On This Day … 31 July

Events 30 BC – Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian’s forces, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to his suicide. 1423 – Hundred Years’ War: Battle of Cravant: The French army is defeated by the English at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. 1498 – On… Read More


On This Day … 30 July

Events 762 – Baghdad is founded. 1419 – First Defenestration of Prague: A crowd of radical Hussites kill seven members of the Prague city council. 1502 – Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras during his fourth voyage. 1609 – Beaver Wars: At Ticonderoga (now Crown Point, New… Read More

What was the Queen Mary’s Army Auxiliary Corps?

Introduction The Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), known as Queen Mary’s Army Auxiliary Corps (QMAAC) from 09 April 1918, was the women’s corps of the British Army during and immediately after the First World War. It was established in February 1917 and disbanded on 27 September 1921. Brief History The corps was formed following a… Read More

What is Hard Power?

Introduction Hard power is the use of military and economic means to influence the behaviour or interests of other political bodies. This form of political power is often aggressive (coercion), and is most immediately effective when imposed by one political body upon another of lesser military and/or economic power. Refer to Power Projection. Hard power… Read More

What is Soft Power?

Introduction In politics (and particularly in international politics), soft power is the ability to attract and co-opt, rather than coerce (contrast hard power). In other words, soft power involves shaping the preferences of others through appeal and attraction. A defining feature of soft power is that it is non-coercive; the currency of soft power includes… Read More

What is Power Projection?

Introduction Power projection (or force projection or projection of power) is a term used in military and political science to refer to the capacity of a state to deploy and sustain forces outside its territory. Refer to Soft Power and Hard Power. This ability is a crucial element of a state’s power in international relations.… Read More

Who was David Niven (RAF Officer)?

Introduction Air Vice Marshal David Miller Niven, CB, CBE is a former Royal Air Force officer who served as the inaugural Commander of Joint Helicopter Command from 1999 to 2002. Not to be confused with David Niven (the British Army officer and actor). RAF Career Educated at the University of St Andrews, Niven joined the… Read More