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Last Updated: 16 April, 2016

1.0     Introduction

Logo, MARSOC, Marine Corps Force Special Operations Command, USMC, US, Special ForcesThe article is about the United States Marine Corps (USMC) Forces Special Operations Command, which is the Marine/amphibious component of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).

MARSOC, as the US Marine Corps Special Operations Command is known, is the youngest component of USSOCOM. Although MARSOC can trace a lineage to the Raiders of World War II, it was not officially established until 2006. As the smallest component of USSOCOM, there are 700-800 Critical Skill Operators within MARSOC and approximately 3,000 members make up the USMC Special Operations community.

The article will look at the background to MARSOC and the type of Special Operations Forces (SOF) personnel within it. The article will also provide a brief history and describe the Command’s organisation which encompasses a wide variety of units and organisations.

Finally, the article will provide some useful links and books, as well as access to useful documents and references.

Finally, the article will provide some useful links and books, as well as access to useful documents and references.

For information on the US Marine Corp’s Reconnaissance selection and training process look here.

1.1     MARSOC Mission

The broad mission of MARSOC is to (USSOCOM, 2015a, p.30):

“…recruit, train, sustain, and deploy scalable, expeditionary forces worldwide to accomplish special operations missions assigned by U.S. Special Operations Command. To accomplish that, MARSOC equips and trains Marines to succeed in austere conditions against a wide range of adversaries. MARSOC executes complex, distributed operations in uncertain environments, achieving silent success and strategic impact.”

Core missions include (Feickert, 2015):

  • Foreign internal defence (FID);
  • Special reconnaissance (SR);
  • Direct action (DA);
  • Counterterrorism (CT);
  • Information operations (IO);
  • Security force assistance (SFA); and
  • Counterinsurgency (COIN).

An additional sub-role of MARSOC is to provide support for Civil Affairs (CA) Operations, Military Information Support Operations (MISO), Unconventional Warfare (UW) and Counter Proliferation Operations; as well as training, planning for, and providing forces to execute SOF C2 (command and control).

Until 2015, MARSOC’s primary focus was support for the US military operations in Afghanistan. However, post 2015, MARSOC has operationally re-orientated in order to better support the Geographic Combatant Commands in the post-OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom) environment (USMC, 2016).

MARSOC’s forces are now regionally focused in order to provide persistently forward deployed, fully enabled Marine Special Operations Companies (through the Marine Raider Regiment and Marine Raider Support Group) to the US Central, Pacific and Africa Commands. In addition, forward deployed MARSOC forces are also attuned to the unique regional requirements of their deployment area, including language capability and any specific regional tactical capabilities.

The MARSOC training pipeline produces task organised MARSOC forces capable of full spectrum special operations with particular emphasis on skills related to partner nation capacity building. Finally, the forward deployed MARSOC forces are also attuned to the unique regional requirements of their deployment area, including language capability and any specific regional tactical capabilities.

1.2     Women and MARSOC

Women in the US military have, for a number of years, been able to serve in a variety of SOF-related roles, including:

  • Intelligence;
  • MISO and CA units;
  • Female engagement teams;
  • Cultural support teams; and
  • Air Force special operations aviation roles.

As of March 2015, approximately two-thirds of the roles in USSOCOM were integrated (Vogel, 2015).

On 04 December 2015, the US Secretary of Defence, Ash Carter, announced that beginning in January 2016, all military occupations would be open to women (Pellerin, 2015).

However, in a survey of over 7,600 special operations forces personnel by the RAND Corporation, the overwhelming view was negative: “Allowing women to serve in Navy SEAL, Army Delta or other commando units could hurt their effectiveness and lower the standards, and it may drive men away from the dangerous posts.” (Baldor, 2015).

Despite this, in January 2016, it was reported that the first female MARSOC Critical Skills Operators applicants had registered their interest (Seck, 2016).

2.0     Background

The creation of the United States Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC) was announced on 01 November 2005 (Feickert, 2015), and was established on 24 February 2006 (USSOCOM, 2015a). MARSOC is located at Camp LeJeune, North Carolina.

The Command is also sometimes known as the Marine Corps Special Operations Command (MarSOC/MARFORSOC) and Marine Special Operations Force (MARSOF).

MARSOC is one of four components of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), a unified command located at MacDill Air Force Base in Florida, and one of three major permanent Marine commands of the US Marine Corps (USMC, 2014).

When USSOCOM was first formed in 1987, the USMC argued against providing units giving a variety of reasons (Thompson, 2009). The USMC was finally forced by the then Secretary of Defence to contribute, although Thompson (2009) offers two other sympathetic reasons.

MARSOC consists of military and civilian personnel in operator, enabler and support roles (Vogel, 2015). The military personnel of MARSOC can be divided into four broad categories: Critical Skills Operators; Special Operations Officers; Special Operations Capabilities Specialists; and Special Operations Combat Services Specialists.

  • Critical Skills Operators (CSO) and Special Operations Officers: Critical Skills Operators are the front line Marines and Sailors who are complex problem solvers able to operate across the full spectrum of Special Operations in small teams under ambiguous, sometimes austere, environments while maintaining a high level of mental flexibility and physical endurance. CSOs exemplify the Marine Corps’ concepts of Distributed Operations and the Strategic Corporal. These warrior-diplomats are able to operate across the spectrum of force. They are experts in utilizing the right force at the right time with the right effect. MARSOC forces provide foreign internal defence, special reconnaissance, and direct action capabilities to commanders.
  • Special Operations Capabilities Specialists (SOCS): are Combat Support (CS) Marines that are able to join MARSOC based upon their MOS skill. They receive advanced SOF training and certification. SOCSs are operational and tactical force multipliers and frequently deploy alongside CSOs. SOCS personnel are awarded the additional MOS of 8071, and return to the operating forces after an extended tour of service with MARSOC. Roles include:
    • Joint Terminal Attack Controllers (JTACs) who call in close air support aircraft and indirect fires for Marine Special Operations Teams;
    • Communicators who plan, install, operate, maintain and protect organic narrowband, voice, video and data radios, terminals and services in support of assigned missions.
    • Intelligence Enablers who provide geospatial, human and signal intelligence.
    • Multi-Purpose Canine handlers.
    • Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Technicians.
  • Special Operations Combat Services Specialists (SOCS-S): are Combat Service Support (CSS) Marines who serve one standard tour with MARSOC in their primary MOS, such as Motor Transport or Logistics. As such they provide MARSOC with an intrinsic CSS and logistics capability. Their training includes core skills for joint and interagency work as well as enhanced SOF combat skills training to enable their successful integration and survivability in special operations environments.

MARSOC is the smallest component within USSOCOM with approximately 3,000 personnel (Feickert, 2015; USSOCOM, 2015a), up from 2,600 in 2013 (Robinson, 2013), although expecting to reach a total manpower of 3,255 (USMC, 2016). Machina (2014) identified 3,327 personnel of which 96% were military and 4% were civilian.

In 2012, MARSOC consisted of 625 critical skills operators, 32 teams, and 9 companies, but had plans to expand to 844 critical skills operators, 48 teams, and 12 companies by 2016 (Wilcox, 2012). Although the number of critical skills operators had grown to some 700 by 2014, the 844 quota was still an aspiration (Seck, 2014).

Initially, MARSOC personnel were drawn from the Force Reconnaissance Marines but recruiting now encompasses the entire US Marine Corps, “especially with regard to certain highly specialized skills, such as cybersecurity, psychological warfare tactics, and working with host populations from a better understanding of their cultures and unique local concerns.” (Wilson, 2011).

Unlike the US Army’s Special Operations Command (USASOC), initially there was no SOF-specific Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) for MARSOC personnel, although it had been considered (Wilson, 2011) and there was opposition (Diefenbach & Revoir, 2006). However, by 2014 the situation had changed with the establishment of the 0372 critical skills operator MOS, which offers a dedicated career path for Marines to go MARSOC and stay MARSOC (Seck, 2014). There is also the offer of up to $50,500 in bonus cash for successful candidates (Seck, 2014).

2.1     Brief History

Logo, MARSOC, WWII Raiders, SOFThe original US Marine Corps Raider units were established in World War II in order to conduct amphibious raids and operations behind enemy lines (Melson & Hannon, 1994), and were organised in response to President Roosevelt’s desire to have a commando-style force that could conduct these types of operations.

According to Marine historians, Raider commanders studied unconventional warfare tactics, including Chinese guerrillas, and were given their pick of personnel and equipment.

Raider units were credited with beating larger Japanese forces on difficult terrain in the Pacific and they participated in key battles including Guadalcanal and Bougainville.

These Raiders were formed in 1942 but, after many successful operations and displays of valour, they were disbanded in 1944. The Raiders are (still) considered the original US special operations unit (Higgins, 2014).

In October 2005, the then Secretary of Defence directed the formation of a Marine component of USSOCOM, initially forming a unit of approximately 2,500.

As a consequence MARSOC was established on 24 February 2006 at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, consisting of a small staff and the Foreign Military Training Unit, which had been formed to conduct foreign internal defence. Subsequently, the FMTU was renamed the Marine Special Operations Advisor Group. Although MARSOC did not officially carry the Raider moniker, unofficially a number of personnel did.

In the months after the establishment of MARSOC, the structure and personnel of both the 1st and 2d Force Reconnaissance Company transferred to MARSOC to form the 1st and 2d Marine Special Operations Battalions. MARSOC deployed its first units in August 2006, six months after initial establishment.

In April 2009, the Marine Special Operations Advisor Group was renamed as the Marine Special Operations Regiment with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Marine Special Operations Battalions as subordinate units. The newly established 3rd Marine Special Operations Battalion incorporated the structure and personnel from Advisor Group’s former companies.

MARSOC also formed the Marine Special Operations Support Group and the Marine Special Operations School. The Support Group provides combat support and combat service support to MARSOC units, including logistics, communication and intelligence. The school screens, assesses, selects and trains Marine Special Operations Forces and is responsible for developing doctrine.

As a service component of USSOCOM, MARSOC is tasked by the commander of USSOCOM to train, organise, equip and when directed by commander of USSOCOM, deploy task organised, scalable and responsive USMC SOF worldwide in support of combatant commanders and other agencies.

On the establishment of MARSOC, Marine units utilised the term Special Operations in their titles. However, on 06 August 2014, The US Marine Corps Commandant authorised MARSOC units to adopt the name Marine Raiders in order to recognise “the official continuation of our Corps’ special operations heritage from the Raiders of World War II to our modern day Marines.” (Higgins, 2014, Lamothe, 2014). Although the official name changing ceremony did not occur until 19 June 2015 (Seck, 2015), in which “Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command momentarily deactivated its eight subordinate units, reactivating them immediately with new names and new battle colors bearing the Raiders’ name.”

2.2     Opportunities for Reservists

MARSOC has many opportunities for reservists who are looking for a challenging environment.

3.0     Organisation of MARSOC

The HQ MARSOC is located at Camp LeJeune, North Carolina, and is commanded by a Major General (OF-7). The Commander MARSOC is assisted by:

  • The MARSOC Sergeant-Major, a US Marine Corps Sergeant-Major (OR-9); and
  • The MARSOC Command Master Chief, a US Navy Master Chief Petty Officer (OR-9).

MARSOC is organised around the following major commands/units (USSOCOM, 2015a):

  • Headquarters (HQ);
  • Marine Special Operations School;
  • Marine Raider Regiment; and
  • Marine Raider Support Group.

3.1     MARSOC Inspector General

The role of the MARSOC Inspector General is to:

  1. Investigate or inquire into allegations pertaining to inefficiency, misconduct, impropriety, mismanagement, or violations of law, and to provide staff oversight for Congressional or other special interest petitions for MARSOC Command IG assistance, interest, or action.
  2. Identify and analyse factors which may inhibit or reduce readiness of MARSOC and coordinate effective action.
  3. Coordinate, conduct and evaluate inspections of MARSOC forces.
  4. Facilitate Request Mast to the Commander, MARSOC as necessary.

4.0     Marine Special Operations School

Logo, MARSOC, Marine Special Operations School, SOFThe Marine Special Operations School (MSOS) is located on a 246-square-mile US military training facility in Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville, North Carolina.

The MSOS is commanded by a Colonel (OF-5), who is assisted by the Senior Enlisted Advisor, a Master Gunnery Sergeant (OR-9). The MSOS Operations Officer, a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), is responsible for coordinating the planning and execution for all MARSOC basic and advanced courses, and the transition of Special Operations Capable Specialist training to the formal school.

The MSOS is divided into two main Branches:

  1. Special Missions Training Branch (West Coast); and
  2. Special Missions Training Branch (East Coast).

Each SMTB is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), and each has a Special Operations Boat Unit (SOBU).

Broadly, the purpose of the MSOS is to develop a candidate pipeline (to include a screening process, assessment and selection course, MOS producing school/instructor staff, language programme and follow-on courses for minimum skill requirements). More specifically, the role of the MSOS is fourfold:

  • To serve as MARSOC’s training and education proponent in support of MARSOC requirements;
  • To develop and standardise doctrine and tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs);
  • To screen assess, select and train personnel (both Marines and Sailors) for special operations assignments in MARSOC; and
  • To train and educate designated personnel in individual, basic and advanced special operations in order to meet MARSOC’s requirement to provide capable personnel to conduct special operations.

The MSOS articulates this dual role through nine streams:

  1. Conducting individual basic SOF skills training in accordance with 0370, 0372 and 8071 Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) requirements.
  2. Conducting assessment and selection.
  3. Conducting advanced SOF skills training.
  4. Conducting language and cultural training.
  5. Performing required curriculum review and updates of training material for all assigned courses.
  6. Introducing and reinforcing Personnel Resiliency (PERRES).
  7. Coordinating, via the component HQTRS, with the Joint Special Operations University and Marine Corps Training and Education Command for higher level SOCOM/Joint and Service training and education.
  8. Acting as the lead within MARSOC to develop and introduce Special Operations Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) in coordination with component HQTRS, Marine Raider Regiment, and Marine Raider Support Group.
  9. Acting as the lead within MARSOC to develop, evaluate, and validate requirements for individual weapons, optics, and other equipment in coordination with the Assistant Chief of Staff (AC/S) G-3 and AC/S G-8.

Examples of courses provided by the MSOS include (Wilson, 2011):

  • MARSOF Breacher Course;
  • Technical Surveillance Course;
  • Advanced Sniper Course;
  • Close Quarter Battle Leaders Course;
  • Marine Network Operators Course;
  • Enhanced Network Operators Course; and
  • Assessment and Selection Preparation and Orientation Course.

5.0     Marine Raider Regiment

Logo, MARSOC, Marine Raider Regiment, SOFThe Marine Raider Regiment (MRR) is located at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and is commanded by a Colonel (OF-5), who is assisted by a Sergeant-Major (OR-9).

The MRR consists of:

  • HQ Company;
  • 1st Marine Raider Battalion;
  • 2nd Marine Raider Battalion; and
  • 3rd Marine Raider Battalion.

The role of the MRR is twofold:

  • To provide tailored military combat-skills training and advisor support (through specially trained Marines and Sailors) for identified foreign (naval and maritime military, and paramilitary) forces in order to enhance their tactical capabilities and to prepare the environment, as directed by USSOCOM, by:
    • Support their governments’ internal security and stability;
    • Counter subversion; and
    • Reduce the risk of violence from internal and external threats.
  • Form the nucleus of a Joint Special Operations Task Force.

The MRR’s deployments are coordinated by MARSOC, through USSOCOM, in accordance with engagement priorities for Overseas Contingency Operations.

As the Regimental HQ for the three Marine Raider Battalions, the MRR also fulfils an advisory role in the development of each battalion in terms of standardisation and synergy in their performance and capabilities in the kinetic and non-kinetic environment to perform the missions SOCOM directs.

5.1     1st Marine Raider Battalion

Logo, MARSOC, 1st Marine Raider Battalion, SOFThe 1st Marine Raider Battalion (1stMRB) is located at Camp Pendleton, California, and is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), who is assisted by a Sergeant-Major (OR-9).

The Battalion was originally established on 26 October 2006 as the 1st Marine Special Operations Battalion (1stMSOB), and was renamed the 1st Marine Raider Battalion on 19 June 2015.

The Battalion is aligned with the US Pacific Command and is organised, trained and equipped to deploy for worldwide missions as directed by MARSOC.

Currently consisting of four, soon to be five, Marine Special Operations Companies (MSOCs), the Battalion will be task-organised with personnel uniquely skilled in special equipment support, intelligence and fire-support.

Each MSOC is commanded by a Major (OF-3) and is capable of deploying task-organised expeditionary SOF for the conduct of special reconnaissance and direct action missions in support of the geographic combatant commanders.

Each MSOC, commanded by a Captain (OF-2), contains four Marine Special Operations Teams (MSOTs), with 14 team members each. Team members include critical skills operators, communications specialists, Corpsmen (aka medics), intelligence support and other support personnel. Whereas MSOTs operate with a 14-man team, the US Army’s Operational Detachment Alpha (ODA or ‘A’ Team) operate from a 12-man team and the US Navy SEALs operate from a 17-man team.

5.2     2nd Marine Raider Battalion

Logo, MARSOC, 2nd Marine Raider Battalion, SOFThe 2nd Marine Raider Battalion (2dMRB) is located at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), who is assisted by a Sergeant-Major (OR-9).

The Battalion was originally established on 15 May 2006 as the 2nd Marine Special Operations Battalion (2dMSOB), and was renamed the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion on 19 June 2015.

The Battalion is aligned with the US Central Command and is organised, trained and equipped to deploy for worldwide missions as directed by MARSOC.

Currently consisting of four, soon to be five, Marine Special Operations Companies (MSOCs), the Battalion will be task-organised with personnel uniquely skilled in special equipment support, intelligence and fire-support.

Each MSOC is commanded by a Major (OF-3) and is capable of deploying task-organised expeditionary SOF for the conduct of special reconnaissance and direct action missions in support of the geographic combatant commanders.

5.3     3rd Marine Raider Battalion

Logo, MARSOC, 3rd Marine Raider Battalion, SOFThe 3rd Marine Raider Battalion (3dMRB) is located at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), who is assisted by a Sergeant-Major (OR-9).

The Battalion was originally established on 15 May 2006 as the 3rd Marine Special Operations Battalion (3dMSOB), and was renamed the 3rd Marine Raider Battalion on 19 June 2015.

The Battalion is aligned with the US Africa Command and is organised, trained and equipped to deploy for worldwide missions as directed by MARSOC.

Currently consisting of four, soon to be five, Marine Special Operations Companies (MSOCs), the Battalion will be task-organised with personnel uniquely skilled in special equipment support, intelligence and fire-support.

Each MSOC is commanded by a Major (OF-3) and is capable of deploying task-organised expeditionary SOF for the conduct of special reconnaissance and direct action missions in support of the geographic combatant commanders.

6.0     Marine Raider Support Group

Logo, MARSOC, Marine Raider Support Group, SOFThe Marine Raider Support Group (MRSG) is located at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and is commanded by a Colonel (OF-5), who is assisted by a Sergeant-Major (OR-9).

The MRSG was originally titled the Marine Special Operations Support Group (MSOSG) but was renamed the Marine Raider Support Group on 19 June 2015.

In 2012, MARSOC reorganised the MSOSG to create three new battalions, which was focussed on MARSOC’s growing combat support (CS) and combat service support (CSS) requirements. The new battalions included (Wilson, 2013):

  • Marine Special Operations Combat Support Battalion (MSOCSB), created by combining the Intelligence Battalion and Support Company.
  • Marine Special Operations Support Battalion (MSOSB), created by growing Detachment-West.
  • Marine Special Operations Logistics Battalion (MSOLB), a new battalion to provide garrison and deployed CSS.

Currently, the MRSG consists of:

  • HQ Company;
  • 1st Marine Raider Support Battalion;
  • 2nd Marine Raider Support Battalion; and
  • 3rd Marine Raider Support Battalion.

The role of the MRSG is to train, equip, structure, and provide specially qualified Marine forces, including operational logistics, intelligence, multipurpose canines (aka military working dogs), Firepower Control Teams and communications support in order to sustain worldwide special operations missions as directed by Commander, MARSOC.

As the MSOSG, its core cadre of personnel was “initially drawn from 4th Marine Expeditionary Brigade’s manpower structure and table of equipment.” (Wilson, 2011). However, by 2011 there was a reliance on the wider-Corps and USSOCOM.

In 2011, the MRSG was reported to have 885 Marines, sailors, and other service members either administratively or operationally under the Support Group Command (Wilson, 2011), accounting for about one-third of the then MARSOC total manpower. Of the 885, 200 were reported to be with the HQ staff and another 150 comprised a detachment at Camp Pendleton in direct support of the then 1stMSOB.

Of these, more than 200 are with the Headquarters staff, another 150 comprise a detachment at Camp Pendleton in direct support of 1st MSOB, and the remainder are located in intelligence, combat support, and combat service support units.

6.1     1st Marine Raider Support Battalion

Logo, MARSOC, 1st Marine Raider Support Battalion, SOFThe 1st Marine Raider Support Battalion (1stMRSB) is located at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), who is assisted by a Sergeant-Major (OR-9).

The 1stMRSB was originally titled the 1st Marine Special Operations Support Battalion (1stMSOSB) but was renamed the 1st Marine Raider Support Battalion on 19 June 2015.

The role of the 1stMRSB is to generate and provide task-organised, regionally oriented MARSOC SOF to accomplish multi-discipline special operations intelligence, logistics, communications, fires, and multipurpose canine missions assigned by the Commander MARSOC in support of Commander USSOCOM.

6.2     2nd Marine Raider Support Battalion

Logo, MARSOC, 2nd Marine Raider Support Battalion, SOFThe 2nd Marine Raider Support Battalion (2dMRSB) is located at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), who is assisted by a Sergeant-Major (OR-9).

The 2dMRSB was originally titled the 2nd Marine Special Operations Support Battalion (2dMSOSB) but was renamed the 2nd Marine Raider Support Battalion on 19 June 2015.

The role of the 2dMRSB is twofold:

  • Provide general support logistics and combat service support (CSS) to MARSOC; and
  • To train, equip, organise and provide CSS capabilities to MARSOC personnel deploying worldwide in the execution of special operations.

6.3     3rd Marine Raider Support Battalion

Logo, MARSOC, 3rd Marine Raider Support Battalion, SOFThe 3rd Marine Raider Support Battalion (3dMRSB) is located at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), who is assisted by a Sergeant-Major (OR-9).

The 3dMRSB was originally titled the 3rd Marine Special Operations Support Battalion (3dMSOSB) but was renamed the 3rd Marine Raider Support Battalion on 19 June 2015.

The role of the 3dMRSB is twofold:

  • Provide general support and combat support to MARSOC; and
  • To train, equip, organise, and provide specially qualified combat support capabilities to MARSOC personnel deploying worldwide in the execution of special operations.

7.0     Useful Links

  • MacDill Air Force Base: http://www.macdill.af.mil/
  • US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM): http://www.socom.mil/
  • Joint Special Operations University (JSOU): https://jsou.socom.mil/Pages/Default.aspx
  • Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC):
    • http://www.marsoc.marines.mil/
    • http://www.marsoc.com/
    • https://www.facebook.com/MARSOCInfo
  • Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton:
    • www.pendleton.marines.mil/
    • https://www.facebook.com/MCIWPendletonCA/
  • Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune:
    • www.lejeune.marines.mil/
    • https://www.facebook.com/camp.lejeune
    • http://www.camplejeuneglobe.com/
  • US Marine Raider Association and Foundation:
    • http://usmarineraiders.org/
    • https://www.facebook.com/USMarineRaiderAssociationFoundation/
  • US Marine Corps Concepts and Programmes: https://marinecorpsconceptsandprograms.com
  • MARSOC Foundation: https://marsocfoundation.org/

8.0     Useful Documents

9.0     Useful Books

  • Eward, J.K. (2015) US Marine Corps Special Operations Uniforms and Equipment 2000-2014. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  • Liptak, E. (2009) Elite 173: Office of Strategic Services 1942-45: The World War II Origins of the CIA. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  • Liptak, E. (2014) Elite 203: World War II US Navy Special Warfare Units. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  • McNab, C. (2013) America’s Elite: US Special Forces from the American Revolution to the Present Day. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  • Melson, C.D. & Hannon, P. (1994) Elite 55: Marine Recon 1940-90. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  • Pushies, F. (2011) MARSOC: U.S. Marine Corps Special Operations Command. Minneapolis, MN: MBI Publishing Company.
  • Werner, B. (2006) Elite 45: First Special Service Force 1942-44. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.

10.0     References

Baldor, L.C. (2015) US Special Operators Say No to Women in Special Operations Jobs. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.military.com/daily-news/2015/12/11/us-special-operators-say-no-to-women-in-special-operations-jobs.html. [Accessed: 07 January, 2016].

Diefenbach, R.L. & Revoir, X. (2006) Do Not Sacrifice the Marine Corps for MARSOC to Succeed: The MARSOC Closed Loop Personnel Policy Proposal. Available from World Wide Web: www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA509401. [Accessed: 22 January, 2016].

Feickert, A. (2015) U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.

Higgins, J. (2014) The Past Aligned with the Future: MARSOC becomes Marine Raiders. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.marsoc.marines.mil/News/NewsArticleDisplay/tabid/1213/Article/513778/the-past-aligned-with-the-future-marsoc-becomes-marine-raiders.aspx. [Accessed: 21 January, 2016].

Lamothe, D. (2014) Marine Corps to Adopt Iconic Raiders Name for its Special Operations Troops. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/08/06/marine-corps-to-adopt-iconic-raiders-name-for-its-special-operations-troops/. [Accessed: 21 January, 2016].

Machina, F. (2014) Resourcing Special Operations. Available from World Wide Web: www.asmconline.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/30-Machina.pdf. [Accessed: 16 December, 2015].

Melson, C.D. & Hannon, P. (1994) Elite 55: Marine Recon 1940-90. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.

Pellerin, C. (2015) SecDef Opens all Military Occupations to Women. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.therecruiterjournal.com/secdef-opens-all-military-occupations-to-women.html. [Accessed: 04 December, 2015].

Robinson, L. (2013) Council Special Report No.66. The Future of U.S. Special Operations Forces. New York, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.

Seck, H.H. (2014) MARSOC and Recon: Does the Corps need Both? Available from World Wide Web: http://archive.armytimes.com/article/20140203/NEWS/302030009/MARSOC-recon-Does-Corps-need-both-. [Accessed: 22 January, 2016].

Seck, H.H. (2015) Legendary Marine Raiders Attend MARSOC’s Renaming Ceremony. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.marinecorpstimes.com/story/military/2015/06/19/return-of-the-raiders-marine-legends-attend-marsoc-renaming-event/29000153/. [Accessed: 21 January, 2016].

Seck, H.H. (2016) First Female Marines Apply to MARSOC. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.military.com/daily-news/2016/01/20/first-female-marines-apply-to-marsoc.html. [Accessed: 23 January, 2016].

Thompson, E.N. (2009) The Need to Increase Marine Corps Special Operations Command. Master’s Thesis. Available from World Wide Web: www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a508084.pdf. [Accessed: 22 January, 2016].

USMC (United States Marine Corps (2014) Operating Forces Introduction. Available from World Wide Web: https://marinecorpsconceptsandprograms.com/organizations/operating-forces/operating-forces-introduction. [Accessed: 22 January, 2016].

USMC (United States Marine Corps) (2016) U.S. Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARFORSOC). Available from World Wide Web: https://marinecorpsconceptsandprograms.com/organizations/operating-forces/us-marine-corps-forces-special-operations-command-marforsoc. [Accessed: 22 January, 2016].

USSOCOM (US Special Operations Command) (2015a) USSOCOM Fact Book 2016. Tampa, Florida: USSOCOM.

Vogel, J.L. (2015) Statement of General Joseph L. Vogel, U.S. Army Commander United States Special Operations Command before the House Armed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, March 18, 2015. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.socom.mil/Documents/2015%20USSOCOM%20Posture%20Statement.pdf. [Accessed: 29 December, 2015].

Wilcox, A. (2012) MarSOC Continues Growing Despite Marine Corps Drawdown. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.jdnews.com/article/20121125/News/311259952. [Accessed: 22 January, 2016].

Wilson, J.R. (2011) MARSOC Year in Review. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defensemedianetwork.com/stories/marsoc-year-in-review/. [Accessed: 22 January, 2016].

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