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This article is structured as follows:
- Part 01: Introduction to the Indian Navy Marine Commandos.
- Part 02: Hierarchy of the Indian Navy SOF.
- Part 03: Organisation of MARCOS.
- Part 04: Selection and Training.
- Part 05: Training Establishments.
- Part 06: Miscellaneous.
“The Few, The Fearless”
This article is about the Indian Navy’s Special Forces (SF) unit known as the Marine Commandos or MARCOS as it is commonly referred to. They are reputedly known as the Dadiwala Fauj by terrorists because of their bearded disguise.
“The Indian Navy is cognisant of the strategic and operational potential of SF operations. The Indian Navy’s MARCOs have significant capabilities for undertaking SF operations in the maritime domain, as well as on land and by air. They can operate independently and in conjunction with Army and Air Force SF, including against non-state actors. Development of MARCO capabilities will remain a thrust area for the Navy.” (MOD (Navy), 2015, p.141).
From those who apply for MARCOS, approximately 50 out of every 100 volunteers will be dropped/fail within the first few weeks, and by the end of two/three years of training approximately 2 out of every 100 volunteers will be left to graduate as fully qualified MARCOS (a total attrition rate of 98%).
From boot camp to fully-qualified, a candidate can undertake between three and four years of training, depending on the specialisation.
A proportion of the MARCOS training is modelled on the US Navy SEALs training programme, both the US Navy SEALs and British SAS aided in the development of the MARCOS training programme. It is also rumoured that a member of MARCOS, on an exchange programme in the US, topped the US Navy SEAL course with ease (Saksena, 2015; Devnath, 2016).
MAROCS personnel may also be seconded to other units: “Some MARCOS personnel are also attached to Army Special Forces units conducting counter-terrorism operations.” (Chandramohan, 2013, p.3).
This article will provide the reader with an outline of the Indian Navy’s SF, providing a brief history and their role and purpose. It will then provide an outline of the hierarchy and organisation of Indian Navy SF before moving on to describe the selection and training process. Finally, the article will discuss some of the training establishment which deliver training to Indian Navy SF candidates before providing some useful links, publications and references.
1.1 Brief History of MARCOS
When researching for this article, internet and book sources provide an array of different dates and evolution for the MARCOS and, as MARCOS is part of the Indian Navy, the Indian Navy is the authority regarding dates and evolution.
For example, a number of sources suggest the MARCOS was established in 1985 or 1989 as the Indian Marine Special Forces, or even in 1987 as the Marine Commando Force. However, the Indian Navy (2017a) states: “The Indian Marine Special Force (IMSF) was raised in 1987 and co located with INS Abhimanyu. The acronym was changed to Marine Commandos Force (MCF) to give an element of individuality. The name MARCOS is struck thereafter.”
Many websites will inform the reader that the MAROCS changed their name from MCF, however, they are still officially the MCF, but generally just known as MARCOS or Marine Commandos.
After the India-Pakistan War (1971) it decided to set up a special unit to undertake amphibious warfare & maritime special operations. Established in 1983, the 340th Army Independent Brigade, located at Thiruvanadapuram, was trained for maritime operations (Bennett, 2004) and in Operation Pawan (see below), worked alongside the IMSF, which was to provide a beach reconnaissance party. The Indian Navy conducted various exercises to demonstrate the IMSFs capabilities, notably exercises in Andaman Nicobar (1984) and Goa (1986).
The need for Marine Commandos was first accepted in 1985 for the defence of offshore assets in Bombay High against clandestine attacks (Hiranandani, 2013). The Commandos’ task was to evict terrorists who had already taken over an oil production platform. Consequently, the Indian Navy established the IMSF and for ‘commando version’ helicopters to fly these Commandos swiftly from Bombay to Bombay High.
A general outline of key events includes (Hiranandani, 2013):
- In 1986, the Indian Navy started planning for a special maritime force which could conduct reconnaissance, raids and counter-terrorism operations in a maritime environment. They were initially trained by other India SOF units, but later by personnel from the US Navy SEALs and the British SAS.
- In 1987, the Indian Navy officially established the IMSF with an initial compliment of 38 officers and 373 sailors.
- Renamed the Marine Commando Force (MCF) in 1989, INS Abhimanyu (Section 4.1) became the HQ for Chariot and Marine Commando operations.
- In 1989, MARCOS carried out the first water-para-jump off Goa; MARCOS are now the only unit with this capability.
- In 1992, MARCOS East was formed (Section 4.2).
- To infuse young blood, a voluntary category of commandos was introduced in 1995, termed ‘MARCO (General Duties)’ in addition to the existing MARCO (Advance) category who served for 3 to 5 years.
- In 1999, after witnessing the effectiveness of the MCF in Operation Vijay during the Kargil War, an additional company of 29 officers and 246 sailors was raised.
- In 2002, MARCOS personnel gained the combat free-fall capability after 2 officers and 2 sailors successfully completed training in Australia.
- In 2016, MARCOS East is commissioned as INS Karna, becoming the first independent MAROCS base.
Examples of operations MARCOS have been involved in (Hiranandani, 2013):
- Operation Pawan (1987): Accompanied the Indian Peacekeeping Force (IPKF) to Sri Lanka to deal with the secessionist LTTE’s (Liberation of Tamil Tigers Eelan) marine elements that were operating in the shallow lagoons around Jaffna. The operation included a mission to blow up the Jaffna jetty, which saw MARCOS swim 12 km to their target, with their combat load in tow. They then slipped in without being detected and blew up the harbour with explosives. They were immediately fired upon by the LTTE. The commandos returned fire and managed to swim back to the ship without any casualties.
- Operation Cactus (1988): Thwarted an attempted coup d’état in the Maldives. They captured the boat with 46 mercenaries and their hostages that had escaped after the failed coup attempt.
- Operation Tasha (1991): Two Prahars were deployed off the southern Tamil Nadu coast to interdict LTTE infiltration and the smuggling of arms and ammunition.
- Operation Zabardust (1992): MV Ahat, an LTTE vessel smuggling arms and ammunition, was intercepted off Madras by MARCOS personnel. They boarded the vessel and captured all the mercenaries before LTTE sank the vessel.
- United Nations Operation in Somalia (1993): Four teams of MARCOS were deployed off Mogadishu in support of the Indian contingent in Somalia. The team provided maritime special operations support to the Naval Task Force.
- Operation Rakshak (1995): Two to four teams of MARCOS are deployed round the year in Jammu & Kashmir, at Wular Lake. This 250-square km lake, surrounded by mountains, was being used freely by militants to reach Srinagar, saving them from having to travel 100 km through the mountains. In 1995, a team of MARCOS was positioned at the lake and within weeks, militant activity on the lake ceased. In subsequent years, in addition to meeting the requirement of deterring militants from using the Wular Lake, MARCOS started operating on land and Prahars killed several militants and recovered a large quantity of arms and equipment.
- Kargil War (1999): Tasked to undertake covert operations behind enemy lines and assist Indian Army operations.
- Operation Black Tornado (2008): conducted to flush out the remaining terrorists during the Mumbai attacks.
1.2 General Duties of Special Operations Forces
SOF personnel are required to infiltrate and exfiltrate to and from operational areas dismounted, carrying heavy loads and manipulating personal and support weapons systems and other heavy equipment. SOF personnel perform insertions and assaults on targets by:
- Parachuting onto ground or into water;
- Climbing ladders and cliffs;
- Conducting close-quarters battle (CQB); and
- Battle drills in varying types of terrain and climatic conditions day or night.
SOF personnel are also required to board ocean vessels while they are underway from another floating or airborne platform in all sea states day or night, and where speed and stealth are imperative. These duties are performed while wearing heavy rucksack and body armour. SOF personnel perform individual CQB and detainee handling which may require the individual to:
- Combat and detain another person using blocking strikes;
- Ground fighting;
- Grappling; and
- Moving a non-compliant person.
There is no tolerance for a lapse in attention when conducting CQB and other assaults while wearing night vision goggles as well as Special Operations Insertion and Extraction (SOIE) techniques. Accurate discrimination of non-combatants and precision engagement of enemy combatants requires extreme concentration.
Similarly, high-risk roped and un-roped insertions with no redundant safety systems require constant attention. SOF personnel require the ability for continuous analysis of the situation, environment, mission aims and unique foreign societal complexities during operations.
1.3 Role and Purpose of MARCOS
The core missions of MARCOS include (Indian Navy, 2017a):
- To conduct clandestine attack against enemy ships, offshore installations and other vital assets behind enemy lines;
- To support amphibious operations including pre-assault ops;
- Conduct of surveillance and recce missions in support of naval operations;
- Conduct of clandestine diving operations; and
- Combating terrorism in a maritime environment.
Although initially created to conduct special operations in the maritime environment, such as amphibious warfare, the MARCOS have evolved to incorporate other capabilities, which include:
- Direct action;
- Special reconnaissance;
- Unconventional warfare;
- Hostage rescue;
- Personnel recovery;
- Asymmetric warfare;
- Anti-piracy; and
- Safeguarding of off-shore energy assets, among others.
Personnel are trained as combat divers and in the use of mini-submersibles. Although they are experts in the maritime environment (sea domain), they can also operate in the other two domains of air and land.
Personnel are trained to conduct specialised parachute operations, landing into water/on the ground with full equipment, such as:
- HAHO (high altitude and high opening).
- HALO (high altitude and low opening).
2.0 Hierarchy of Indian Navy SF
This section provides an outline of the civilian and military personalities and organisations that have some form of control, impact, direction over the Indian Navy’s SF.
2.1 Ministry of Defence
The Defence Minister, or Raksha Mantri, is the head of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) which is comprised of four Departments and one division:
- Department of Defence (DOD);
- Department of Defence Production (DDP);
- Department of Defence Research & Development (DDR&D);
- Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare; and
- Finance Division.
The Defence Secretary functions as head of the DOD and is additionally responsible for co-ordinating the activities of the four Departments in the MOD. The DOD deals with the Integrated Defence Staff, the three branches of military service and various inter-service organisations. It is also responsible for the Defence Budget, establishment matters, defence policy, matters relating to Parliament, defence co-operation with foreign countries and co-ordination of all defence related activities.
2.2 Integrated Defence Staff
As noted in the introduction, Indian SOF is not overseen by a central organisation, however, by 2013, the Integrated Defence Staff had established a directorate, which administers the Amphibious and Special Forces but has no operational command (Chandramohan, 2013).
The post of Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (IDS), an OF-8 level officer, was established on 01 October 2001. The HQ, located in New Delhi, was established on 23 November 2001 (IDS, n.d.).
The HQ IDS is staffed by military personnel (both commissioned officers and other ranks) from the three Services, the Ministry of External Affairs/Indian Foreign Service, Defence Finance/Defence Accounts Department, DOD and the DDR&D.
Some of the directorate’s functions include:
- Co-ordinating with Services HQ to formulate a joint doctrine for Amphibious and Special Forces;
- Co-ordinating with Services HQ to formulate training policy, including training in the Special Forces Doctrine;
- Co-ordination of activities relating to training and doctrine for Amphibious and Special Forces with all outside agencies;
- The establishment of amphibious cells.
2.3 Directorate of Amphibious and Special Forces
The Directorate of Amphibious and Special Forces (AMPH SF) is led by the Deputy Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (DACIDS AMPH SF), an OF-?5 level officer (IDS, n.d.; Chandramohan, 2013).
DACIDS AMPH SF reports to the Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (Doctrine, Organisation and Training) (ACIDS (DOT)), an OF-?6 level officer, who reports to the Deputy IDS (DOT), an OF-?7 level officer. DOT is one of eight major branches of IDS.
2.4 Directorate of Special Operations and Diving
The Directorate of Special Operations and Diving (DSOD), led by a Commodore (OF-6) (Yadav, 2012), is one of several directorates led by the Director General Naval Operations (DGNO), a Vice Admiral (OF-8). DSOD is located in New Delhi and is part of the Indian Navy.
The DGNO in turn reports to the Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (DCNS), Flag Officer Commanding in Chief (Eastern Naval Command), a Vice Admiral (OF-8).
- Principal Director DSOD, a Commodore (OF-6) (Yadav, 2012).
- Joint Director SOD (JDSOD), a Commander (OF-4).
2.5 Commander MARCOS
3.0 Organisation of MARCOS
As well as the traditional leadership and staff officer roles identified above, the MARCOS contain personnel in enabler, supporter and other roles (e.g. administrative and logistical).
In 2011, the CLAWS Research Team (2011) reported that MARCOS had an establishment of 700 personnel, although others suggest 2,000 to 2,500 personnel (World Defence Review, 2013). In 2015, Bedi (2015) suggested there were between 1,000 and 1,200 personnel.
The MARCOS is organised as:
- MARCOS East based at INS Karna;
- MARCOS West based at INS Abhimanyu; and
- Port Blair: one small MARCO unit is based here to meet the special operations requirements in the Andaman and Nicobar Command.
To develop combat efficiency, the SF of various nations militaries were studied. The Prahar concept was introduced in 1992; a Prahar consists of 8 Commandos.
3.1 INS Abhimanyu
INS Abhimanyu (a name symbolising the elite fighter of the epic Mahabharta) was established in 1974 and is located in Mumbai (Indian Navy, 2017a).
The unit is part of the Western Naval Command of the Indian Navy and can be considered the spiritual home of the Indian Navy’s Special Forces, where MARCOS is co-located. This unit is commonly known as MARCOS West.
3.2 INS Karna
“Admiral Sunil Lanba, PVSM, AVSM, ADC, Chief of the Naval Staff commissioned the Marine Commandos Unit as ‘INS Karna’ in a solemn ceremony held at the Naval Base at Bheemunipatanam today, 12 July 2016.” (Indian Navy, 2016).
INS Karna, located in Andhra Pradesh, is co-located with INS Kalinga and is part of Eastern Naval Command (ENC).
INS Karan, otherwise known as MARCOS East, is reported by The Hindu (Subrahmanyam, 2016) to be the first dedicated or independent base of the MARCOS, a view echoed by Junaid (2016).
“As a young Lt Cdr, he raised MARCOS (East) based near Vishakhapatnam in Nov 92.” (Yadav, 2012, p.156).
“The MARCOS East unit has progressed in terms of manpower, infrastructure, equipment holding and other resources. The complement of the unit has risen from an initial strength of two officers and 40 sailors to 25 officers and 300 sailors.” (Subrahmanyam, 2016). Junaid (2016) suggests there 25 officers, 320 sailors and 2 civilians.
Commentators suggest that MARCOS training will now move from INS Abhimanyu to INS Karna.
3.3 INS Kalinga
“Over the past 26 years, the Establishment has grown into a fully fledged Station with co-located units such as MARCOS (E), NAD (V), NAI (V) and MES.” (Indian Navy, 2017b).
INS Kalinga, a part of the ENC, is led by a Naval Captain (OF-5) and is co-located with INS Karna.
4.0 Selection and Training
Application for the Marine Commandos is made by male volunteers of the Indian Navy, applications from other branches of military service are not accepted. Volunteers can be either commissioned officers or enlisted sailors.
Candidates will generally go through four phases to become a fully-qualified Marine Commando, which include:
- Phase 1: Pre-Selection.
- Phase 2: Selection.
- Phase 3: Initial Qualification Training (Basic SF Training).
- Phase 4: Probation Period (Advanced SF Training).
There are a variety of commentators, for example Bennett (2004), who state that MARCOS candidates undertake a two-year course, with the first phase lasting one month and nine months for further training.
The first phase on the journey to becoming a Marine Commando is pre-selection, also known as enrolment, which takes place over three days.
This three-day long process will witness an attrition rate between 50% and 80%.
For the few who are successful, there is the daunting prospect of attending the 5-week selection process incorporating ‘Hell Week’.
Candidates who successfully complete pre-selection must now attend the gruelling selection process which takes place over five weeks of daunting physical tasks, accompanied by large doses of sleep deprivation.
Some of the tasks that candidates may encounter during this phase include:
- Morning runs of 20-kilometres (12.4 miles).
- Night marches of 20-kilometres (12.4 miles) carrying a 60 kg (132 lb) load.
- Conduct training with live ammunition.
- Once per week, conduct a march of 120 kilometres carrying a 60 kg (132 lb) load in a specified time limit.
- ‘Hell Week’, modelled on the US Navy SEALs Hell Week:
- A week of continuous training with, on average, over 20 hours each day containing continuous physical exertion.
- Candidates will be lucky to receive more than 4 hours of sleep over the week.
- At the end of the week, candidates will be expected to ‘run’ through an 800 metre, thigh-high thick mud filled, route known as the ‘Death Crawl’ carrying a 25 kg (55 lb) load.
- Then complete a 2.5-kilometre (1.5 mile) obstacle course, before.
- Fire at a target, with a fellow candidate standing right beside it, from 25 metres away.
4.3 Basic SF Training
Candidates will undergo a variety of training with several different organisations, although all training is overseen by INS Abhimanyu. A significant amount of training that the US Navy SEALS undergo has been replicated in the training of MARCOS (both the US Navy SEALs and British SAS aided in the early stages of training) and includes:
- 10-week basic SF training, located at INS Abhimanyu, including:
- Weapons handling training.
- Ammunition and explosives training.
- Unarmed combat training.
- Close quarter battle (CQB) training.
- Ship intervention drills.
- Hostage rescue.
- Recapture of offshore installations.
- 3-week Basic Parachute Course at the Indian Army’s Parachute Training School, located at Agra.
Basic Combat Divers course at the Indian Navy’s Dive School, located at Kochi.
Candidates who successfully complete these courses will move on to advanced SF training.
4.4 Advanced SF Training
Training during this phase consists of:
- Combat free-fall training (HAHO and HALO), plus water-para jump (with full combat load) capability training;
- Counter insurgency, at the Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) in Mizoram;
- Anti-hijacking and anti-piracy;
- Clandestine operations;
- Surveillance and reconnaissance;
- Amphibious operations (beach, coastal and riverine);
- Unconventional warfare;
- Language training (e.g. Arabic or Mandarin).
- The language and culture of likely adversary areas, to enable them to operate and survive behind enemy lines;
- Operations from submarines and submersible craft training;
- Sniper competence and training on shoulder-launched missiles, MMGs, etc.;
- Making Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) with readily available items;
- 4-week High Altitude Commando Course at the Parvat Ghatak School in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh, along with other Indian SF units; and
- Desert Warfare School in Rajasthan.
At the end of this long and formidable training, candidates are capable of firing a weapon while standing, lying down, running at a full sprint, backwards or even looking into a mirror – all within a reputed reaction time of 0.27 seconds.
However, for those who are successful, there is a three-year (for officers) or five-year (for sailors) tour of duty with MARCOS.
5.0 Training Establishments
There are several training establishments involved in the delivery of training to candidates during their basic SF and advanced SF training. Some of these training establishments are outlined below.
5.1 Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School
The Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) is located at Vairengte, Mizoram.
CIJWS, commanded by a Brigadier (OF-6), is a training establishment of the Indian Army specialising in unconventional warfare, especially counter-insurgency and guerrilla warfare.
CJIWS trains approximately 7,000 personnel each year from military, paramilitary and police forces. The Courses Wing is led by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4).
Students receive training in identifying improvised explosive devices (IED), jungle survival, counter terrorism and interrogation techniques.
5.2 Naval Special Warfare Tactical Training Centre
MARCOS has its own training facility, first as an adjunct of the operational company at INS Abhimanyu, then later as the Naval Special Warfare Tactical Training Centre (NSWTTC).
There are plans to move the NSWTTC to the Naval Academy facility in Goa, where it will be set up with a focus on jungle warfare as well as counter insurgency operations.
It has been suggested that the new facility would be modelled on the lines of the CIJWS (Section 6.1).
5.3 Indian Navy Diving School
For combat diving training, personnel are sent to the Naval Diving School, part of INS Venduruthy in Kochi, which is part of the Southern Naval Command (SNC).
The diving school delivers basic and specialist training in military diving for both officers and sailors of the Indian Navy, Indian Army, Indian Air Force and paramilitary forces.
Divers are divided into two broad categories:
- Ships divers: undergo a basic course of 8 weeks using only compressed air sets and acquire a basic knowledge of diving.
- Clearance divers (CD): undergo a longer course using pure oxygen, mixture and compressed air sets. They are also qualified in operating compression chambers, underwater demolition, clandestine operations and underwater salvage techniques.
During the 2009-2010 training year, the training curriculum was revised so all students (both CD and MARCOS) would pass out as CD (MARCOS) (Indian Navy, 2017c).
5.4 High-Altitude Warfare School
Candidates will attend the 4-week High Altitude Commando Course at the High-Altitude Warfare School (HAWS), along with other Indian SF units.
Operating from three different locations in Kashmir, the HAWS conducts (Hooda, 2016):
- Winter warfare course at HAWS Gulmarg which is situated close 9,000 feet above sea level and is where military personnel learn to survive and fight in the world’s highest battleground at 20,000 feet. The first week of training entails a march of 1.5 km with a small load, but quickly progresses from 5, 10 and 15 kg after two weeks to traversing on skis carrying 15 kg and a weapon in hand. Students must complete a one-week exercise, with 72 hours with nothing but the survival skills they have learnt. The course is delivered between January and April each year and has an attrition rate of 30% to 40%.
- Mountain warfare course at HAWS Sonamarg, delivered between May and October each year.
- Ice craft at HAWS Machoi across Zojila.
5.5 Desert Warfare School
The Desert Warfare School is located in Rajasthan.
6.1 Useful Links
- Integrated Defence Staff, India: http://ids.nic.in/.
- Ministry of Defence, India: http://mod.nic.in/.
- Indian Army:
- Official: http://indianarmy.nic.in/index.aspx.
- Counterinsurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS): https://www.facebook.com/CIJWS/.
- Indian Navy:
- Official Website: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/.
- Diving School: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/node/5063.
- INS Abhimanyu: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/node/5059.
- Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thefewthefearless/.
- Indian Air Force: http://indianairforce.nic.in/.
- Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA): http://www.mha.nic.in/.
- Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF): http://crpf.nic.in/.
- COBRA: http://crpf.nic.in/cobra-sector.htm.
- Indo-Tibetan Border Force (ITBF): http://itbpolice.nic.in/itbpwebsite/index.html.
- National Security Guard (NSG): http://nsg.gov.in/.
- Special Frontier Force (SFF):
- Force One:
- Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh Police:
- Cabinet Secretariat: http://www.cabsec.nic.in/index.php.
6.2 Useful Publications
- Katoch, P.C. & Datta, S. (2013) India’s Special Forces: History and Future of Special Forces. New Delhi: Vij Books India.
- Summer, I. & Chappell, M. (2001) The Indian Army, 1914-1947. London: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
- Sinha, D. & Balakrishnan, R. (2016) Employment of India’s Special Operations Forces. ORF Issue Brief, No.150. June 2016. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.orfonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/ORF_IssueBrief_150_SinhaBalakrishnan.pdf. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
- Katoch, P.C. (2011) Indian Special Forces: 2030. CLAWS Journal. Winter 2011, pp.33-40. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.claws.in/images/journals_doc/1395292151PC%20Katoch%20%20CJ%20Winter%202011.pdf. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
- Chandramohan, B. (2013) The Indian Special Forces: An Evolving Approach. Strategic Analysis Paper. Available from World Wide Web: http://futuredirections.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/FDI_Strategic_Analysis_Paper_-_28_March_2013.pdf. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
- Joint Doctrine for Special Forces Operations (JP-5), HQ IDS, 2008
- Ensuring Secure Seas: Indian Maritime Security Strategy, Naval Strategic Publication (NSP) 1.2. Integrated HQ, MOD (Navy). October 2015.
Bedi, R. (2015) India’s Special Forces Face an Identity Crisis. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.thecitizen.in/index.php/NewsDetail/index/1/4067/INDIAS-SPECIAL-FORCES-FACE-AN-IDENTITY-CRISIS. [Accessed: 30 January, 2017].
Bennett, R.M. (2004) Elite Forces: The World’s Most Formidable Secret Armies. London: Virgin Books Ltd.
Chandramohan, B. (2013) The Indian Special Forces: An Evolving Approach. Strategic Analysis Paper. Available from World Wide Web: http://futuredirections.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/FDI_Strategic_Analysis_Paper_-_28_March_2013.pdf. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
CLAWS Research Team (2011) Special Forces: De We Need a Unified Tri-Service Command? Scholar Warrior. Autumn 2011, pp.33-36. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.claws.in/images/journals_doc/1676494754_SpecialForceCLAWSResearchTeam.pdf. [Accessed: 15 December, 2016].
Devnath, V. (2016) 16 Impressive Things Indian Navy Marine Commandos Do In Training That Deserve Our Respect. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.storypick.com/indian-navy-marcos/. [Accessed: 30 January, 2017].
Hiranandani, G.M. (2013) Transition to Guardianship: The Indian Navy 1991-2000. Chapter 12. New Delhi: Ministry of Defence (Navy). Available from World Wide Web: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/sites/default/files/Transition-to-Guardianship-07Apr16.pdf. [Accessed: 30 January, 2017].
Hooda, D. (2016) High Altitude Warfare School: Where Indian Jawans are Trained to Survive in Siachen. Available from World Wide Web: http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/high-altitude-warfare-school-where-indian-jawans-are-trained-to-survive-in-siachen/articleshow/50968653.cms. [Accessed: 30 January, 2017].
IDS (Integrated Defence Staff) (n.d.) Role and Organisation. Available from World Wide Web: http://ids.nic.in/organisation.htm. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
Indian Navy (2016) Chief of Naval Staff Commissions INS Karna. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/content/chief-naval-staff-commissions-ins-karna. [Accessed: 29 January, 2017].
Indian Navy (2017a) INS Abhimanyu. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/node/5059. [Accessed: 29 January, 2017].
Indian Navy (2017b) INS Kalinga. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/content/ins-kalinga. [Accessed: 29 January, 2017].
Indian Navy (2017c) Diving School. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/content/diving-school. [Accessed: 30 January, 2017].
Junaid, A. (2016) 6 Points to Know About INS Karna: MARCOS New Base. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.ssbcrack.com/2016/07/6-points-to-know-about-ins-karna-marcos-new-base.html. [Accessed: 29 January, 2016].
Ministry of Defence (Navy). (2015) Naval Strategic Publication (NSP) 1.2 – Ensuring Secure Seas: Indian Maritime Security Strategy. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/node/1170. [Accessed: 29 January, 2017].
Saksena, A. (2015) 15 Reasons The Indian Navy MARCOS Are The Best In The World. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.indiatimes.com/culture/who-we-are/15-reasons-the-indian-navy-marcos-are-the-best-in-the-world-232296.html. [Accessed: 30 January, 2017].
Subrahmanyam, G.S. (2016) Admiral Lanba commissions Marine Commandos unit ‘INS Karna’. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/Admiral-Lanba-commissions-Marine-Commandos-unit-%E2%80%98INS-Karna%E2%80%99/article14485015.ece. [Accessed: 29 January, 2017].
World Defence Review (2013) Indian Navy MARCOS: Brief Analysis. Available from World Wide Web: http://world-defece-review.blogspot.com.au/2013/03/indian-navy-marcosbrief-analysis.html. [Accessed: 30 January, 2017].
Yadav, V.S. (ed) (2012) Employment of Special Forces: Challenges and Opportunities for the Future. New Delhi: Vij Books India.