|Elite & Special Forces Main Page||US Elite & Special Forces Main Page|
Last Updated: 06 February, 2017
This article is organised as follows:
- Part 01: Introduction to Delta Force.
- Part 02: Background to Delta Force.
- Part 03: Organisation of Delta Force.
- Part 04: Recruitment, Selection and Training of Delta Force.
- Part 05: Miscellaneous.
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
“Wanted: Volunteers for Project Delta. Will guarantee you a medal. A body bag. Or both.”
Delta Force is termed a ‘black ops’ unit, generally meaning plausibly deniable missions or neither confirmed or unconfirmed involvement, and subsequently very little reference is made about it by the US military.
Delta Force is also known (officially and unofficially) as the Combat Applications Group (CAG), ‘The Unit’, D-Boys or within JSOC as Task Force Green (Naylor, 2015). It is also sometimes known as the Army Compartmentalised Elements (ACE).
“…the “Delta Force,” “The Ranch,” “The Farm,” “Behind the Fence,” or, as we jokingly referred to it in A Squadron, “The After-Charlie Force” or the “Before-Echo Force” – avoiding the secret letter Delta and opting for its left and right neighbors in the alphabet, Charlie and Echo.” (Hand, 2015).
Delta Force is a Special Missions unit of the US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), under operational control of the US Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC), and is one of several Special Operations Forces (SOF) units of the US military.
Although Delta Force is part of the US Army it recruits personnel from across the military spectrum, enabling both SOF and conventional forces candidates to apply.
It is alleged that the Special Operations Group (SOG) of the highly secretive Special Activities Division (SAD) – part of the US Central Intelligence Agency or CIA (America’s external intelligence agency) – often works with, and recruits, Operators from Delta Force (Waller, 2003).
The article provides a background to Delta Force, including a brief history and its mission in Part Two. Part Three will describe its organisation, outlining the various elements within Delta Force., before Part Four outlines the recruitment, selection and training undertaken by candidates. Finally, Part Five will provide an interesting fact, and some useful links, books and references.
PART TWO: BACKGROUND
2.0 Brief History
Colonel (OF-5) Charles ‘Charlie’ Alvin Beckwith was a US Army Special Forces officer, veteran of the Vietnam war (1960s and 1970s) and exchange officer with the British SAS during the Malayan Emergency (which took place between 1948 and 1960). In Vietnam, Beckwith led a programme called ‘Project Delta’, whose objective was to carry out covert operations against the Viet Cong and the regular North Vietnamese Army (NVA).
After returning from his British SAS exchange, Beckwith presented a detailed report highlighting, from his point of view, the US Army’s vulnerability in not having an SAS-type unit; during the 1960s, US Army Special Forces focused on unconventional warfare not counter-terrorism.
After numerous, well-publicized external terrorist incidents in the 1970s, the US government decided to establish a full-time counter-terrorism unit, with Beckwith becoming the first Commanding Officer (CO) of Delta Force (Beckwith, 2000). Colonel (OF-5) Henry Thomas was a co-founder of the unit (Goolsby, 2016).
Goolsby (2016) states:
“According to historical reports, in late August 1976, a conference was conducted at the Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, to examine the role of the light infantry division. During this conference, it was suggested the Army should organize a unit similar to the British Special Air Service. That formed in 1941 to engage in covert reconnaissance, counterterrorism, direct action, hostage rescue and human intelligence gathering.
Col. Charlie Beckwith, commandant of the Special Forces School, and Col. Henry were assigned the task of developing this special force. During the many months of development, Col. Beckwith suggested the name of Delta, which was approved. On Nov. 19, 1977, Delta Force was activated.”
Beckwith argued it would approximately 24 months to get the unit operationally ready, drafting what was known as the ‘Robert Redford Paper’ justifying the timescale (in the paper Delta Force outlined its necessities and historical precedents for a four-phase selection/assessment process) (Beckwith, 2000).
During the early years, recruits would be ordered to report to a secret corner of the expansive Fort Bragg, in North Carolina, where they would undergo a rigorous selection process (Haney, 2013). Successful candidates would then move onto advanced work in explosives, weapons and studying airplanes to plan hostage rescues, amongst other activities. The ‘final exam’ as Haney (2013) describes it involved the candidates being sent to Washington D.C., being given precise assignments and told to evade the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (Section 2.2) (Haney, 2013).
Whilst Delta Force was preparing itself, Colonel (OF-5) Bob ‘Black Gloves’ Mountel of the 5th Special Forces Group was tasked with creating a unit, dubbed ‘Blue light’, “…to breach the short-term gap…” that existed until Delta Force was ready (Beckwith, 2000, p.131).
During November 1979, a number of US diplomats and citizens were taken captive and held in the US embassy in Tehran, Iran. Operation Eagle Claw was conceived, which in included Delta Force, with the purpose of rescuing the hostages on the 24/25 April 1980. The operation was aborted due to several problems, including an aviation disaster which led to several fatalities.
Consequently, a commission was established to review the events prior to and during the ill-fated operation. This resulted in the establishment of the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) for special operations requiring aviation support, the US Navy’s Special Warfare Development Group (aka SEAL Team Six), and the creation of the Joint Special Operations Command for the command and control (C2) of the counter-terrorism units of the US military.
Delta Force has been involved in a number operations, which include:
- Pan American Games (1979): Delta Force is deployed in Puerto Rico as the anti-terrorist cell, which also includes elements of the Hostage Rescue Team of the FBI.
- Operation Eagle Claw (1980): Release of US hostages in the US embassy in Tehran, Iran.
- Operation Urgent Fury (1983): Delta Force assaults the prison in Richmond Hill, Grenada, where several members of the legitimate government are being held following a military coup.
- 1984: Deployment in the Middle East, following the assassination of two US citizens during a hijacking of a Kuwaiti Airlines flight.
- Egyptian Task Force 777 (1985): EgyptAir Flight 648 was hijacked by three Palestinian members of Abu Nidal flying its Athens to Cairo route. The Hijackers wanted to go to Libya but, without enough fuel, Malta was chosen. An Egyptian counter-terrorism unit, trained by Delta Force and including 3/4 officers, is flown in. The Maltese government made a number of poor decisions, including confining the Delta Force officers so they could not aid the Egyptians during the hostage rescue. The Egyptians commenced the operation early and made a number of critical errors during the strike phase. The end result was 58 of the 95 passengers and crew dead.
- Operation Just Cause (1989): Deployed as part of the Invasion of Panama. Delta Force participate in Operation Acid Gambit, which was the rescue/liberation of businessman Kurt Muse.
- Operation Desert Storm (1991): Deployed Iraq to ensure the safety of General Norman Schwartzkopf and other prominent individuals in Saudi Arabia. Operations are also conducted with the aim of identifying and destroying mobile batteries of missiles/air SCUD in the Iraqi desert in conjunction with the British SAS.
- Operation Gothic Serpent (1993): Deployed as part of Task Force Ranger in Mogadishu, Somalia, in order to capture/eliminate Mohammed Farrah Aidid. Operations during this period are encapsulated in the film ‘Black Hawk Down’. Two Delta Force personnel, Randall Shugart and Gary Gordon, defend a downed pilot (Michael Durant who survived) but make the ultimate sacrifice receiving the Medal of Honor posthumously.
- 1995: Delta Force is operating in Bosnia with orders to capture Serbian war criminals.
- On 17 December 1996, 22 members of Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA) took over the Japanese ambassador’s residence in Lima, Peru, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. It has been suggested that Delta Force, the British SAS and Canadian Joint Task Force 2 all hade personnel in the area.
Operation Allied Force (1999): Deployment to the Balkans working with various European SF units.
- Operation Enduring Freedom (2001): Deployment to Afghanistan to identify and capture/eliminate terrorists.
- Operation Iraqi Freedom (2002): Operators take part in a series of counterinsurgency operations as part of Task Force Black.
- 2005: Deployment to Gleneagles, Scotland, as part of US President George W Bush’s security detail during the G8 summit between 6th and 8th July.
2.1 The Term ‘Operator’
In the US SOF Community, the term Operator refers to a qualified member of one of the US’s SF units, for example those who have successfully completed the:
- Special Forces Qualification Course (SFQC) of the US Army SF (aka Green Berets);
- Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) of the US Navy SF (aka US Navy SEALs);
- Individual Training Course (ITC) of the US Marine Corps SF (aka MARSOC); and/or
- Operators Training Course (OTC) of Delta Force.
In general, Special Forces Operator (SF Operator) is the umbrella term for all SF qualified personnel, with individual SF units adopting a version of this. For example, Special Warfare Operator is used by the US Navy SEALs.
This was not always the case. Per Haney (2007), the term Operator was first used by Delta Force to distinguish between operational and non-operational personnel assigned to the unit. There is also some speculation that the term was coined to avoid confusion with the CIAs term Operative.
However, US Navy SEALs may have unofficially referred to themselves as Operators since the Vietnam War. Gene Wentz (2012), writing in 1992 about his experiences as a US Navy SEAL in Vietnam, makes numerous references to his fellow US Navy SEALs calling them Operators.
2.2 Delta Force Mission
Delta Force, along with its US Navy counterpart SEAL Team Six (aka DEVGRU), are the US Military’s primary external counter-terrorism units.
These two units are under the operational control of JSOC (Section 3.0) and perform the following tasks/missions:
- Hostage rescue and counter-terrorism;
- Direct action (against high-value targets (HVT)); and
- Reconnaissance against HVTs.
The FBI is the domestic (or internal) intelligence and security service of the US, which simultaneously serves as the nation’s prime federal law enforcement agency. Two of the FBIs four priorities include protecting the US from terrorist attack and against foreign intelligence operations and espionage (FBI, 2017).
However, since 9/11, intelligence units of both the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Department of Defence (DOD) have stepped into the FBIs domestic intelligence work on terrorism.
“While the FBI and the Pentagon have since taken steps to improve their information-exchange procedures, the U.S. system has broader problems. The lack of clarity concerning mission space gives the FBI, DOD, DHS and other agencies free rein to make incursions into each other’s areas of responsibility.” (Foley, 2016).
Established in 1983, the FBIs Hostage Rescue Team (HRT), numbering approximately 300 personnel, is the lead counterterrorism tactical team within federal law enforcement (FBI, 2013). The HRT training centre is located at the FBI Academy on the Marine Base in Quantico, Virginia. You can read more about the HRT selection process here.
PART THREE: ORGANISATION OF DELTA FORCE
This section outlines some of the personalities and organisations that have an impact or control over Delta Force, as well as the structure of the unit.
3.0 US Joint Special Operations Command
The US Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) is commanded by an OF-8 level officer, who is assisted by a Deputy Commander (an OF-6 level officer) and a Command Sergeant Major (OR-9).
JSOC is a sub-unified command of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).
In 2012, headquarters (HQ) JSOC had a total strength of 1,519 personnel or 2.4% of USSSOCOMs strength of 63,650 (Robinson, 2013).
As a joint command, JSOC consists of soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines and civilians who have passed a rigorous, selective screening process. Although JSOC posts are predominantly filled by officers, applicants must be in grades E-5 thru E-8 for enlisted and 0-3 thru 0-6 for officers.
JSOC is considered the US’s premier force (superlatively the Elite of the Elite) and consequently its core consists of (Priest & Arkin, 2015):
- HQ JOSC;
- JSOC Counterterrorism Centre;
- The US Army’s: Delta Force, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment, and 75th Ranger Regiment;
- The Naval Special Warfare Development Group, aka SEAL Team Six; and
- The US Air Force’s 24th Special Tactics Squadron.
Priest and Arkin (2011) state that: “…JSOC has grown from 1,800 troops prior to 9/11  to as many as 25,000, a number that fluctuates according to its mission. It has its own intelligence division, its own drones and reconnaissance planes, even its own dedicated satellites. It also has its own cyberwarriors, who, on Sept. 11, 2008, shut down every jihadist Web site they knew.”
3.1 Commander Delta Force
The Commander Delta Force is a US Army Colonel (OF-5).
3.2 Organisation of Delta Force
In 2006, Sean Naylor in his book suggested that Delta Force contained approximately 1,000 personnel, of which 250-300 were SF Operators and the rest being Enablers and Supporters (Naylor, 2006). Haney (2007) suggests 800-1,000 personnel.
Haney (2007) suggests the following operational groups:
- D: Command and Control (Headquarters).
- E: Communications, Intelligence and Administrative Support (includes finance, logistics, medical detachment, research and development, technology and electronics, etc.).
- F: Operational Arm (The teams of operators).
- Medical Detachment maintains special doctors at Fort Bragg and various other bases around the country secretly, to provide medical assistance as needed.
- Operational Support Troop, or ‘the Funny Platoon’, is the in-house intelligence arm of Delta.
- A small aviation squadron used for limited in-house air transportation.
In a later book, Naylor suggests Delta Force has the following sub-units (Naylor, 2015):
- A Squadron (Assault).
- B Squadron (Assault).
- C Squadron (Assault).
- D Squadron (Assault).
- E Squadron (Aviation, formerly known as “SEASPRAY” (Naylor, 2015, p.57).
- G Squadron (Formerly the “Operational Support Troop” (Naylor, 2015, p.454)): it grew to squadron size and specialises in advanced force operations, reconnaissance and surveillance and is known to employ women).
- Combat Support Squadron: Contains weapons of mass destruction (WMD) experts, breachers and other specialists.
The women of G Squadron are, allegedly, used mainly for undercover operations and surveillance (culturally, there are some places men can’t go!).
Haney (2007) and Naylor (2015) provide some insight to the makeup of Squadron. Between them we find that each Assault Squadron consists of two/three troops (1/2 assault troops and 1 reconnaissance or sniper troop), which are further sub-divided into teams consisting of four to five Operators.
PART FOUR: RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND TRAINING
4.0 Recruitment and Pre-Screening
On 29 June 2006, during a session of the Committee on Armed Services, General Wayne Downing testified before the US House of Representatives (2006, p.22):
“…Rangers become the prime source of candidates after 3 years or 4 years in the Rangers to go in to regular Army special forces and into the Delta force. [and] The Delta force is probably 70 percent Rangers who have come out of either a Ranger special forces track or directly from a Ranger regiment to Delta.”
Numerous websites claim that the US Army, since the 1990s, has been posting recruitment notices for the 1st SFOD-D. However, the oldest online (June 2004 edition as of February 2017) Fort Carson Mountaineer magazine (the cited source for this assertion) only provides a notice about SF briefings conducted on the base on particular days. A similar assertion, and outcome, is made about Fort Bragg’s magazine ‘Paraglide’. As there is now no publicly available record of these magazine articles it is difficult to verify the veracity of the statements.
Despite most candidates coming from the US Army Rangers, some have come from other branches of military service such as the US Marine Corps (Scarborough, 2013).
Just like other SOF units of the US military, only male candidates could apply for Delta Force. However, from January 2016 all military occupations are open to women (Pellerin, 2015); so, it will be interesting to hear about the first female Delta Force Operator.
Delta Force recruiters hold briefings for personnel both domestically and abroad (Robson, 2003).
“Any soldier could attend the briefing, the recruiter said, adding that there is no recruitment target. [and] …potential recruits’ skill background was immaterial.” (Robson, 2003).
The following recruitment criteria are generally quoted for candidates:
- US Citizen;
- Be 21 years of age or older;
- Pass a modified Class II Flight Physical;
- Airborne qualified or volunteer for airborne training;
- Pass a background security investigation and have at least a secret clearance;
- Pass the current Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT);
- Minimum of two years’ active service remaining upon selection to the unit; and
- Captain (OF-2) or Major (OF-3), or service equivalent and branch immaterial.
- Advance Course graduate.
- College graduate (BA or BS).
- Minimum of 12 months’ successful command (as a Captain).
- Corporal/Specialist (E-4) to Master Sergeant/First Sergeant (E-8), or service equivalent and branch immaterial.
- Captain (OF-2) or Major (OF-3), or service equivalent and branch immaterial.
As well as the eligibility requirements, the recruitment process involves an extensive pre-screening process. Successfully completion of the recruitment and pre-screening process will see candidates advance to the assessment and selection process.
As I understand it, recruiting takes place twice per year. Processing for the March course is from
October through January. Processing for the September Course takes place April through July.
4.1 Assessment and Selection
Haney (2007) describes the assessment and selection process for candidates who meet the recruitment criteria, which included physical and psychological tests/assessments, and an interview board. The selection process is conducted twice each year and is a month-long process (American Heroes Channel, 2013), March and September, somewhere in the Appalachian Mountains (Pruitt, 2016). Candidates during the selection and training phases are affectionally known as ‘CAG Babies’.
The selection process began with a standard physical fitness test (PFT), which included:
- A 2-mile (3.2 km) run;
- An inverted crawl; and
- 100 metre swim, fully dressed.
Candidates would then conduct a series of land navigation exercises which would increase in distance and weight carried whilst the time allowed to complete would decrease. These marches included an 18-mile (29 km), all-night route carrying 18 kg (40 lb) rucksack. The final march would encompass a distance of 40 miles (64 km) over rough terrain carrying a 20 kg (44 lb) rucksack.
Only the senior officer and NCO in charge of selection were permitted to view the set time limits, although all assessment and selection tasks and conditions were set by Delta training cadre.
After completing the physical component of the selection process, candidates then underwent a variety of psychological assessments.
This was followed by an interview board consisting of Delta Force instructors, unit psychologists and the Delta Force Commander, who each asked the candidate a barrage of questions and then dissect every response and mannerism of the candidate with the purpose to mentally exhaust the candidate. After discussion between the board, candidates would be informed on their success or failure.
Successful candidates would then move on the 6-month Operator Training Course.
In a 2013 interview, former Delta Force Operator Paul Howe talked about the high attrition rate of his Delta selection course. He said that out of his two classes of 120 candidates each, probably only 12 to 14 made it (American Heroes Channel, 2013).
90% of candidates will not make it through the Delta Force selection process (American Heroes Channel, 2013).
4.2 Operator Training Course
After successfully completing the selection process, candidates will find themselves on an intense 6-month Operator Training Course (OTC) (Haney, 2007), also known as the Operator Qualification Course (OQC) (American Heroes Channel, 2013), learning about counter-terrorism and counter-intelligence techniques
Just like any military training, conventional or SOF, courses have a variety of iterations, although the general principles to be achieved remain the same. Training includes (Haney, 2007):
- Candidates are taught to shoot without aiming at stationary targets at close range until they gain almost complete accuracy, then progress to moving targets.
- Once these shooting skills are perfected, candidates transition to a shooting house and clear rooms of ‘enemy’ targets – first one only, then two at a time, three, and finally four. When all can demonstrate sufficient skill, ‘hostages’ are added to the mix.
- Demolitions and Breaching:
- Candidates learn how to pick many different locks, including those on cars and safes.
- Advanced demolition and bomb making using common materials.
- Combined skills: The FBI, FAA, and other agencies were used to advise the training of this portion of OTC:
- Candidates utilise their demolition and marksmanship skills at the shoot-house and other training facilities to train for hostage and counter-terrorist operations with the various troops working together. Personnel practice terrorist or hostage situations in buildings, aircraft and other settings.
- All candidates learn how to set sniper positions around a building containing hostages. They learn the proper ways to set up a TOC and communicate in an organised manner. Although Delta Force has specialised sniper personnel, all members go through this training.
- Candidates then go back to the shoot-house and the ‘hostages’ are replaced with other students and Delta Force members. Live ammunition is known to have been used in these exercises, to test the candidates, and build trust between one another.
- Tradecraft: During the first OTCs and creation of Delta, CIA personnel were used to teach this portion:
- Candidates learn different espionage-related skills, such as dead drops, brief encounters, pickups, load and unload signals, danger and safe signals, surveillance and counter-surveillance.
Executive Protection: During the first OTCs and creation of Delta Force, the US State Department’s Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) and the US Secret Service advised Delta Force:
- Candidates take an advanced driving course learning how to use a vehicle or vehicles as defensive and offensive weapons.
- Candidates then learn techniques for VIP and diplomatic protection developed by the US Secret Service and DSS.
- Candidates learn different espionage-related skills, such as dead drops, brief encounters, pickups, load and unload signals, danger and safe signals, surveillance and counter-surveillance.
- Culmination Exercise:
- A final test requires the candidates to apply and dynamically adapt all of the skills that they have learned.
Of the 10% who successfully complete the Delta Force selection process, 50% of these will washout from the OTC (American Heroes Channel, 2013), meaning only 5% will successfully qualify as a Delta Force Operator.
Upon successful completion of the OTC commissioned officers are assigned to an operational position within Delta Force, and will have added opportunities to command at the Captain through Lieutenant Colonel levels. Officers may also serve as an Operations Officer. After service with Delta Force, a wide variety of staff officer positions are available at the DOD, JCS, DA, USASOC, USSOCOM, other joint HQs and interagency positions because of the training undertaken and experience gained.
PART FIVE: MISCELLANEOUS
5.0 Interesting Fact
“Additionally, during field training exercises or operations, upon approval of the commander, sleeves may be opened and cuffed inward above the wrist on the forearm. “It’s often referred to as a Delta roll or SF (Special Forces) roll,” Dailey said.” (Vergun, 2016).
5.1 Useful Links
- MacDill Air Force Base: http://www.macdill.af.mil/
- US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM): http://www.socom.mil/
- Joint Special Operations University (JSOU): https://jsou.socom.mil/Pages/Default.aspx
- US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC): http://www.soc.mil/
- Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC): http://www.marsoc.marines.mil/
- Naval Special Warfare Command (NAVSPECWARCOM): http://www.navsoc.navy.mil/
- Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC): http://www.afsoc.af.mil/
- Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC):
- Naval Special Warfare Development Group: https://www.facebook.com/Naval-Special-Warfare-Development-Group-DEVGRU-156581861150597/.
- National Counterterrorism Centre (NCTC): https://www.nctc.gov/.
5.2 Useful Books
- Bahmanyar, M. (2005) Elite 115: US Navy SEALs. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
- Beckwith, C.A. & Knox, D. (2013) Delta Force: A Memoir by the Founder of the U.S. Military’s Most Secretive Special-Operations Unit. Reprint Edition. New York: William Morrow Paperbacks.
- Beckwith, C.A. (2000) Delta Force: The Army’s Elite Counterterrorist Unit. New York: Avon Books.
- Feickert, A. (2013) U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress. Washington: Congressional Research Service.
- Haney, E. (2007) Inside Delta Force: The Story of America’s Elite Counterterrorist Unit. Reprint Edition. New York: Delacorte Books for Young Publishers.
- Liptak, E. (2009) Elite 173: Office of Strategic Services 1942-45: The World War II Origins of the CIA. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
- Liptak, E. (2014) Elite 203: World War II US Navy Special Warfare Units. Oxford Publishing Ltd.
- McNab, C. (2013) America’s Elite: US Special Forces from the American Revolution to the Present Day. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
- Naylor, S. (2015) Relentless Strike: The Secret History of Joint Special Operations Command. New York: St Martin’s Press.
- Pellerin, C. (2015) SecDef Opens all Military Occupations to Women. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.therecruiterjournal.com/secdef-opens-all-military-occupations-to-women.html. [Accessed: 04 December, 2015].
- Special Operations Forces Reference Manual. 4th Edition (2015)
- US Navy (2015a) NSW: Naval Special Warfare Command. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.public.navy.mil/nsw/Pages/Default.aspx. [Accessed: 05 January, 2016].
- US Navy (2015b) Special Warfare/Special Operations. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.navy.com/careers/special-operations/. [Accessed: 05 January, 2016].
- USSOCOM (US Special Operations Command) (2016) 2016 Fact Book United States Special Operations Command. MacDill Air Force Base, Florida: USSOCOM.
- Wentz, G. & Jurus, B.A. (2012) Men in Green Faces: A Novel of U.S. Navy SEALs. Reprint Edition. PLACE: St Martin’s Griffin.
American Heroes Channel (2013) Delta Force Tryouts, Delta Forces: Tier 1. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59fL6ej_B-I. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) (2013) The Hostage Rescue Team, Part 2: The Crucible of Selection. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/hostage-rescue-team-the-crucible-of-selection-2. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) (2017) Mission and Priorities. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.fbi.gov/about/mission. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
Foley, F. (2016) U.S. Counterterrorism is Mired in Turf Wars. We Could Learn a lot from the U.K. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/07/19/there-are-turf-wars-in-u-s-domestic-counterterrorism-efforts-the-u-k-doesnt-have-this-problem/?utm_term=.049eaeaf5b54. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
Goolsby, D. (2016) Palm Springs Man was Army Delta Force Co-creator. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.desertsun.com/story/news/2016/07/14/palm-springs-col-tom-henry-us-army-delta-force-army-rangers/86963120/. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
Hand, G.E. (2015) Surviving Delta Force Selection. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.mixedmartialarts.com/forums/OtherGround/SurvivingDeltaForceselection:2498464. [Accessed: 06 February, 2017].
Haney, E. (2007) Inside Delta Force: The Story of America’s Elite Counterterrorist Unit. Reprint Edition. New York: Delacorte Books for Young Publishers.
Naylor, S. (2006) Not a Good Day to Die: The Untold Story of Operation Anaconda. Berkeley: Berkley Books.
Naylor, S. (2015) Relentless Strike: The Secret History of Joint Special Operations Command. New York: St Martin’s Press.
Pellerin, C. (2015) SecDef Opens all Military Occupations to Women. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.therecruiterjournal.com/secdef-opens-all-military-occupations-to-women.html. [Accessed: 04 December, 2015].
Priest, D. & Arkin, W.M. (2011) ‘Top Secret America’: A Look at the Military’s Joint Special Operations Command. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/top-secret-america-a-look-at-the-militarys-joint-special-operations-command/2011/08/30/gIQAvYuAxJ_story.html. [Accessed: 01 January, 2016].
Pruitt, S. (2016) SEAL Team Six and Delta Forces: 6 Key Differences. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/seal-team-six-and-delta-force-6-key-differences. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
Robinson, L. (2013) Council Special Report No.66, April 2013: The Future of U.S. Special Operations Forces. New York, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.
Robson, S. (2003) Delta Forces Recruiters Seek Servicemembers with ‘Heart’. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.stripes.com/news/delta-force-recruiters-seek-servicemembers-with-heart-1.14154. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
Scarborough, R. (2013) Delta Force Marine Awarded Navy Cross for fight at CIA annex in Benghazi. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/nov/16/delta-force-marine-awarded-navy-cross-fight-cia-an/. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
US House of Representatives (2006) [H.A.S.C. No. 109-129] Assessing U.S. Special Operations Command’s Missions and Roles. Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services. House of Representatives. One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session. 29 June 2006. Available from World Wide Web: https://fas.org/irp/congress/2006_hr/soc.html. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
Vergun, D. (2016) Soldiers now allowed to wear their sleeves rolled up. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.paraglideonline.net/news/article_476b7a92-444b-11e6-87d1-27d112d69c64.html. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].
Waller, D. (2003) The CIA’s Secret Army: The CIA’s Secret Army. TIME Magazine. Feb 3, 2003. Available from World Wide Web: http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1004145,00.html. [Accessed: 05 February, 2017].