirements, selection process and training for personnel seeking to become a member of the 75th Ranger Regiment.
For information on the US Army Ranger School course, that any member of the US military can attend, look here.
1.2 Women and the US Army’s 75th Ranger Regiment
On 21 August 2015, Captain (OF-2) Kristen Griest and 1st Lieutenant (OF-1) Shaye Haver, aged 26 and 25 respectively, became the first female graduates of the US Army’s Ranger course (Tan, 2015b; Yuhas, 2015).
On 02 September 2015, the US Army announced that Ranger training was “now open to all qualified soldiers regardless of gender…” (Tan, 2015b).
From January 2016, in accordance with current US Federal Government policy on the employment of women in the US military, service in the US Army’s Rangers (including the 75th Ranger Regiment) is open to both male and female volunteers (Pellerin, 2015).
Women in the US military have, for a number of years, been able to serve in a variety of SOF-related roles, including:
- Military information support;
- Civil affairs units;
- Female engagement teams;
- Cultural support teams; and
- Air Force special operations aviation roles.
As of March 2015, approximately two-thirds of the roles in USSOCOM were integrated (Vogel, 2015).
1.3 Brief History
The 75th Ranger Regiment is headquartered at Fort Benning, Georgia, and is commanded by a Colonel (OF-5), who is assisted by a Command Sergeant Major (OR-9).
It is an elite airborne light infantry unit specialising in direct action operations. The unit was officially designated on ‘17 April 1986’ and reorganised under the Regimental system, and “the lineage, honours, awards, and campaign credit won by the World War II and Korean War Ranger units were presented to the 75th Rangers.” (Rottman, 1987, p.48).
1.4 US Army Ranger Beret
In June 2001, Army Chief of Staff General Eric Shinseki gave the order to issue black berets to Regular Army soldiers, which had previously been worn exclusively by the 75th Ranger Regiment since 1979 (Shaughnessy, 2011).
The Rangers did not have Presidential authorisation for the exclusive wearing of the black beret and, subsequently, the Rangers switched to wearing a tan beret to preserve a unique appearance. The tan colour was chosen to reflect the buckskin worn by the men of Robert Roger’s Rangers during the French and Indian War (Bahmanyar, 2011).
A memorandum for the purpose of changing the ranger beret from black to tan was sent and approved in March 2001. In a private ceremony, past and present Rangers donned the tan beret on 26 July 2001.
It must be noted that only Rangers who serve with the 75th Ranger Regiment wear the tan beret.
1.5 The Difference between the 75th Ranger Regiment and Ranger School
The 75th Ranger Regiment is a Special Operations unit with the mission to plan and conduct joint special military operations in support of US policies and objectives, and it is the largest special operations direct action force.
The US Army’s Ranger School is the Army’s premier leadership school and is part of the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (ARTB) at Fort Benning, which in turn is part of the Manoeuvre Centre of Excellence (MCoE). The ARTB is a member of the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), while the 75th Ranger Regiment is a Modified Table of Organisation and Equipment (MTOE) unit.
The 75th Ranger Regiment does require that its leaders attend Ranger School; however, it is not a pre-requisite to join the 75th Ranger Regiment in all instances. All Infantry and Artillery Military Occupational Specialties must complete the course before they assume a leadership role. The remainder of the MOSs send their leaders when they are ready.
Consequently, there are essentially two types of Ranger (although some will argue one type is a Ranger and the other is Ranger Qualified):
- US Army soldiers who complete RASP 1 or 2 and Ranger School who will then serve with the 75th Ranger Regiment; and
- US and foreign military personnel who complete Ranger School and return to their original unit.
1.6 Organisation, Role and Tasks of the 75th Ranger Regiment
Detailed information on the organisation, role and tasks of the 75th Ranger Regiment can be found here (scroll down to Section 6.0).
PART TWO: ENTRY STANDARDS AND APPLICATIONS
The US Army does accept direct entry applicants, i.e. civilians with no prior military experience, for the 75th Ranger Regiment. As a result, volunteers for the 75th Ranger Regiment may be accepted from both US civilians and US military personnel (both officer and enlisted) from any branch of military service to serve with the 75th Ranger Regiment.
Consequently, there are three recognised pathways to becoming a US Army 75th Ranger Regiment soldier:
- Enlist as a civilian;
- Enlist while in the US Army and apply for a transfer; or
- Enlist from another Branch of Military Service.
2.1 Regimental Recruiting Detachment
The Regimental Recruiting Detachment (REC-D) is responsible for the recruitment of 75th Ranger Regiment personnel.
2.2 General Requirements and Eligibility for All Candidates
Subject to the requirements outlined below, all US Army officers and enlisted (other ranks) personnel are eligible to attend the 75th Ranger Regiment assessment and selection programme.
General Requirements for all candidates:
- Be a US citizen;
- Volunteer for assignment and be on Active Duty (the 75th Ranger Regiment does not accept National Guard, AGR or Reserve Soldiers directly);
- Have a General Technical Score of 105 or higher;
- A Physical Training score of 240 or above (80% on each event);
- No physical limitations (PULHES of 111221 or better);
- Qualify, volunteer for, and successfully complete airborne training;
- A person of good character (no pending UCMJ action or drug or alcohol related incidents within 24 months);
- Must enlist into or currently hold a Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) found in the 75th Ranger Regiment (Section 2.6 below);
- Able to attain at minimum a Secret Security Clearance; and
- Ranger/Airborne qualifications:
- Candidates are not required to be Ranger/Airborne qualified in order to be assigned to the 75th Ranger Regiment.
- For some duty positions, candidates will not serve in the Regiment until they successfully complete Ranger School (these candidates will not serve in the 75th Ranger Regiment if they are unable to complete the course).
2.3 General Requirements and Eligibility for Enlisted Candidates
Direct entry candidates (known as initial entry candidates) will typically enlist through the Option 40 Enlistment Contract. There are a fixed number of Option 40 Enlistment Contracts each year, which are set in advance.
Interested personnel should speak to their local US Army Recruiter or the 75th Ranger Regiment for further information.
2.4 General Requirements and Eligibility for Officer Candidates
Additionally, US Army officer candidates must:
- Be an officer of grade O-2 through O-4, 1st Lieutenant (OF-1) to Major (OF-3);
- Qualify for a Top Secret Security Clearance;
- Be serving at or have completed a tour at one duty station;
- Meet Year Group specific criteria;
- Hold an officer MOS found in the 75th Ranger Regiment (Section 2.6 below); and
- Infantry and Field Artillery officers are required to be Ranger/Airborne qualified to be eligible to apply.
The 75th Ranger Regiment does not currently accept applications from US Army National Guard/Reserve officers (correct March 2016).
There are also very specific hiring criteria that vary according to the manpower requirements of the 75th Ranger Regiment.
2.5 Candidates from another Branch of Military Service
The US Army has developed Operation Blue to Green for personnel, both officers and enlisted, from the US Navy and US Air Force who wish to transfer to the US Army.
There are also opportunities for selected members of the US Marine Corps and US Coast Guard.
Candidates would typically enlist through the Option 40 Enlistment Contract.
Interested personnel should speak to their local US Army Recruiter or the 75th Ranger Regiment for further information.
2.6 Military Occupational Specialty
The military occupational Specialties (MOS) outlined in Table 1 are required by personnel wishing to serve with the 75th Ranger Regiment (correct March 2016).
|Table 1: MOS for officers, warrant officers and enlisted personnel|
|Officer||11A, 12A, 13A, 25A, 27A, 30A, 35D, 35E, 36A, 38A, 42H, 53A, 56A, 57A, 61N, 65B, 65D, 70B, 70H, 73B, 74A, 88A, 90A, 91A, 92A.|
|Warrant Officer||131A, 251A, 254A, 290A, 350F, 350G, 351L, 351M, 352P, 420A, 882P, 890A, 915A, 920A, 920B, 921A.|
|Enlisted||11B, 11C, 11Z, 12B, 12H, 12R, 12W, 12Y, 13F, 13Z, 25B, 25C, 25E, 25N, 25P, 25S, 25U, 25W, 25X, 27D, 29E, 35F, 35G, 35L, 35M, 35N, 35P, 35X, 36B, 37F, 38B, 42A, 42F, 56M, 68J, 68S, 68W, 68X, 74D, 79S, 88M, 88N, 89B, 91B, 91C, 91D, 91E, 91F, 91G, 91X, 92A, 92F, 92G, 92L, 92R, 92W, 92Y, 94E, 94F, 94W.|
The 75th Ranger Regiment also encourages personnel (11B NCOs, Staff Sergeant and above) with Long-Range Surveillance experience to apply for the Regimental Reconnaissance Company (RRC). The RRC provides worldwide reconnaissance and operation preparation of the environment in support of the 75th Ranger Regiment and other special operations units.
PART THREE: OULTINE OF 75TH RANGER REGIMENT SELECTION AND TRAINING
3.0 75th Ranger Regiment Selection and Training Phases
The journey to becoming a US Army 75th Ranger Regiment soldier is not easy, and training is rigorous and highly selective, but the courage and strength individuals will gain as a candidate will stay with them for their entire life.
The Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme (RASP) is the selection and training process for all candidates wishing to join the US Army’s Ranger community, and specifically the 75th Ranger Regiment.
In addition to Phase 1 (Basic Combat) Training, candidates must also have completed Phase 2 (Advanced Individualised) Training and volunteer for airborne training (unless already qualified) to be eligible for 75th Ranger Regiment selection and training.
Detailed information on Individual Employment Training (IET), Basic Combat Training (BCT), Advanced Individual Training (AIT) and One Station Unit Training (OSUT) can be found here.
All US Army 75th Ranger Regiment candidates will undertake a number of distinct phases of training (Table 2), in which candidates are taught the fundamentals of Army special warfare through formal US Army schooling and on-the-job training.
|Table 2: 75th Ranger Regiment training pipeline|
|Serial||Enlist as a Civilian||Enlist while in the US Army and apply for a transfer; or from another Branch of Military Service.||Duration|
|1||Enlistment or Commissioning Process||Variable|
|2||75th Ranger Regiment candidates will usually attend infantry (11B) OSUT, which combines Army BCT and infantry AIT, in one 15-week course at Fort Benning, Georgia.||IET consisting of BCT and AIT specific to the soldier’s job.||Variable|
|3||Basic Airborne Course (BAC), also at Fort Benning.||BAC typically completed prior to RASP||3-weeks|
|4||Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme (RASP) One or Two||8-weeks or 21-days|
|5||Ranger First Responder (RFR) course||1-week|
|6||Ranger Language Programme (RLP)||?|
|7||US Army Ranger School||62-days|
3.1 Training Hierarchy
The Regimental Special Troops Battalion (RSTB), commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), is one of four Battalions of the 75th Ranger Regiment, which is commanded by a Colonel (OF-5).
The RSTB was provisionally activated on 17 July 2006, and officially activated on 16 October 2007. The RSTB provides the 75th Ranger Regiment and the US Special Operations Command with increased operational capabilities to sustain combat operations.
The RSTB is composed of five companies:
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company (HHC): Includes the Battalion HQ and Staff; Medical; Maintenance; and Rigger Sections.
- Regimental Reconnaissance Company (RRC): Provides worldwide reconnaissance and operation preparation of the environment in support of the 75th Ranger Regiment and other special operations units.
- Ranger Communications Company (RCC): Provides command, control and communications in support of combat operations while meeting the additional communication requirements of other special operations task forces.
- Military Intelligence Company (MICO): Provides the 75th Ranger Regiment and the US Special Operations Command with the ability to conduct HUMINT, SIGINT, IMINT, and all source analysis operations in support of combat operations.
- Ranger Selection & Training Company (RSTC): Courses delivered include:
- RASP 1: Assesses, trains, and identifies soldiers of the rank of E-5 and below for service in the 75th Ranger Regiment (Section 3.5).
- RASP 2: Conducts the assessment and selection for soldiers E-6 and above (Section 3.6).
- SURT: Prepares members of the 75th Ranger Regiment for successful completion of the US Army Ranger School (Section 3.10).
3.2 Basic Airborne Course
Detailed information on the Basic Airborne Course can be found here (scroll down to Section 3.2).
Although the majority of 75th Ranger Regiment candidates will undertake airborne training prior to RASP, a number will complete airborne training after successful completion of RASP 1.
3.3 Purpose of RASP
The purpose of the Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme (RASP) is to prepare enlisted personnel (many of whom may have just graduated from IET and airborne school), warrant officers and officers (including commanding officers) for assignment by assessing their abilities and providing the basic skills required to be an effective member of the 75th Ranger Regiment.
Airborne qualified soldiers from other units attempting to transfer to the 75th Ranger Regiment also attend the course, but are less common than new soldiers.
New soldiers will typically undertake RASP after they have successfully completed their IET and Basic Airborne Course. For those soldiers (enlisted, warrant officer and officer) who have successfully completed a first tour of duty, and meet the recruiting criteria, a RASP date is typically scheduled upon application and conditional acceptance to the 75th Ranger Regiment.
3.4 History of RASP
From 1974 to 1986, each Ranger battalion delivered its own assessment and selection programme. In 1986, a new consolidated and centralised 3-week Ranger Indoctrination Programme (RIP) was designed (Rottman, 1987), and came under the auspices of the Regimental HQ.
The purpose of the RIP course was to weed out the weak by making an individual quit, “There is no encouragement to stay.” (Bahmanyar, 2003, p.13).
Class sizes varied between 50 and 200, and training included:
- Daily physical training;
- A Ranger history test;
- Map reading;
- Airborne operations;
- Day and night land navigation;
- 5-mile run (8 minute per mile pace);
- Combat Water Survival Test;
- 6-, 8- and 10-mile loaded marches;
- Driver training;
- Fast rope training; and
- Combat Lifesaver certification.
In the second week of RIP, candidates visited ‘Cole Range’, a remote training area of Fort Benning. It was designed to test candidates to their breaking point, both physically and mentally. Candidates would sleep, on average, four hours total throughout Cole Range, as they spent their nights conducting tedious tasks such as the ‘hitting the wood line’ for being incapable of meeting the given time standards. Although training such as patrolling and land navigation was taught at Cole Range, the main focus was to mentally and physically break down the candidate.
The third week of RIP familiarised candidates with the M4A1 Assault Rifles and first aid procedures on the Ranger First Responder course (Section 3.8).
In January 2004, a fourth week was added to the RIP course, which began with the infamous Black Monday which, on average, witnessed a 25% quit rate. It also included an introduction to air operations.
One of the final criteria of the RIP course was the 12-mile loaded march in three hours or less, carrying at least 45lb. “A 50 percent fallout rate is common.” (Bahmanyar, 2003, p.16).
In the mid-1990s, the RIP course moved to the Regimental HQ compound from the old World War II jump school barracks (Bahmanyar, 2003).
The Ranger Indoctrination Programme (for enlisted personnel) and the Ranger Orientation Programme (for officers) were both replaced in January 2010 by the Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme 1 and 2 respectively. There were also a number of other changes:
- All NCOs and Officers must go through RASP to be assigned to the Regiment.
- An officer or an NCO wishing to move up a position within the Regiment must complete the RASP again.
- Any officer or NCO who leaves the Regiment for another post, and then wishes to return at a higher rank must also complete the RASP again.
As of March 2016, RASP is delivered as two distinct courses:
- RASP 1 is for enlisted soldiers and junior non-commissioned officers (JNCOs) (pay grades E-1 through E-5, Private to Sergeant)); and
- RASP 2 is for senior NCOs (Staff Sergeant and above), warrant officers and officers.
Training for candidates is based on the Big 5 Philosophy, i.e. physical fitness, marksmanship, small unit tactics, medical proficiency and mobility.
At the conclusion of RASP1/2 all candidates are notified if they are considered ‘Selects’ or ‘Non-Selects.’ ‘Non-Selects’ are released from the course and returned to their originating duty station. ‘Selects’ are given further instructions on how to prepare for PCS (Permanent Change of Station) to the 75th Ranger Regiment.
3.5 Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme One
The Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme One (RASP 1) is an 8-week course for new enlisted soldiers and JNCOs. RASP 1 is delivered in two consecutive phases:
- Phase 1: This phase focuses on critical events and skill level 1 tasks. Candidates will be tested on their mental toughness and physical capabilities, whilst learning the skills all Rangers are required to have to be an effective member of the 75th Ranger Regiment. Training includes loaded marches, land navigation, leadership skills and weapons training; all under the framework of continuous food and sleep deprivation. Candidates will also face ‘smoke sessions’ which are blocks of time specifically geared towards using physical exercise as a tool for corrective training and instruction.
- Phase 2: This phase of training focuses on marksmanship, tactical driver training, breaching, mobility and physical fitness. Ranger history is also an important element.
3.6 Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme Two
The Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme Two (RASP 2) is a 21-day course for SNCOs, warrant officers and officers.
As well as focusing on attributes and physical fitness, RASP 2 will train candidates in the special tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) of the 75th Ranger Regiment.
During RASP 2, candidates will have their evaluation reports reviewed (with letters of recommendation), psychological evaluation, intelligence testing, Ranger physical fitness test (APFT with heaves, Combat Water Survival Test, 5-mile run and 12-mile loaded march), and finally a comprehensive board by senior Regimental leaders to ensure the best are selected.
3.7 Requirements to Successfully Complete RASP
- Minimum score of 240 on the Army Physical Fitness Test (80% in each event) and ability to complete 6 heaves.
- Must complete 5-mile run in 40 minutes or less.
- Must complete 12-mile loaded march in 3 hours or less with a 35lb rucksack.
- Must successfully complete the Ranger Swim Ability Evaluation (RSAE) while displaying confidence in the water.
- Must conduct full psychological screening with no major psychological profiles identified by the Regimental Psychologist.
- Security Clearance:
- RASP 1 candidates must pass security screening with the ability to be able to receive a SECRET clearance.
- RASP 2 candidates must have a minimum of an Interim SECRET clearance prior to attending the course.
- Must pass the Commander’s Board:
- For RASP 1 candidates this event is for select individuals based on peer evaluations, cadre assessment and overall performance.
- The Commander’s Board is a requirement for all RASP 2 candidates.
- RASP 1 candidates must successfully complete the RASP 1 Programme of Instruction (POI) in order to serve in the 75th Ranger Regiment.
Upon successful completion of RASP, candidates will graduate at the Ranger Memorial, don the tan beret and will have the scroll of the battalion they will be assigned to put on their shoulder.
3.8 Ranger First Responder Course
The Ranger First Responder (RFR) course, an advanced medical course, is taught to all RASP candidates (regardless of rank) and continued upon assignment to a Ranger battalion in the form of refresher training. The RFR course teaches Rangers critical first aid and advanced combat lifesaver procedures, and thus provides them with the skills necessary to treat and save lives.
The RFR course has its origins in the Combat Lifesaver (CLS) course, from which it was refined and developed in 1999 (US Army, 2014), and has subsequently become the basis for all CLS courses taught Army-wide.
The RFR course considers the three goals of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) which are to treat the casualty, prevent additional casualties and complete the mission.
TCCC guidelines and protocols focus on the care of casualties in a combat or tactical environment at the point-of-injury. The RFR course incorporates TCCC and better prepares non-medic Rangers to provide self-aid or buddy-aid in the absence of a medical provider.
The RFR course uses a combination of didactic and hands-on instruction which culminate in an application of skills during scenario based trauma lanes.
Although the RFR course has grown to include eight critical steps, the emphasis is still on the treatment of three preventable combat deaths:
- Massive extremity haemorrhage;
- Tension pneumothorax; and
- Airway obstruction.
The idea is that a Ranger does not need to be able to perform surgery, but they should be a master of the basic treatment for these three medically preventable causes of death within the guidelines of TCCC.
3.9 Ranger Language Programme
The Range Language Programme (RLP) provides Rangers with knowledge of local languages and dialects useful when conducting operations in foreign environments.
Rangers completing this course will have a basic knowledge of dialects useful in areas where operations are or may be conducted.
Candidates that excel at language training are provided the opportunity to attend additional language training in full-time Army language programmes across the US.
3.10 US Army Ranger School
The purpose of the SURT course is to prepare members of the 75th Ranger Regiment for successful completion of the US Army Ranger School.
For detailed information on the US Army’s Ranger School and its training course, look here.
PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS
The RASP 1 or 2 courses are open to all male and female officers and enlisted personnel of the US military, subject to MOS. RASP training seeks to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the US Army’s 75th Ranger Regiment. This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for the 75th Ranger Regiment.
4.1 TV Documentaries
- First aired in September 2001, ‘Army Ranger School’ was 50 minute documentary produced for the History Channel which followed class 10-00 through the three rigorous phases of the US Army’s Ranger School.
- First aired in August 2010, ‘Surviving the Cut’ was a two series (2010-2011) documentary produced for the Discovery Channel which took a behind the scenes look at the US military’s training process for its elite and special forces. Series 1, Episode 1 titled ‘Ranger School’ looked at the training undertaken by candidates attending the US Army’s Ranger School.
- First aired in July 2012, ‘Hell and Back: Special Ops Ranger’ was a 1-hour documentary produced for the Discovery Channel which, for the first time, took a look at the special operations training course of the 75th Ranger Regiment known as the Ranger Assessment and Selection Programme (RASP).
4.2 Useful Books, Documents and Magazines
- AR 40-501 – Standards of Medical Fitness: http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r40_501.pdf. [Accessed: 16 February, 2016].
- ATP 3-75 – Ranger Operations. 29 June 2015. http://www.apd.army.mil/ProductMaps/TRADOC/ATP.aspx.
- Barber, B.E. (2004) No Excuse Leadership: Lessons from the U.S. Army’s Elite Rangers. 1st Ed. London: John Wiley & Sons.
- Bryant, R. (2003) To Be A U.S. Army Ranger. St Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company.
- Creatwal, C. (2012) How to Pass your Patrol and Other Tips for Earning the Black and Gold. USA: Creatwal Publishing.
- FM 21-18 – Foot Marches. 01 June 1990. http://www.apd.army.mil/ProductMaps/TRADOC/FM.aspx.
- FM 3-21.8 – The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad. 28 March 2007. http://www.apd.army.mil/ProductMaps/TRADOC/FM.aspx.
- FM 3-97.6 – Mountain Operations. 28 November 2000. http://www.apd.army.mil/ProductMaps/TRADOC/FM.aspx.
- FM 3-99 – Airborne and Air Assault Operations. 06 March 2015. http://www.apd.army.mil/ProductMaps/TRADOC/FM.aspx.
- Hall, R. (2007) The Ranger Book: A History 1634-2006. North Charleston, North Carolina: Booksurge Publishing.
- Hall, R. (2009) Mountain Ranger: An Oral History of the US Army Mountain Ranger Camp 1958-2008. North Charleston, North Carolina: Booksurge Publishing.
- Kearnes, M. (2015) Healthy Habits For Prospective Ranger School Students. Infantry: Magazine of the US Army’s Infantry. July-September 2015, pp.40-43. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.benning.army.mil/infantry/magazine/issues/2015/Jul-Sept/index.html. [Accessed: 25 February, 2016].
- Liptak, E. (2009) Elite 173: Office of Strategic Services 1942-45: The World War II Origins of the CIA. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
- McNab, C. (2013) America’s Elite: US Special Forces from the American Revolution to the Present Day. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
- Neville, L. & Dennis, P. (2016) US Army Rangers 1989-2015: Panama to Afghanistan. London: Osprey Publishing.
- Posey, E.L. (2011) The US Army’s First, Last, And Only All-Black Rangers. El Dorado Hills, California: Savas Beatie, Reprint Edition.
- Ross, T.D. (2004) U.S. Army Rangers and Special Forces of World War II. PLACE: Schiffer Publishing Ltd.
- Rottman, G.L. & Volstad, R. (1987) Elite 13: US Army Rangers and LRRP Units 1942-1987. London: Osprey Publishing.
- SH 21-76: Ranger Handbook (2011-02).
- TC 3-25.26: Map Reading and Land Navigation. 15 November 2013. http://www.apd.army.mil/ProductMaps/TRADOC/AllDoctrineBySeries_Response.aspx?old_series=21.
- TRADOC Analysis Centre (2105) Ranger Assessment Study: Executive Report. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/Army%20-%20Ranger%20Assessment%20Study%20Executive%20Report2.pdf. [Accessed: 25 February, 2016].
- U.S. Department of Defense (2013) U.S. Army Ranger Handbook: Revised and Updated Edition. Place: Skyhorse Publishing.
- US Army Ranger Regiment (2013) Ranger Athlete Warrior 4.0: The Complete Guide to Army Ranger Fitness. Fort Benning, Georgia: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
- USSOCOM (US Special Operations Command) (2016) 2016 Fact Book United States Special Operations Command. MacDill Air Force Base, Florida: USSOCOM.
- Werner, B. (2006) Elite 45: First Special Service Force 1942-44. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
- White, S.S., Mueller-Hanson, R.A., Dorsey, D.W., Pulakos, E.D., Wisecarver, M.M., Deagle III, E.A. & Mendini, K.G. (2005) Developing Adaptive Proficiency in Special Forces Officers. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/rr1831.pdf. [Accessed: 18 February, 2016].
4.3 Useful Links
- 75th Ranger Regiment:
- Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (ARTB):
- Basic Airborne Course: http://www.benning.army.mil/infantry/rtb/1-507th/airborne/
US Army: http://www.army.mil/ranger/
- Infantry (Magazine of the US Army’s Infantry), July-September Issue: http://www.benning.army.mil/infantry/magazine/issues/2015/Jul-Sept/index.html
- US Army Ranger Association: http://www.ranger.org/
- US Army National Guard Warrior Training Centre (WTC): http://www.benning.army.mil/tenant/wtc/
- Marine Corps Detachment, Fort Benning: http://www.benning.army.mil/mcoe/usmc/ranger.html
Bahmanyar, M. (2003) Warrior 65: US Army Ranger 1983-2002, Sua Sponte – Of Their Own Accord. London: Osprey Publishing.
Bahmanyar, M. (2011). Shadow Warriors: A History of the US Army Rangers. London: Osprey Publishing.
Macias, A. (2015) These 2 Badass Female Army Rangers Just Made History — Here’s The Grueling Training They Endured. Available from World Wide Web: http://uk.businessinsider.com/first-women-to-earn-army-ranger-tab-2015-8?r=US&IR=T. [Accessed: 23 February, 2016].
Pellerin, C. (2015) SecDef Opens all Military Occupations to Women. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.therecruiterjournal.com/secdef-opens-all-military-occupations-to-women.html. [Accessed: 04 December, 2015].
Rottman, G.L. (1987) Elite 13: US Army Rangers & LRRP Units 1942-87. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
Shaughnessy, L. (2011) Army Backtracks on Black Berets after more than a Decade of Debate. Available from World Wide Web: http://edition.cnn.com/2011/US/06/13/army.beret/. [Accessed: 25 February, 2016].
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