What is Jus Ad Bellum?

Introduction Jus ad bellum (Latin for “right to war”) is a set of criteria that are to be consulted before engaging in war in order to determine whether entering into war is permissible, that is, whether it is a just war. Brief History St. Thomas Aquinas is one of the earliest philosophers on what makes… Read More

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What is Hybrid Warfare?

Introduction Hybrid warfare is a theory of military strategy, first proposed by Frank Hoffman, which employs political warfare and blends conventional warfare, irregular warfare and cyberwarfare with other influencing methods, such as fake news, diplomacy, lawfare and foreign electoral intervention. By combining kinetic operations with subversive efforts, the aggressor intends to avoid attribution or retribution.… Read More

What were the Galvanised Yankees?

Introduction Galvanized Yankees was a term from the American Civil War denoting former Confederate prisoners of war who swore allegiance to the United States and joined the Union Army. Approximately 5,600 former Confederate soldiers enlisted in the “United States Volunteers”, organised into six regiments of infantry between January 1864 and November 1866. Of those, more… Read More

What is Flogging?

Introduction Flagellation (Latin flagellum, “whip”), flogging or whipping is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, rods, switches, the cat o’ nine tails, the sjambok, the knout, etc. Typically, flogging is imposed on an unwilling subject as a punishment; however, it can also be submitted to willingly for sadomasochistic… Read More

On This Day … 02 August

Events 338 BC – A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea, securing Macedonian hegemony in Greece and the Aegean. 216 BC – The Carthaginian army led by Hannibal defeats a numerically superior Roman army at the Battle of Cannae. 49 BC –… Read More

On This Day … 01 August

Events 30 BC – Octavian (later known as Augustus) enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Republic. AD 69 – Batavian rebellion: The Batavians in Germania Inferior (Netherlands) revolt under the leadership of Gaius Julius Civilis. 902 – Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold in Sicily, is captured by the Aghlabid army,… Read More

On This Day … 31 July

Events 30 BC – Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian’s forces, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to his suicide. 1423 – Hundred Years’ War: Battle of Cravant: The French army is defeated by the English at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. 1498 – On… Read More