On This Day … 04 December [2022]

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What is Internment?

Introduction Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement “of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects”. Thus, while it can simply mean imprisonment, it tends to refer to preventive confinement rather than confinement after having been… Read More

What is Wartime Collaboration?

Introduction Wartime collaboration is cooperation with the enemy against one’s country of citizenship in wartime, and in the words of historian Gerhard Hirschfeld, “is as old as war and the occupation of foreign territory”. The term collaborator dates to the 19th century and was used in France during the Napoleonic Wars. The meaning shifted during… Read More

An Overview of the Flight and Expulsion of Germans between 1944-1950

Introduction During later stages of World War II and post-war period from 1944 to 1950, Germans fled and were expelled to present-day Germany from Eastern Europe, which led to de-Germanisation there. The idea to expel the Germans from the annexed territories was proposed by Winston Churchill, in conjunction with the Polish and Czechoslovak exile governments… Read More

What was Wiedergutmachung?

Introduction The German word Wiedergutmachung after World War II refers to the reparations that the German government agreed to pay in 1953 to the direct survivors of the Holocaust, and to those who were made to work at forced labour camps or who otherwise became victims of the Nazis. The sum would amount, through the… Read More

What was Operation Black Tulip (1945)?

Introduction Operation Black Tulip was a plan proposed in 1945, just after the end of World War II, by Dutch minister of Justice Hans Kolfschoten to forcibly deport all Germans from the Netherlands. The operation lasted from 1946 to 1948 and in total 3,691 Germans (15% of the German residents in the Netherlands) were deported.… Read More