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This article is organised as follows:
- Part 01: Background to Indian Army officer initial military training.
- Part 02: Organisation of Training.
- Part 03: Training Establishments.
- Part 04: Miscellaneous.
PART ONE: BACKGROUND
Modern Indian armed forces can trace their military ancestry, in various forms, back several millennia, with Indian maritime history dating back some 5,000 years. However, the British East India Company established the nascent components of the future Indian armed forces with the creation of army and naval units. The Royal Indian Marine (RIM) was established in 1892, becoming the Royal Indian Navy in 1934. In 1932, the Indian Air Force was established as an auxiliary air force.
At the outbreak of war in 1939, the Indian Army consisted of just under 200,000 soldiers. By 1945, it had become the largest volunteer army in history with just over 2.5 million soldiers.
1947 witnessed the partition of British India and the creation of the modern states of India and Pakistan (both with dominion status at this point). Two Princely-ruled territories, Kashmir and Hyderabad, were also involved in the partition. Hyderabad was eventually annexed by India and Kashmir became a perennial flash point between India and Pakistan. The modern Indian Army was established on 15 August 1947.
On 26 January 1950, India removed the last vestiges of British rule and became a sovereign nation, the Republic of India.
In 1961, Portuguese colonial rule in Goa ended when India annexed the territory after a very brief military operation.
With a strength of approximately 1.4 million active personnel, India has the world’s 2nd largest military force and the world’s largest volunteer army. India also has a strength of over 1.1 million reserve personnel and 1.3 million paramilitary personnel.
1.1 Structure of the Indian Army
The Indian Army is made up of a number of commands:
- Six Operational Commands (composed of corps, divisions, brigades and battalions/regiments) and static formations area which are commanded by Lieutenant Generals (OF-8).
- One (functional) Army Training Command composed of various training establishments:
- Category A commanded by Lieutenant Generals (OF-8)/Major Generals (OF-7); and
- Category B commanded by Major Generals (OF-7)/Brigadier (OF-6).
The Indian Army is made up of both Commissioned Officers and Other Ranks (known as Soldiers).
PART TWO: ARMY TRAINING COMMAND
This part of the article outlines the training organisation of the Indian Army, known as Army Training Command or ARTRAC.
2.1 Commander ARTRAC
The Commander of the Army Training Command is known as the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-IN-C) and has the status of Army Commander.
The head of the Army Training Command, a Lieutenant General (OF-8), is responsible for ensuring that sufficient men and women of the right quality are trained to meet the needs of the service.
2.2 Army Training Command
Established on 01 October 1991, the Indian Army’s Training Command, commonly known as ARTRAC, was initially located in Delhi. HQ ARTRAC moved to Mhow, Madhya Pradesh, in central India in the same year (Indian Army, 2017; United News of India, 2017). On 31 March 1993 HQ ARTRAC was relocated to Shimla, which is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
“In 1995, Headquarters Army Training Command was nominated as the nodal agency for the Indian Army on all peacekeeping matters.” (ARTRAC, 1997, p.138).
ARTRAC is one of seven commands within the Indian Army and is responsible for formulating operational concepts and doctrines of warfare for the Indian Army, besides being a nodal point for all premier training institutions within the Indian Army.
ARTRAC’s main aim is maximising the effectiveness of training across the various training establishments through three roles:
- Formulate concepts and doctrines of warfare in the fields of strategy, operational art, tactics, logistics, and training and human resource development stimulating a real time scenario;
- Act as the nodal agency for all institutional training in the Indian Army; and
- Evolve joint doctrines in conjunction with other Services.
HQ ARTRAC “facilitates 32 Training Establishments” (United News of India, 2017) divided into:
- Category ‘A’ Training Establishments:
- Army Schools of Instruction of all Arms and Services provide individual training to all ranks in both operational and logistical matters for planning and conduct of exercises at various levels for different service brackets and rank structure.
- Commanded by Lieutenant Generals (OF-8)/Major Generals (OF-7):
- Category ‘B’ Training Establishments:
- All Arms and Services Training Centres provide basic education and training, immediately after recruitment, to Personnel Below officers Rank (PBOR) like National Defence Academy, Indian Military Academy and Officers Training Academy provide pre-commission training in case of officers.
- Commanded by Major Generals (OF-7)/Brigadier (OF-6):
The training establishments include:
- Armoured Corps Centre and School, Ahmednagar.
- Army Airborne Training School, Agra.
- Army Air Defence College, Gopalpur on Sea.
- Army Cadet College, Dehradun.
- Army Education Crops Training College and Centre, Pachmarhi.
- Army Institute of Physical Training, Pune.
- Army Medical Corps Centre and School, Lucknow.
- Army Service Corps Centre and College, Bengaluru.
- Army Sports Institute, Pune.
- Army War College, Mhow.
- College of Materials Management, Jabalpur.
- College of Military Engineering, Pune.
- Combat Army Aviator Training School, Nasik Road.
- Corps of Military Police Centre and School, Bengaluru.
- Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School, Vairengte.
- Electronics and Mechanical Engineering School, Secunderabad.
- High Altitude Warfare School, Gulmarg.
- Indian Military Academy, Dehradun.
- Infantry School, Mhow.
- Institute of Military Law (IML), Kamptee. Commandant, a Brigadier (OF-6).
- Institute of National Integration, Pune.
- Junior Leaders Academy, Bareilly.
- Military College of Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Secunderabad.
- Military College of Telecommunications Engineering, Mhow.
- Military Intelligence Training School, Pune.
- Officers Training Academy, Chennai.
- Officers Training Academy, Gaya. OF-8.
- Remount and Veterinary Corps Centre and College, Meerut.
- School of Artillery, Deolali.
- Simulator Development Division, Secunderabad.
- Special Forces Training School, Nahan.
2.3 ARTRAC Key Personalities
Key Personalities include:
- ARTRAC GOC: A Lieutenant General (OF-8) (Chhina, 2016).
- ARTRAC Chief of Staff: A Lieutenant General (OF-8) (Chhina, 2016).
“Major General General Staff”: A Major General (OF-7) (ARTRAC, 1997, p.138).
- “Brigadier Joint Operations”: A Brigadier (OF-6) (ARTRAC, 1997, p.138).
- “General Staff Officer-1 (UN)”: A Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4) (ARTRAC, 1997, p.138).
- “General Staff Officer-2 (UN)”: A Major (OF-3) (ARTRAC, 1997, p.138).
- “Major General Red Forces” (Arora, 2017).
- Colonel General Staff (Doctrine) “Col GS (Doctrine) at HQ ARTRAC.”: A Colonel (OF-5) (FICCI, 2016, p.71).
- Air Commodore (Concepts).
PART THREE: TRAINING ESTABLISHMENTS
This part of the article outlines some of the training establishments an officer may attend during their initial military training.
3.1 National Defence Academy
The National Defence Academy (NDA) can trace its lineage back to 1946 and is well-known for its joint or Tri-service training ethos and methodology, teaching army, navy and air force students.
The IMA is one of three pre-commission training academies (PCTA) within the Indian Army.
The NDA is located at Khadakwasla, 17 km south-west of Pune city and north-west of Khadakwasla Lake, Maharshtra, on approximately 7,000 acres.
After World War II, Field Marshal Claude Auchinleck, then Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army, led a committee to study various military academies around the world and submitted a report to the Government of India in December 1946. The committee recommended the establishment of a Joint Services Military Academy, with training modelled on the United States Military Academy at West Point.
While searching for a suitable location, an interim training academy, known as the Joint Services Wing (JSW), which was established on 01 January 1949 at the Armed Forces Academy (AFA, now known as the Indian Military Academy) in Dehradun. Initially, after two years of training at the JSW, army cadets went on to the military wing of the AFA for two years of further pre-commission training, while navy and air force cadets were sent to the United Kingdom (BRNC Dartmouth and RAF Cranwell respectively) for further training.
The foundation stone for the NDA was laid on 06 October 1949 by the then prime minister of India. The NDA was formally estsablished on 07 December 1954, with an inauguration ceremony taking place on 16 January 1955.
The administrative HQ of NDA is located in Sudan Block.
3.1.3 Commandant NDA
The commandant of the NDA is an OF-8 level officer (Lieutenant General, Air Marshal or Vice Admiral) (Kulkarni, 2012a).
The first commandant of the JSW was a Major General and the first commandant of the NDA was also a Major General.
The deputy commandant is an OF-7 level officer (Major General, Air Vice-Marshal or Rear Admiral) (Kulkarni, 2012a).
3.1.4 Organisation of Students
Approximately 320 undergraduate students are selected to attend the NDA each year – of which just over 200 are army cadets, 70 are air force cadets and 40 are naval cadets – with a total student population of just over 2,000.
On arrival at NDA students will be appointed to one of 18 squadrons within five battalions (Kulkarni, 2012b):
- No.1 Battalion: 1st (Alpha), 2nd (Bravo), 3rd (Charlie) and 4th (Delta) Squadrons.
- No.2 Battalion: 5th (Echo), 6th (Foxtrot), 7th (Golf) and 8th (Hotel) Squadrons.
- No.3 Battalion: 9th (India), 10th (Juliet), 11th (Kilo) and 12th (Lima) Squadrons.
- No.4 Battalion: 13th (Mike), 14th (November), 15th (Oscar) and 16th (Panther) Squadrons.
- No.5 Battalion: 17th (Quebec) and 18th (Romeo) Squadrons.
3.1.5 Outline of Training
Training at NDA is via a full-time, residential undergraduate programme. The programme is three-years in duration and is divided into six (6) semesters of six (6) months each. There are two terms per year: spring term is January to May and the autumn term is July to December. Students, or Gentlemen Cadets as they are known, will undertake academic studies in one of two streams:
- Science Stream; or
- Humanities (Liberal Arts) Stream.
Each stream is divided into three courses:
- Compulsory Course:
- Cadets will study basic classes English, foreign languages (Arabic, Chinese, French or Russian), physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, history, political science, economics, and geography.
- Cadets will undertake advanced classes depending on their chosen stream.
- Foundation Course:
- Cadets will study mandatory classes in:
- Military studies, including: military history; military geography; weapon systems; and armaments etc.
- General studies, including: geopolitics; human rights; the law of armed conflict; and environmental sciences.
- Optional Course:
- Cadets will study classes’ specific to their chosen Service.
The compulsory and foundation courses are delivered during semesters one to four, and the optional course is delivered in semesters five and six.
Army students also undertake a physically and mentally demanding training regiment, facilitated by the Army Training Team, which includes: tactical training; weapons training; military writing; field engineering; organisation and administration; radio telephony; training visits to operational establishments; field-craft; land navigation; camouflage and concealment; field signals; and organisation of Infantry section. Students also undertake drill; physical training; swimming; horse-riding; and sporting activities.
Army students will also participate in three training exercises, known as camps:
- Camp Greenhorn: This 4-day camp is conducted in the second term and introduces students to basic battle subjects such as map reading, tent pitching, fitting of web equipment, navigation, endurance training, compass reading and development of leadership qualities.
- Camp Rover: This 4-day camp is conducted in the fourth term and further develops students’ knowledge of basic battle subjects such as map reading, tent pitching, fitting of web equipment, navigation, endurance training, compass reading and development of leadership qualities.
- Camp Torna: This camp is conducted in the sixth term and students’ knowledge and skills are reinforced in simulated field conditions – demonstrating their leadership qualities in various tactical situations. This camp is geared towards preparing a student to lead an infantry section effectively. Other aspects covered during the camp include land navigation (by day and night), quick attack at section level, patrolling, ambush, endurance training, and occupation of a section defended post and conduct of a defensive battle at section level by night.
Students who graduate will be awarded a Bachelor of Art or Science degree from the Jawalharlal Nehru University and will progress to the Indian Military Academy.
3.2 Indian Military Academy
The role of the Indian Military Academy (IMA) is to develop the future leaders of the Indian Army through physical training, drills, weapons training and leadership development. This training regime will enhance their physical and mental attributes and hone their leadership skills in preparation for their military careers.
During their time at IMA students are known as Gentlemen Cadets.
The IMA is located in the foothills of the Himalayas, approximately eight (8) km west of Dehradun, in the northern state of Uttarakhand.
IMA is divided into North and South campuses, with the campuses being separated by National Highway 72.
Originally spanning 206 acres, IMA now covers 1,400 acres (or 5.7 square kilometres).
- 1930: Chetwode Hall built on the drill square and currently houses the IMA HQ and academic training facilities (including lecture halls, computer labs and a café).
- 1932: IMA officially established on 01 October 1932, with a Brigadier (OF-6) as the first Commandant.
- 1938: Central library established in new wing of Chetwode Hall.
- 1949: Expansion in January 1949 into Armed Forces Academy (AFA) with an addition of Joint Services Wing (JSW) at Clement Town, Dehradun, where Cadets of Army, Navy and Air Force were trained.
- 1950: On 01 January, 1950, the AFA (in Dehradun) was renamed the National Defence Academy (NDA).
- 1954: JSW of the NDA moved from Dehradun to Khadakvasla.
- 1954: Military Wing, which stayed in Dehradun, was renamed the Military College.
- 1960: Military College renamed the Indian Military Academy.
- 1970: The IMA south campus is developed during the 1970s, and includes: stables; small arms shooting range; Somnath stadium; and Salaria Aquatic Centre.
- 1974: Graduation becomes the entry criterion at the IMA.
- 1999: The IMA War Memorial is inaugurated by Field Marshal Manekshaw on 17 November 1999.
3.2.3 Commandant IMA
The Commandant IMA is a Lieutenant General (OF-8) (The Times of India 2017a).
The Commandant is assisted by the Deputy Commandant, a Major General (OF-7), who is also the Chief Instructor.
3.2.4 Organisation of IMA
The IMA is organised as follows:
- General staff branch, commanded by a Brigadier (OF-6).
- Administrative branch, commanded by a Brigadier (OF-6).
- Adjutant’s branch, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4)/Major (OF-3).
- Instructional Teams:
- Service Training Team, commanded by a Brigadier (OF-6).
- Academic Department, commanded by a Brigadier (OF-6).
- Colonel (Training), a Colonel (OF-5).
- Training Battalions:
- Bhagat, Cariappa, Thimayya and Manekshaw, each commanded by a Colonel (OF-5), and named after ex-Chiefs of the Army Staff except Bhagat which is named after Lieutenant General PS Bhagat, VC – the first officer to be awarded with Victoria Cross and also was the Commandant of IMA.
- Each battalion is organised into four companies and further sub-divided into three platoons, commanded by Majors (OF-3) and Captains (OF-2) respectively.
- Army Cadet College Wing:
- Is the fifth battalion of IMA and is commanded by a Brigadier (OF-7).
- Composed of three companies with three platoons each.
- Has an academic department, headed by a Principal, which is divided into humanities and science streams.
Students who will receive a permanent commission undertake training at the IMA, and this includes students from the NDA, TGC, UES and TGC (AEC) entry streams and CDSE graduates (e.g. IMA Direct Entry stream).
From an initial course of 40 gentlemen cadets, IMA now has a planned capacity of approximately 1,200.
3.2.6 Outline of training
Students from the NDA, TGC, UES and TGC (AEC) entry streams undertake twelve (12) months of training, whilst CDSE graduates (e.g. IMA (DE) entry stream) undertake eighteen (18) months of training.
Training focuses on physical training, drills, weapons training and leadership development.
“Each company gets cadet appointments from the senior tremers looking after the working of the company. There are various appointments such as, Senior Under Officer(SUO), Company Sergeant Major (CSM), Company Quarter Master (CQM), and Junior Under Officer (JUO).” (NCA, 2015).
- Example Joining Instructions for the Indian Army’s Army Cadet College (ACC).
- Examples Joining Instructions for the Indian Army’s Indian Military Academy (IMA).
3.3 Officers Training Academy, Chennai
The role of the Officers Training Academy Chennai (OTA (Chennai)) is to develop the future leaders of the Indian Army through physical training, drills, weapons training and leadership development. This training regime will enhance their physical and mental attributes and hone their leadership skills in preparation for their military careers.
During their time at OTA (Chennai) students are known as Gentlemen Cadets/Lady Cadets.
OTA (Chennai) is one of three PCTA’s within the Indian Army and has a planned training capacity of approximately 750 short service commission students.
OTS (Chennai) is located near Chennai, Tamil Nadu in the south east of India. It is situated between Chennai Central Railway, 17 km to the northeast, and Chennai International Airport, 3 km to the southwest.
The Academy is located amid a sprawling estate of 650-700 acres traversed by the River Adyar.
- 1940s: Seven (7) Officer Training Institutes established to train officers during World War II, 1942 to 1945, which are closed shortly after WWII ends.
- 1962: After the war with China it was decided that the Indian Army needed to train more officers. It was decided to establish, in September 1962, two (2) Officer Training Schools (OTS) – one in Madras (now Chennai) and one in Pune (Poona) – training emergency commission officers.
- 1963: The Emergency Commission (EC) course begins on 15 January 1963 with 442 students.
- 1964: OTS at Poona is closed on 09 May 1964.
- 1965: The EC course is discontinued and replaced by short service commission (SSC) training. Courses included the SSC Course (Compulsory Liability Scheme) for Class I and II Gazetted Officers of the Central Government and Public Undertakings.
- 1968: The Compulsory Liability Scheme is discontinued when SSC courses for Technical Arms and Services were introduced.
- 1970: Special List (SL) Officers Course Serial-1 delivered at OTS.
- 1973: Special List (SL) Officers Course Serial-2 delivered at OTS between 1973 and 1974.
- 1975: Opening of NDA Wing at OTS to train the overflow of successful NDA candidates on the three-year degree course.
- 1970s: A number of facilities are built/developed including: swimming pool; auditorium; science block and laboratories; drill square; cadet mess; and weapon training areas.
- 1985: OTS granted permanent status.
- 1988: On 01 January 1988, the OTS was uprated and renamed the Officers Training Academy (OTA).
- 1992: 25 women commence training at OTA on 21 September 1992, being the first and only PCTA to train Lady Cadets.
- 1999: Decision made by Indian Government for OTS to be permanently located at Chennai.
- 2000: Training capacity uprated from 500 to 750 students and facilities uprated and constructed.
- 2008: SSC (Women) course introduced. The duration of training was lengthened in par with Gentlemen Cadets.
- 2015: New facilities were added including the Terrain and Tactical Information Complex (TATIC) and the Weapon and Equipment Display Area (WEDA) (The Times of India, 2017b).
3.3.3 Commandant OTA (Chennai)
The first commandant of the OTS (Chennai) was a Brigadier (OF-6), and up-ranked to Major General (OF-7) in 1982.
Since 2010, the commandant OTA (Chennai) has been a Lieutenant General (OF-8) (The New Indian Express, 2017; The Times of India, 2017b).
3.3.4 Organisation of OTS (Chennai)
OTS (Chennai) is organised as follows:
- General staff branch, commanded by a Brigadier (OF-6).
- Administrative branch, commanded by a Brigadier (OF-6).
- Adjutant’s branch, commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4)/Major (OF-3).
- Instructional Teams.
- Training Battalions:
- Shivaji and Ranjit.
Students who will receive a SSC undertake training at OTA (Chennai), and prepares graduates for all branches of the Army, except for the Army Medical Corps.
3.3.6 Outline of training
OTS (Chennai) trains officers for a Short Service Commission via a 49-week training course, which usually starts on the second Thursday/Friday in April or October each year.
The training is divided into two semesters of 23-weeks with a three-week term break.
- Basic military training;
- Troop and individual games/sports;
- Physical training;
- Extracurricular activities;
- Communications skills;
- Decision-making capabilities; and
- Psychological conditioning.
Apart from training Indian Officer Cadets, OTA (Chennai) also trains Officer Cadets from Friendly Foreign Countries as part of the Indian Technical and Educational Co-Operation (ITEC) Programme. Officer Cadets from countries including Sri Lanka, Uganda, Lesotho, Seychelles, Jamaica, Fiji, Tonga and Afghanistan have been trained at OTA (Chennai). Approximately 300 foreign Cadets have graduated.
On successful completion of training at OTA (Chennai), students will be granted a Short Service Commission in the Indian Army as per the provisions of Special Army Instructions 3/S/98 and Army Instructions 53/74 for SSC (Non-Technical), Army Instructions 1/93 and 53/74 for SSC (Technical), Special Army Instructions 1/S/92, Army Instructions 10/96, 53/74 as amended vide Army Instructions 2/83 for SSC(W) Technical and SSC(W) Non – Technical Course as amended from time to time.
3.4 Officers Training Academy, Gaya
The Officers Training Academy (Gaya) (OTA (Gaya)) is a relatively new establishment, taking on its first batch of Gentlemen Cadets (as students are known) on 18 July 2011 (News 18, 2011).
OTA (Gaya) is one of three PCTA’s within the Indian Army and has a planned training capacity of approximately 750 students.
OTA (Gaya) is located in approximately 863 acres of hilly terrain in Paharpur.
The campus is situated at Paharpur Military Station, Gaya in Bihar.
- 2011: OTA (Gaya) was established in July 2011.
- 2011: 149 students commence the first course (July 2011 to June 2012).
- 2012: Second course commences (January 2012 to December 2012).
- 2012: First passing out parade conducted on 08 June 2012.
- 2012: Second passing out parade conducted on 08 December 2012 with 176 students graduating.
3.4.3 Commandant, OTA (Gaya)
The commandant OTA (Gaya) is a Lieutenant General (OF-8) (News, 2011).
Students who apply for Technical Entry Scheme (10+2 TES) and Special Commission Officer (SCO) entry streams undertake training at OTA (Gaya).
The SCO entry stream is a special method of entry for Indian Army soldiers only, who can apply directly from their respective units as and when notifications arise.
3.4.5 Outline of training
Training at OTA (Gaya) commences in January and July of each year. TES Students will undertake five (5) years of training which is delivered in two phases:
- Phase I (Basic Military Training):
- One year of basic military training composed of 46-weeks divided into two 23-week semesters, delivered at OTA (Gaya). A mid-term break of one week is provided in each term and 3-weeks at the end of the first term.
- Phase II (Technical Training):
- 3-years pre-commission training, delivered at:
- College of Military Engineering (CME), Pune;
- Military College of Telecommunication Engineering (MCTE), Mhow; or
- Military College of Electronic and Mechanical Engineering (MCEME), Secunderabad.
- Includes Young Officers Module of four weeks duration before final Passing Out Parade and commissioning of the Gentlemen Cadet at OTA (Gaya).
- 1-year post-commission training, delivered at CME, MCTE or MCEME.
- 3-years pre-commission training, delivered at:
SCO Students undertake Phase I only of the training outlined above.
Training undertaken at OTA Gaya includes:
|Table 1: Outline of training at OTA (Gaya)|
Training is progressive and includes the following teaching methods:
- Central lecture (CL);
- Tutorial discussion (TD);
- Lecture demonstration (LD);
- Tactical exercise without troops (TEWT)
- Blackboard exercise (BBE);
- Computer-based training (CBT);
- Training films.
Training is orientated towards basic platoon-level training and understanding the administrative aspects at company level with the aim of making the student an effective platoon commander.
3.5 RVC Centre and College
Post commission training is delivered by the RVC Centre & College, Meerut Cantt.
PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS
This article provides a basic outline of the Indian Army’s commissioned officer recruitment and selection process.
The reader will now have a better understanding of the process they will undertake if they decide that joining the Indian Army is for them.
4.1 TV Documentaries
- First aired in August 2009, ‘My Flag, My Life’ is 54 minute documentary looking at the training regimen at the National Defence Academy.
- First aired in [MONTH] [YEAR], ‘The Standard Bearers’ is a documentary looking at the history and operations of the NDA.
4.2 Useful Publications
- Rao, K.L. (2016) A History of the Indian Army. New Delhi: Manas Publications.
- Subramaniam, A. (2016) India’s Wars: A Military History 1947-1971. Delhi: Harper Collins India.
- Roy, K. (2008) Brown Warriors of the Raj: Recruitment and the Mechanics of Command in the Sepoy Army 1859-1913. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers and Distributors.
- DG Rtg/Rtg ‘A’ (P&C) letter No 58507/Tattoos/Sel Pol/Rtg P&C dt 11 May 2015.
- ARTRAC (1998) A Quest for Excellence: Training the Indian Army. 1st Ed. Shimla: ARTRAC Press.
- Vai, A. & ARTRAC (2004) A Quest for Excellence: Training the Indian Army. 3rd Revised Edition. Shimla: ARTRAC Press.
- ARTRAC (1998) Fundamentals, Doctrine and Concepts – Indian Army. Shimla: ARTRAC Press.
- ARTRAC (1997) The Indian Army: United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. New Delhi: Lancer Publishers.
- Singh, D. (2005) Rejuvenating Indian Army Education and Training. Delhi Business Review. 6(1), pp.27-44. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.delhibusinessreview.org/v_6n1/v6n1c.pdf. [Accessed: 23 October, 2017].
- Pinnacle: The ARTRAC Journal.
- Singh, M.P. (Brigadier) History of the Indian Military Academy. Punjabi Bhawan, Ludhiana: Unistar Books Pvt. Ltd.
4.3 Useful Links
- Indian Government:
- Indian Government: https://india.gov.in/my-government/whos-who/chiefs-armed-forces.
- Indian Ministry of Defence (MOD): http://www.mod.nic.in/.
- Employment News: http://employmentnews.gov.in/.
- Union Public Service Commission (UPSC):
- Indian Army:
- Indian Army (Main Website): http://indianarmy.nic.in/.
- Indian Army (Recruitment Website): http://joinindianarmy.nic.in/.
- Indian Army (Helicopter Training School): http://sainiksamachar.nic.in/englisharchives/2010/nov01-10/h5.htm.
- Indian Military Academy (IMA): http://joinindianarmy.nic.in/bravo/ima.htm.
- Officers Training Academy, Chennai (OTA Chennai): http://joinindianarmy.nic.in/bravo/ota-chennai.htm.
- Officers Training Academy, Gaya (OTA Gaya): http://joinindianarmy.nic.in/alpha/ota-gaya.htm.
- OTA Chennai Alumni Association: http://www.otaaachennai.com/.
- HQ Army Training Command (ARTRAC):
- Indian Air Force:
- Indian Air Force (Recruitment Website): http://careerairforce.nic.in/.
- Air Force Academy, Hyderabad:
- Indian Navy:
- Indian Navy (Recruitment Website): http://nausena-bharti.nic.in/.
- Naval Academy:
- National Defence Academy (NDA): https://www.nda.nic.in/.
Arora, R. (2017) LinkedIn Profile: Major General Ravi Arora. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.linkedin.com/in/majgenrkarora/. [Accessed: 23 October, 2017].
ARTRAC (Indian Army Training Command) (1997) The Indian Army: United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. New Delhi: Lancer Publishers.
Chhina, M.A.S. (2016) Now, Army Training Command too is without GOC-in-Chief. Available from World Wide Web: http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/army-training-command-too-is-without-goc-in-chief-3007222/. [Accessed: 23 October, 2017].
FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry) (2016) Make in India’ Paradigm – Roadmap for a Future Ready Naval Force: A Compilation of Papers by Indian Naval Officers for FICCI Seminar. Available from World Wide Web: http://ficci.in/spdocument/20728/Indian-Naval-Officers-for-FICCI-Seminar.pdf. [Accessed: 23 October, 2017].
Indian Army (2017) ARTRAC. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTempSimple.aspx?MnId=L1gH5c3xwJIsUURx3nBhUg==&ParentID=SNgrCYX0ZpY0FvcVpBl86w==. [Accessed: 23 October, 2017].
Kulkarni, P. (2012a) New Squadron Wins Honours in NDA Cross Country Race. Available from World Wide Web: http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/new-squadron-wins-honours-in-nda-cross-country-race/914212/0. [Accessed: 22 October, 2017].
Kulkarni, P. (2012b) With Quebec and Romeo, NDA Squadron Strength up to 8. Available from World Wide Web: http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/with-quebec-&-romeo-nda-squadron-strength-up-to-18/919796/. [Accessed: 22 October, 2017].
NCA (New Careers Academy) (2015) Life of a Gentleman Cadet at the IMA (Indian Military Academy). Available from World Wide Web: https://www.ncaacademy.com/life-of-a-gentleman-cadet-at-the-ima-indian-military-academy/. [Accessed: 26 October, 2017].
News 18 (2011) Army Gets a New Officers Training Academy in Gaya. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.news18.com/news/india/army-gets-a-new-officers-training-academy-in-gaya-385014.html. [Accessed: 23 October, 2013].
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