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This article is structured as follows:
- Part 01: Introduction to Indian Elite and Special Forces.
- Part 02: Background to Indian Special Operations Forces.
- Part 03: Organisation of Indian SOF.
- Part 04: Roles and Tasks, and Women and Indian SOF.
- Part 05: Useful Links, Publications and References.
Thanks to Hollywood, a term used to denote the US-based film industry, most people can probably name the US military’s Special Operations Forces (SOF) units such as the US Navy SEALs, Green Berets, US Army Rangers, Delta Force and SEAL Team Six (aka DEVGRU). However, it is unlikely the same could be said for India’s SOF, of which there are a number of highly regarded and world-class units.
The role of India’s Elite Forces (EF), Special Forces (SF) and Special Operations Forces (SOF) has transformed over the past 70 years; from defeating the Axis forces in WWII, to showdowns with Pakistan, to their current preoccupation of fighting the (global/internal) war against terrorism.
Discussing how developed India’s SOF and what their capabilities are is somewhat problematic to answer “…in part because some of India’s special operations forces (SOF) units may bear a closer resemblance to what Western military analysts would consider to be elite and/or specialized infantry than to special operators.” (Rehman, 2015a). Katoch and Datta (2013) suggest that it can be argued as to whether India’s SF have actually been employed or used as SF or primarily used in counter insurgency (COIN) operations for which there are any number of other units available.
Indian SOF are composed of a variety of organisations and units, each with its own commander and all reporting to different elements of the Indian civilian or military bureaucracy. However, seen collectively, Indian SOF is composed of many personnel from across military, paramilitary, police and civilian personnel in SF operator, Commando, enabler and support roles. Indian SOF numbers approximately 18,000 combat and support personnel across 15 battalions (Sputnik News, 2016), up from 13 (Rehman, 2015a). Rehman (2015a) suggests that “Only a select number of these [Indian Army] units are airborne, and many of the existing battalions are suffering from equipment and officer shortfalls.
Just like a number of western SOF organisations, India’s SOF have witnessed a rapid expansion in recent years – although some commentators suggest this has diluted the combat capabilities of Indian SOF (WPR, 2015; Sputnik News, 2016). However, as of 2016, Indian SOF are undergoing modernisation of its equipment (Sputnik News, 2016).
Indian Elite and Special Forces consist of older units established in the 1960s and 1980s and newer units established in the 21st Century. Unlike some western nations, India does not have a singular C2 (command and control) organisation, such as the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), responsible for overseeing SF doctrine, tactics or training etc. Some commentators have been calling for this (CLAWS Research Team, 2011; Rehman, 2015b).
Rehman (2015b) states that “each service continues to develop its own SOF units in an ad-hoc and uncoordinated manner … [and that] … a number of such units fall either under the tutelage of the Home Ministry, or respond exclusively to certain wings of India’s intelligence apparatus.”
This article will provide the reader with an outline of the SOF within the Indian Armed and Police Forces. Section Two provides a brief history on the origins of Indian SOF as well as the broad mission of the various units. Section Three provides an outline of the organisation Indian SOF looking at the various units. Section Four outlines the role and tasks, whilst Sections Five and Six discuss the difference between Tiers and Tier 2 units and women in SOF respectively. Finally, Section Seven provides some useful links and publications, as well as references.
2.0 Background to Indian Special Operations Forces
This section provides a brief history of Indian SOF, outline of the broad mission of SOF and a brief overview of the hierarchy of Indian SOF.
2.1 The Origins of Indian Special Operations
Katoch and Datta (2013) provide the first comprehensive book written on India’s SOF. In their own words the book “…is attempted as a critique of Special Forces as they have emerged in India, as related to counterparts in all important armed forces around the world, emphasizing the concept as it has developed in our Army and the current name it has come to acquire. It delves into the creation of Special Forces in India; evolution, development through the years and why they are called Special Forces.” (Katoch & Datta, 2013, n.p.).
Katoch and Datta (2013) state that the first true special force of an independent India was the Special Frontier Force (SFF), which recruited exiled Tibetans, in 1962.
The first Indian Army special force would be touted in 1965 and would become known as the Meghdoot Force after its creator, Major Megh Singh, an Infantry officer from the Brigade of Guards (Katoch & Datta, 2013). Interestingly, when setting up this new Commando unit, experience gained from the SFF was not used.
The unit was used successfully to infiltrate and disrupt Pakistani Army logistics and led to the creation of a formal Commando unit (9th Battalion of the Parachute Regiment (Commando) or 9 Para (Commando), specialising in mountain operations), and a second Commando unit (10 Para (Commando)) in 1967 specialising in desert operations (Katoch & Datta, 2013).
A third Commando unit was raised in the 1970s, which had originally been established in 1761 (Katoch & Datta, 2013).
At this point the three units where still Commando units and not SF like their western counterparts, for example the British SAS.
However, in 1977 a decision was made to convert 9 Para (Commando) so it could conduct missions similar to the British SAS, although this decision was changed to convert the oldest Parachute Battalion and commenced in 1979 (Katoch & Datta, 2013). Once again experience gained from the SFF, now 9 and 10 Para (Commando), was not utilised during the conversion process and numerous problems were encountered.
Katoch and Datta (2013) suggest that a pivotal point in the evolution of Indian Army SF was in the early 1980s when Lieutenant Colonel Rustom K Nanavatty was posted to the UK, as the Indian Arm Liaison Officer in the School of Infantry, and secured a visit to the headquarters (HQ) of the Director SAS.
The outcome of the visit was a 5-page report sent by Lt Col Nanvatty to Army HQ which led to a study and proposal to reorganise the Para Commandos (Katoch & Datta, 2013). This led to the establishment of the current Para Commando (Special Forces) battalions or Para (SF) as they are generally known.
2.2 Indian SOF Mission
Although the exact mission(s) of India’s SOF varies between the numerous organisations and units, Rehman (2015b) provides the reader with some useful insight:
“More generally, there is an urgent need for a substantive shift in India’s approach to special operations. Despite a rich intellectual and historical legacy with regard to unconventional warfare, contemporary India’s thinking on SOF focuses almost exclusively on more internally oriented missions, such as counterinsurgency or counterterrorism.”
2.3 Ministry of Defence
The Defence Minister, or Raksha Mantri, is the head of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) which is comprised of four Departments and one division:
- Department of Defence (DOD);
- Department of Defence Production (DDP);
- Department of Defence Research & Development (DDR&D);
- Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare; and
- Finance Division.
The Defence Secretary functions as head of the DOD and is additionally responsible for co-ordinating the activities of the four Departments in the MOD. The DOD deals with the Integrated Defence Staff, the three branches of military service and various inter-service organisations. It is also responsible for the Defence Budget, establishment matters, defence policy, matters relating to Parliament, defence co-operation with foreign countries and co-ordination of all defence related activities.
2.4 Integrated Defence Staff
As noted in the introduction, Indian SOF is not overseen by a central organisation, however, by 2013, the Integrated Defence Staff had established a directorate, which administers the Amphibious and Special Forces but has no operational command (Chandramohan, 2013).
The post of Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (IDS), an OF-8 level officer, was established on 01 October 2001. The HQ, located in New Delhi, was established on 23 November 2001 (IDS, n.d.).
The HQ IDS is staffed by military personnel (both commissioned officers and other ranks) from the three Services, the Ministry of External Affairs/Indian Foreign Service, Defence Finance/Defence Accounts Department, DOD and the DDR&D.
Some of the directorate’s functions include:
- Co-ordinating with Services HQ to formulate a joint doctrine for Amphibious and Special Forces;
- Co-ordinating with Services HQ to formulate training policy, including training in the Special Forces Doctrine;
- Co-ordination of activities relating to training and doctrine for Amphibious and Special Forces with all outside agencies;
- The establishment of amphibious cells.
2.5 Directorate of Amphibious and Special Forces
The Directorate of Amphibious and Special Forces (AMPH SF) is led by the Deputy Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (DACIDS AMPH SF), an OF-?5 level officer (IDS, n.d.; Chandramohan, 2013).
DACIDS AMPH SF reports to the Assistant Chief of Integrated Defence Staff (Doctrine, Organisation and Training) (ACIDS (DOT)), an OF-?6 level officer, who reports to the Deputy IDS (DOT), an OF-?7 level officer. DOT is one of eight major branches of IDS.
3.0 Organisation of Indian SOF
As well as the traditional leadership and staff officer roles identified above, Indian SOF also consists of:
- Marine Commandos, approximately 700 personnel (CLAWS Research Team, 2011);
- Para Commandos, approximately 1,200 personnel;
- Garud Commando Force, approximately 1,500 personnel (CLAWS Research Team, 2011) up from 1,090 in 2003 (Chandramohan, 2013);
- COBRA, approximately [number] personnel;
- Ghatak Force, approximately [number] personnel;
- National Security Guard, approximately [number] personnel;
- Special Frontier Force, approximately [number] personnel;
- Force One, approximately 200 personnel;
- Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh Police, approximately [number] personnel; and
- Indo-Tibetan Border Police, approximately 77,000 personnel.
Chandramohan (2013) suggests that only the first four in the above list can be classified as SF, whilst the rest would be considered elite or specialised Infantry.
A fuller description of individual SOF units can be accessed by clicking on their headings.
This Section of the Article is a work in progress.
3.1 Marine Commandos
Established in 1987, the Marine Commando Force (MCF), also known as Marine Commandos or more commonly MARCOS, are considered India’s elite of the elite amongst its SF units. MARCOS are the Indian Navy’s SF.
Originally known as the Indian Marine Special Force (IMSF), a name change to the Marine Commando Force (MCF) led to its current designation, MARCOS (Indian Navy, 2017).
Although they are trained to operate in all environments, they are experts in maritime warfare and are considered broadly comparable to the US Navy SEALs.
“Some MARCOS personnel are also attached to Army Special Forces units conducting counter-terrorism operations.” (Chandramohan, 2013, p.3).
3.2 Para Commandos
Established in 1966, the Parachute (Special Forces) (Para (SF)), Para Commandos as they are commonly known, are the Special Forces of the Indian Army. They are broadly comparable with the US Army’s Special Forces (aka Green Berets) [LINK] and the British SAS [LINK]. The Para (SF) battalions are part of the Parachute Regiment. There are approximately 4,500 paratroopers, of which approximately 1200 are Para (SF).
There is various reporting on the number of these units, for example:
- The CLAWS Research Team (2011, p.33) quotes “seven Special Forces (SF) and three airborne battalions”;
- Chandramohan (2013) quotes 3 battalions (with 1 more likely to be converted);
- Rehman (2015a) quotes 13 battalions (with 2 more likely to be raised);
- Pubby (2016) quotes nine battalions; and
- Sputnik News (2016) quotes 15 battalions.
Pubby (2016) suggests each battalion is equipped and trained to perform a variety of missions, such as:
- Taking down targets across borders;
- Infiltrating terror strongholds;
- Highspeed strikes in populated areas; and
- Delicate rescue missions.
Chandramohan (2013, p.3) states “The Indian Army also has an amphibious brigade stationed in Port Blair under Fortress Commander, Andaman and Nicobar – the only integrated command in the Indian military. These units [including the 3 battalions he identifies earlier] constitute the sum total of what may be called a special operations capability.”
Established in 2003, the Garud Commando Force, or Garud as they are commonly known, are a special branch of the Indian Air Force (Chandramohan, 2013). Numbering approximately 2,000 personnel, the unit specialises in:
- Airfield seizure;
- Special reconnaissance;
- Airborne operations;
- Air assault;
- Special operations combat search and rescue; and
- Counter insurgency.
3.4 Ghatak Force
Established in [YEAR], the Ghatak Army Platoons, also known as Ghatak Commandos or Ghatak Force, “…are trained to act as the heavily armed spearheads or shock troops in the event of a large-scale ground assault.” (Rehman, 2015a). The Ghatak Force is a special operations platoon which is present in every Infantry battalion of the Indian Army.
Usually operating in 20-man teams, the Ghatak Forces specialises in:
- Raids on enemy:
- Artillery positions;
- Airfields; and
- Supply dumps; and tactical headquarters.
- Directing artillery and air attacks on targets behind enemy lines.
Personnel are also trained in heliborne assault, rock climbing, mountain warfare, demolitions, advanced weapons training, close quarter battle and infantry tactics.
3.5 Central Armed Police Forces
The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) is the term used to describe several paramilitary organisations, which include (MHA, 2014):
- Border Security Force (BSF).
- Central Industrial Security Force (CISF).
- Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB).
- Assam Rifles (AR).
- National Security Guard (NSG): (Section 3.6).
- Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF): with approximately 325,000 personnel in 239 battalions (CRPF, 2017), includes:
- The Rapid Action Force (RAF), a 10-battalion anti-riot force trained to respond to sectarian violence; and
- The Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (COBRA), a 10-battalion strong anti-Naxalite/counter-insurgency (COIN) force (Section 3.7).
- Commando 469: CRPF Commandos are considered the elite of the CRPF forces. They are specialists in counter-terrorism, reconnaissance, sabotage and covert operations (Section 3.8).
- Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP): with approximately 77,00 personnel in 56 fighting and 4 reserve battalions it is deployed for guarding duties on the border with China from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Diphu La (in Arunachal Pradesh) covering a total distance of 2488 km (Section 3.12).
The various CAPF report directly to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and are organised along police lines. Despite each CAPF having its own cadre of officers, the senior managers and the head of service are officers of the Indian Police Service (IPS). The head of each CAPF is known as the Director General, broadly equivalent to a Lieutenant General (OF-8).
Established in 1984, the National Security Guard (NSG), or Black Cats as they are commonly known, are considered the premier agency responsible for taking on terrorists – although the Indian Air Force, Indian Army and Indian Navy have developed their own expertise in dealing with such threats – and Regional NSG hubs have been established in major metropolitan areas after the November 2008 Mumbai attacks to ensure better response times to any future attacks. The other mandate for the NSG is the protection of VIPs, hostage rescue, anti-hijacking and bomb disposal missions.
Known as the Black Cats (due to the all-black Nomex coveralls, balaclavas and assault helmets they wear), the unit is part of CAPF (Section 3.5). NSG is composed of two sub-units:
- The Special Action Group (SAG), described by some as the Special Activities Group, which consists entirely of Indian Army personnel (reputedly recruited by the Research and Analysis Wing or R&AW, India’s external intelligence agency); and
- The Special Ranger Group (SRG) which comprises personnel drawn from the other CAPF and State Police Forces.
Although the NSG mainly draws its manpower from the Indian Army, it also has personnel from other military, paramilitary and police forces.
There are also several references across the internet and news media discussing an elite unit of the NSG known as the ‘Phantom Commandos’, although not much is known about this unit except that it exists!
Established in 2008, the Commando Battalion for Resolute Action, or COBRA as they are commonly known, are specialised units of the CRPF, part of CAPF (Section 3.5) (Chandramohan, 2013).
There are currently 10 battalions, created to counter the Naxalite problem in India and is one of the few units of the CAPF specifically trained in guerrilla warfare; they have been trained to track, hunt and eliminate small groups of Naxalite insurgents.
3.8 Commando 469
Not much is known about this unit, but it is reputedly rumoured to specialise in:
- Sabotage; and
- Covert operations
3.9 Special Frontier Force
Established in 1962, the Special Frontier Force (SFF), or Establishment 22 as they are sometimes known (a reference to its first Inspector General, Major General (Retd.) Sujan Singh Uban, who was Commander of 22 Mountain Regiment during World War II), is a paramilitary SOF unit which specialises in unconventional warfare and covert operations behind enemy lines.
The unit has also been known to conduct direct action, special reconnaissance, hostage rescue and counter-terrorism operations.
SFF was established in the wake of the Sino-Indian War (1962) and is led by an “Inspector General (SFF)” (Arora & Goyal, 2005, p.136), broadly equivalent to a Major General (OF-7), who works under the supervision of the Director General (Security), part of the Cabinet Secretariat, who also happens to be the Secretary (Research and Analysis Wing) or R&AW (Arora & Goyal, 2005; Sarkar, 2010). Laximanth, (2011) acknowledges the two positions but does not mention if they are led by the same post-holder.
On establishment, the SFF was put under the direct supervision of the Intelligence Bureau and subsequently R&AW (Section 3.6).
Established in 1977, the 4th Vikas, more commonly known as The Special Group (SG), is R&AWs (Section 3.6) ultra-secret military unit for clandestine intelligence missions. The unit is considered the equivalent of CIAs (the US Central Intelligence Agency’s) Special Activities Division.
4th battalion of the Vikas regiment (Est 22) which was converted for special missions, with three squadrons (SF equivalent of an infantry company). Two of these squadrons subsequently formed the NSG (Section 3.6).
3.10 Force One
Established in [2008/2009], Force One, or [WHAT] as they are commonly known, are one of India’s newest SOF units. Force One are part of the [Indian Army].
The unit was established as a direct result of the Mumbai attacks in November 2008 and consequently the sole purpose of Force One is to protect the Mumbai Metropolitan Area when under threat.
3.11 [Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh Police]
Established in [YEAR], the [Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh Police], or [WHAT] as they are commonly known, are [WHAT]. The Greyhounds are part of the [Indian Army].
3.12 Indo-Tibetan Border Police
Established in [YEAR], the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), or [WHAT] as they are commonly known, are [WHAT]. The ITBP is part of CAPF (Section 3.5) and led by a Director General, broadly equivalent to a Lieutenant General (OF-8).
The ITPB Commando unit is used in mountainous regions securing the border outposts and for patrolling duties on the Indo-China border
The Commandos of the ITBP were responsible for guarding Mohammad Ajmal Amir Qasab, perpetrator of the Mumbai attack (during November 2008) when he was in jail in Mumbai. They are also responsible for guarding the high security cells in Delhi’s Tihar Jail.
Not much is known about these groups, except they were R&AW assets.
CIT-J or Counter Intelligence Team J was used by R&AW (Section 3.6) against the insurgency in Punjab and Khalistani terrorists.
In contrast CIT-X or Counter Intelligence Team X was used for covert operations inside Pakistan.
Both the teams were disbanded by IK Gujral, the then Prime Minister.
4.0 Roles and Tasks
Indian SOF assets undertake a number of roles, or core activities, with a degree of interaction and interoperability:
- Direct Action (DA): Short-duration strikes and other small-scale offensive actions employing specialised military capabilities to seize, destroy, capture, exploit, recover, or damage designated targets.
- Special Reconnaissance: Actions conducted in sensitive environments to collect or verify information of strategic or operational significance.
- Unconventional Warfare (UW): Actions to enable a resistance movement or insurgency to coerce, disrupt, or overthrow a government or occupying power.
- Foreign Internal Defence (FID): Activities that support a Host Nation’s internal defence and development (IDAD) strategy and programme designed to protect against subversion, lawlessness, insurgency, terrorism, and other threats to their internal security, and stability, and legitimacy.
- Civil Affairs Operations (CAO): Enhance the relationship between military forces and civilian authorities in localities where military forces are present.
- Counter-terrorism (CT): Actions taken directly against terrorist networks and indirectly to influence and render global and regional environments inhospitable to terrorist networks.
- Military Information Support Operations (MISO): Are planned to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behaviour of foreign governments, organisations, groups, and individuals in a manner favourable to the originator’s objectives.
- Security Force Assistance: Activities based on organising, training, equipping, rebuilding, and advising various components of Foreign Security Forces.
- Counter-insurgency (COIN): The blend of civilian and military efforts designed to end insurgent violence and facilitate a return to peaceful political processes.
- Hostage Rescue and Recovery: Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, pre-empt, and respond to terrorist threats and incidents, including recapture of Indian facilities, installations, and sensitive material in domestic/overseas areas.
- Foreign Humanitarian Assistance: The range of humanitarian activities conducted outside India to relieve or reduce human suffering, disease, hunger, or privation.
5.0 Tier 1 and Tier 2 Special Forces
A number of SF units are sometimes referred to as ‘Tier 1’ SF units because they are the units usually tasked with direct action; e.g. Marine Commandos. Other units are referred to as ‘Tier 2’ units at they, usually, fulfil a supporting role for the Tier 1 units.
6.0 Women and Indian SOF
My understanding is that women cannot join the SF units of the Indian military but can join the various SOF of the paramilitary/police forces.
Described as the first woman Commando trainer, Doctor Seema Rao has been training India’s SF for approximately 20 years (Sharma, 2016). Along with her husband, Deepak Rao, she has have trained every elite Indian force including Corps Battle Schools, Academies and Regimental Centres, paramilitary and police units, as well as several of the units mentioned in this article.
On 17 October 2016, the CRPF (for the first time) deployed a team of 135 women Commandos from 232 Battalion’s Delta Company in anti-Naxal operations in Jharkland (NDTV, 2016).
7.1 Useful Links
- Integrated Defence Staff, India: http://ids.nic.in/.
- Ministry of Defence, India: http://mod.nic.in/.
- Indian Army: http://indianarmy.nic.in/index.aspx.
- Indian Navy: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/.
- Indian Air Force: http://indianairforce.nic.in/.
- Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA): http://www.mha.nic.in/.
- Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF): http://crpf.nic.in/.
- COBRA: http://crpf.nic.in/cobra-sector.htm.
- Indo-Tibetan Border Force (ITBF): http://itbpolice.nic.in/itbpwebsite/index.html.
- National Security Guard (NSG): http://nsg.gov.in/.
- Special Frontier Force (SFF):
- Force One:
- Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh Police:
- Cabinet Secretariat: http://www.cabsec.nic.in/index.php.
7.2 Useful Publications
- Katoch, P.C. & Datta, S. (2013) India’s Special Forces: History and Future of Special Forces. New Delhi: Vij Books India.
- Summer, I. & Chappell, M. (2001) The Indian Army, 1914-1947. London: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
- Sinha, D. & Balakrishnan, R. (2016) Employment of India’s Special Operations Forces. ORF Issue Brief, No.150. June 2016. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.orfonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/ORF_IssueBrief_150_SinhaBalakrishnan.pdf. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
- Katoch, P.C. (2011) Indian Special Forces: 2030. CLAWS Journal. Winter 2011, pp.33-40. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.claws.in/images/journals_doc/1395292151PC%20Katoch%20%20CJ%20Winter%202011.pdf. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
- Chandramohan, B. (2013) The Indian Special Forces: An Evolving Approach. Strategic Analysis Paper. Available from World Wide Web: http://futuredirections.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/FDI_Strategic_Analysis_Paper_-_28_March_2013.pdf. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
Arora, R.K. & Goyal, R. (2005) Indian Public Administration: Institutions and Issues. New Delhi: Wishwa Prakashan.
Chandramohan, B. (2013) The Indian Special Forces: An Evolving Approach. Strategic Analysis Paper. Available from World Wide Web: http://futuredirections.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/FDI_Strategic_Analysis_Paper_-_28_March_2013.pdf. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
CLAWS Research Team (2011) Special Forces: Do We Need a Unified Tri-Service Command? Scholar Warrior. Autumn 2011, pp.33-36. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.claws.in/images/journals_doc/1676494754_SpecialForceCLAWSResearchTeam.pdf. [Accessed: 15 December, 2016].
CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) (2017) About CRPF. Available from World Wide Web: http://crpf.nic.in/. [Accessed: 28 January, 2017].
IDS (Integrated Defence Staff) (n.d.) Role and Organisation. Available from World Wide Web: http://ids.nic.in/organisation.htm. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
Indian Navy (2017) INS Abhimanyu. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.indiannavy.nic.in/node/5059. [Accessed: 29 January, 2017].
Katoch, P.C. & Datta, S. (2013) India’s Special Forces: History and Future of Special Forces. New Delhi: Vij Books India.
Laxmikanth, M. (2011) Governance in India: Structure, Process, Institutions and Issues. Paper I. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited.
MHA (Ministry of Home Affairs) (2014) Central Armed Police Forces. Available from World Wide Web: http://mha.nic.in/armedforces. [Accessed: 28 January, 2017].
NDTV (2016) In A First, CRPF Deploys Women Commandos For Anti-Naxal Operations. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/in-a-first-crpf-deploys-women-commandos-for-anti-naxal-operations-1625640. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
Pubby, M. (2016) India Turns to Para Special Forces for Covert Missions. Available from World Wide Web: http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/india-turns-to-para-special-forces-for-covert-missions/articleshow/54616701.cms. [Accessed: 25 January, 2017].
Rehman, I. (2015) Rehman on India’s Special Forces. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/news/in-the-news/rehman-on-india-s-special-forces. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
Rehman, I. (2015b) Recasting India’s Special Forces. Available from World Wide Web: https://casi.sas.upenn.edu/print/2197. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
Sarkar, S. (2010) Public Administration in India. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Sharma, I. (2016) Meet Seema Rao, India’s Only Female Commando Trainer, Who’s Also A Firefighter & A Filmmaker! Available from World Wide Web: http://www.indiatimes.com/culture/who-we-are/meet-seema-rao-india-s-only-female-commando-trainer-who-s-also-a-firefighter-a-filmmaker-258725.html. [Accessed: 26 January, 2017].
Sputnik News (2016) India Approves $45Mln Plan to Add Teeth to Elite Forces for Surgical Strikes. Available from World Wide Web: https://sputniknews.com/asia/201612261049008335-india-elite-forces-surgical-strikes/. [Accessed: 25 January, 2017].
WPR (World Politics Review). (2015) India’s Special Forces Remain Underdeveloped and Underequipped. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/trend-lines/16169/indias-special-forces-remain-underdeveloped-and-underequipped. [Accessed: 25 January, 2017].