What was Project Solarium?

Introduction Project Solarium was an American national-level exercise in strategy and foreign policy design convened by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in the summer of 1953. It was intended to produce consensus among senior officials in the national security community on the most effective strategy for responding to Soviet expansionism in the wake of the early… Read More


What was Policy Paper NSC 162/2?

Introduction NSC 162/2 was a policy paper of the United States National Security Council approved by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on 30 October 1953 which defined the Cold War national security policy during the Eisenhower administration. NSC 162/2 was based upon NSC 162, which was the final synthesis of the task force reports of Project… Read More

On This Day … 25 October

Events 1147 – Seljuk Turks defeat German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum. 1147 – Reconquista: After a siege of four months, crusader knights reconquer Lisbon. 1415 – Hundred Years’ War: Henry V of England, with his lightly armoured infantry and archers, defeats the heavily armoured French cavalry in the Battle of… Read More

On This Day … 24 October

Events AD 69 – In the Second Battle of Bedriacum, troops loyal to Vespasian defeat those of Emperor Vitellius (refer to the Year of the Four Emperors). 1260 – Chartres Cathedral is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX of France. 1360 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified, marking the end of the… Read More

On This Day … 23 October

Events 42 BC – Liberators’ civil war: Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeat Brutus’s army. Brutus commits suicide. 1086 – Spanish Reconquista: At the Battle of Sagrajas, the Almoravids defeats the Castilians, but are unable to take advantage of their victory. 1157 – The Battle of Grathe Heath ends a civil war in Denmark. 1295… Read More

Who was Oswald Boelcke?

Introduction Oswald Boelcke (19 May 1891 to 28 October 1916) was a German flying ace of the First World War credited with 40 victories; he was one of the most influential patrol leaders and tacticians of the early years of air combat. Boelcke is honoured as the father of the German fighter air force, as… Read More

On This Day … 22 October

Events 794 – Emperor Kanmu relocates the Japanese capital to Heian-kyō (now Kyoto). 906 – Ahmad ibn Kayghalagh leads a raid against the Byzantine Empire, taking 4,000-5,000 captives. 1383 – The male line of the Portuguese House of Burgundy becomes extinct with the death of King Fernando, leaving only his daughter Beatrice. Rival claimants begin… Read More