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PART ONE: BACKGROUND

1.0     Introduction

Joint Task Force 2This article provides an overview of the recruitment, selection and training process for the Canadian Joint Task Force Two (JTF 2).

These Commandos form the Special Forces element of the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM or CSOFC) Special Operations Forces (SOF) community, a “fourth service” (Horn, 2012, p.48) of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF).

JTF 2 is headquartered in Dwyer Hill, Ottawa (Ontario), and is commanded by a Brigadier General (OF-6); although the rank of the commander has varied between Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4) and Brigadier General (OF-6).

JTF 2 is a mixture of civilian and military personnel (both Regular and Reserve forces) from across the Army, Navy and Air Force. JTF 2 is considered Canada’s premier special operations unit and is the country’s main counter-terrorism unit, although it is employed on other high-value tasks.

Canadian Special Operations Forces CommandIn 2001, JTF 2 was deployed to Afghanistan as part of the SOF coalition. It was an important milestone; it was the first time the unit had been deployed in a major combat role outside of Canada. “Unquestionably, JTF 2’s participation in OEF [Operation Enduring Freedom] was a critical turning point in its evolution and CANSOF history.” (Horn, 2012, p.40). Although in the 1990s, the unit had “ventured to Bosnia, Rwanda, Peru on missions to protect Canadian politicians, diplomats and fellow soldiers.” (Freeze, 2010).

“Recruits run a gauntlet of scientifically designed physical and psychological tests. Typically only two in 10 soldiers who train for the unit succeed in becoming “assaulters,” a position that can pay a premium six-figure salary.” (Freeze, 2010).

JTF 2 has between 300 and 600 personnel, with an average age of 37 (Pugliese, 2014).

It must be emphasised that a candidate must be physically fit at the beginning of the JTF 2’s training process if they are to stand any chance of success. The training requires far greater expenditure of physical energy than is normally required in other peace time training. It is essential that candidates arrive fully fit, carrying no injuries and with a sound grasp of basic navigational techniques.

1.1     Aim

The aim of this article is to describe the fundamental entry requirements, selection process and training for personnel seeking to become a member of the Canadian Joint Task Force Two.

1.2     Women and the Canadian Special Operations Regiment

Applications for special operations is open to both men and women, “no military occupation is off-limits to women. Submarines were the last all-male bastion and that restriction was dropped in 2001. Combat is open to both genders.” (Campion-Smith, 2016).

“Although no women have qualified as Special Operations Assaulters, one woman (out five) who completed the assessment and selection process but was not selected, later qualified as a Category B, Special Operations Support Personnel, specifically as a coxswain.” (Knarr et al., 2014, p.84).

“In 2006 the first enlisted female completed assessment, selection and qualification course and became a badged operator [within the Canadian Special Operations Regiment].” (Knarr et al., 2014, p.84).

1.3     Brief History

20070718adf8262658_063.JPG“The first ‘JTF’ existed as an ad hoc unit that served a short stint in the Persian Gulf.” (Freeze, 2010).

The JTF 2 was formally established on 01 April 1993 when the CAF accepted responsibility for federal counter-terrorism operations from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). The RCMP’s Special Emergency Response Team (SERT) was created in 1986 as a hostage rescue unit but, in 1992, the role was taken over by the military and was recreated as JTF 2; evolving into a Tier 1 organisation (Horn, 2012).

Upon its establishment, JTF 2 contained approximately 100 personnel, divided between assaulters (two-thirds) and support personnel (one-third), comprised of (Day, 2013):

  • A small HQ element;
  • Small staff, including various counter-terrorist (CT) functions;
  • One assault troop;
  • One sniper troop; and
  • A dedicated training cadre.

JTF 2 was also supported by a small aviation detachment known as ‘B’ Flight, which consisted of three helicopters and crews training in advanced hostage rescue flight profiles.

In 1994, the first true ‘Sabre’ squadron stood up, with a second in 1999. By 2001, total manpower was approximately 350 personnel (Day, 2013), and comprised of:

  • A larger HQ element;
  • Operations squadron;
  • Multiple sabre squadrons (with multiple troops);
  • Combat support squadron;
  • Combat service support squadron; and
  • A training squadron.

“In less than two decades, Canadian Special Operations Forces (CANSOF) grew from a 100-man hostage-rescue unit to a 2,500-person Command…” (Day, 2013, p.iii).

Although originally a purely counter-terrorist unit, JTF 2 has since evolved into a ‘typical’ SF unit which its training programme reflects with the addition of traditional military skills such as patrolling and field-craft.

Having started with approximately 100 personnel, in 2015 it was reported that “After having doubled from 300 to 600 men, JTF2 is set to move from Ottawa to a 400-acre compound near Trenton, Ontario…” (Engler, 2015).

1.4     Tier 1 or Tier 2 Status

Although considered a “sister unit” (Day, 2013, p.47) to the Tier 2 SOF unit Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR), the JTF 2 is considered a Tier 1 SOF unit.

JTF 2 is sometimes referred to as a ‘Tier 1’ unit because it is usually tasked with a direct action role. Other SOF units are referred to as ‘Tier 2’ units because they, usually, fulfil a supporting role for the Tier 1 units.

1.5     General Duties of Special Operations Forces

Training, Brecons Beacons, Special Forces, SASSOF personnel are required to infiltrate and exfiltrate to and from operational areas dismounted, carrying heavy loads and manipulating personal and support weapons systems and other heavy equipment. SOF personnel perform insertions and assaults on targets by:

  • Parachuting onto ground or into water;
  • Climbing ladders and cliffs;
  • Rappelling;
  • Conducting close-quarters battle (CQB); and
  • Battle drills in varying types of terrain and climatic conditions day or night.

SOF personnel are also required to board ocean vessels while they are underway from another floating or airborne platform in all sea states day or night, and where speed and stealth are imperative. These duties are performed while wearing heavy rucksack and body armour. SOF personnel perform individual close quarter battle (CQB) and detainee handling which may require the individual to:

  • Combat and detain another person using blocking strikes;
  • Disarming;
  • Lifting;
  • Pulling;
  • Ground fighting;
  • Grappling; and
  • Moving a non-compliant person.

There is no tolerance for a lapse in attention when conducting CQB and other assaults while wearing night vision goggles as well as Special Operations Insertion and Extraction (SOIE) techniques. Accurate discrimination of non-combatants and precision engagement of enemy combatants requires extreme concentration.

Similarly, high-risk roped and un-roped insertions with no redundant safety systems require constant attention. SOF personnel require the ability for continuous analysis of the situation, environment, mission aims and unique foreign societal complexities during operations.

1.6     CANSOFCOM Human Performance Programmes

BPFA, Press-upThe CANSOFCOM Human Performance (HP) Programmes section sits within Human Performance Research and Development, an element of the Directorate of Fitness (DFIT) (itself an element of Personnel Support Programmes (PSP), a division of the Canadian Forces Morale and Welfare Services (CFMWS)).

The HP Programmes conducts a variety tasks for CANSOFCOM which include:

  • HP Research;
  • Development of physical fitness selection and maintenance tests/standards;
  • Assessment centres;
  • Supporting physical fitness training programmes;
  • Other HP research as directed by the Commander CANSOFCOM.

The HP Programmes may utilise the CANSOFCOM Human Performance Research Team and the CANSOFCOM Human Performance Lab in order to realise these tasks.

PART TWO: ENTRY STANDARDS AND APPLICATIONS

2.0     Introduction

Medical, WWI (1)Information regarding the basic requirements for enlistment or commissioning in the CAF can be found by clicking on the links, which the reader is advised to read if not already familiar.

The CAF does not accept direct entry applicants, i.e. civilians with no prior military experience, for JTF 2. As a result, volunteers for JTF 2 may be accepted from CAF military personnel (both officer and enlisted) from any branch of military service to serve with JTF 2.

Consequently, there are three recognised pathways to become a member of the JTF 2:

  • Category A: Special Operations Assaulters (SOA) are directly employable in the tactical aspects of counter-terrorist/hostage rescue and other high value tasks. This Category is open to both genders of any MOC and any rank from Private (OR-1) to Major (OF-3). They must be volunteers and are selected based on the successful completion of a selection process and the special operations assaulter course (SOAC).
  • Category B: Consists of personnel who are employable in combat support (CS) tasks during JTF 2 operations. This category is comprised of two groups:
    • Mobility: this is a recently established group tasked with tactical mobility and other combat support tasks (e.g. fire support). Members receive skills training in JTF 2 which will includes high speed tactical operation of a variety of vehicles and watercraft plus extensive training with crew served and personal weapons. The role is open to both genders of any MOC and any rank from Private (OR-1) to Warrant Officer (OF-9). Category B (Mobility) members must be volunteers and are selected based on the successful completion of a selection process (established 1999) and successful completion of the skills training.
    • Specialists: Selected technical specialists who provide specialty skills, which are directly related to their MOC. Category B (Specialists) are volunteers or those identified and recommended by their commanding officers and career managers and are selected based on their superior trade skills. A review of career and personal profiles, and a personal interview, is conducted by JTF 2. Category B (Specialists) are screened and selected as per Category C personnel.
  • Category C: Consists of combat service support (CSS) personnel who are selected from regular force MOCs to fulfil JTF 2 support requirements. Members are selected from those who volunteer and those personnel identified and recommended by commanding officers and career managers for service in JTF 2. A review of career and personal profiles, and a personal interview, is conducted by JTF 2.

2.1     Recruiting Unit

Although JTF 2 is the recruiting unit, located at the Dwyer Hill Training Centre in Ottawa (Ontario), candidates must volunteer for service with JTF 2 through their chain of command using the current ‘Application Form for Service with JTF 2’.

2.2     General Requirements and Eligibility for All Candidates

Subject to the requirements outlined below, all CAF officers and non-commissioned members are eligible to attend the JTF 2 assessment and selection programme.

General Requirements for all candidates:

  • Minimum two years’ military service for Regular forces;
  • Minimum three years’ military service for Reserve forces.
  • Obtain security clearance.
  • Obtain approval from chain of command;
  • Complete Pre-Screening Physical Fitness Test (Section 3.2).
  • Pass appropriate medical examination:
    • MOSID 00369, Special Forces Operator: V 2, CV 2, H 3, G 2, O 2, A 5.
  • Be parachute-trained or willing to undertake parachute training.

PART THREE: OULTINE OF JTF 2 SELECTION AND TRAINING

3.0     JTF 2 Selection and Training Phases

The journey to becoming a member of JTF 2 is not easy, and training is rigorous and highly selective, but the courage and strength individuals will gain as a candidate will stay with them for their entire life.

The JTF 2 Programme is the selection and training process for all candidates wishing to join the Canadian SOF community.

In addition to Phase 1 (Basic Combat) Training, candidates must also have completed Phase 2 (Advanced Individualised) Training and volunteer for airborne training (unless already qualified) to be eligible for JTF 2 selection and training.

All JTF 2 candidates will undertake a number of distinct phases of training (Table 1), in which candidates are taught the fundamentals of CAF special warfare through formal CAF schooling and on-the-job training.

Table 1: JTF 2 training pipeline
Serial Sub-element/Course Duration
1 Meet eligibility criteria Variable
2 Pre-Selection Physical Fitness Test Variable
3 JTF 2 Selection Process 2 days
4 JTF 2 Assessment Centre 7 days
5 Special Operations Assaulter Course (SOAC) 7 months

3.1     Training Hierarchy

Candidates undergo training at the Dwyer Hill Training Centre in Ottawa, Ontario.

Not sure if Dwyer Hill sits within the Canadian Special Operations Training Centre (CSOTC), which is commanded by a Major (OF-3) and located at the Canadian Forces Base Petawawa, Ontario.

The Dwyer Hill Training Centre is due to move from Ottawa to a 400-acre compound near Trenton, Ontario (Engler, 2015).

3.2     Pre-Screening Physical Fitness Test

All components of the Pre-Screening Physical Fitness Test (PFT) are administered by appropriately qualified Personnel Support Programmes (PSP) Fitness and Sports Instructors (Section 1.5). The results of a candidate’s Pre-Screening PFT test are valid up to a maximum of 6 months.

Table 2 provides an outline of the Pre-Screening PFT for Category A, Special Operations Assaulter candidates.

Table 2:  PFT for SOA candidates
 Day Event Description
1 20 metre shuttle Minimum of Level 9 (non-stop): equates to a predicted VO2peak of 47.6 ml/kg−1min−1)
Press-ups 40 or more (non-stop)
Sit-ups 40 or more in a time limit of one minute
Heaves 5 or more (non-stop)
Combat Swim Test 25 metre swim in combats, boots, rifle and no flotation (no time limit)
2 Loaded March 13 kilometres carrying 35 kg in 2 hours 26 minutes (and 20 seconds) or less
Casualty Drag
  • A straight-line route of 25 metres on even grassed ground should be chosen in order to prevent unnecessary injury.
  • The test requirement is to evacuate a simulated casualty of similar weight, but weighing no less than 70kg (1541bs) a distance of 25 metres.
  • Each candidate will wear helmet and webbing/tac vest.
  • The candidate performing the drag will carry their own and the casualty’s weapon.

3.3     JTF 2 Selection Process

The JTF 2 Selection Process is divided into two phases:

  • Phase 1: In Phase I of the selection process, Canadian Forces members of the regular and reserve forces apply for service with a SO Unit and receive approval for their application from their current Unit’s Commanding Officer.
  • Phase 2: Candidates will complete a PFT, medical evaluation, aptitude testing and a structured interview with a Personnel Selection Officer. Candidate’s files are then forwarded to the respective Unit to which they are applying for service.

At this point, Unit review boards are held, and candidates who meet the minimum threshold for service with that specific Unit are then invited to attend the JTF 2 Assessment Process, at the appropriately named Assessment Centre.

3.4     JTF 2 Assessment Centre

Appraisal (12)The JTF 2 Assessment Centre (AC), also known as the Assessment Phase (AP) and SF Operator AC, is a structured assessment process designed to measure performance while placing candidates under physical and mental stress in order to determine their suitability to undertake the Special Operations Assaulter course and ultimately be employed as a JTF 2 Special Forces Assaulter. The process is overseen by the Selection Warrant Officer.

With this in mind, candidates undergo a rigorous selection process designed to assess a number of critical attributes that have been linked to task performance on the job. Extremely high levels of physical fitness and personal motivation are crucial for the successful completion of the JTF 2 Assessment Centre. Therefore, the physical demands placed on candidates during the selection process reflect the actual job and training demands, and permits candidates performances to be observed in controlled conditions and environments.

During these seven days, a candidate is likely to be assessed on:

  • Physical fitness (both aerobic and anaerobic);
  • Phobia tests:
    • Performing effectively at height;
    • Water confidence;
    • Confined spaces;
  • Individual and teamwork tasks;
  • Psychological profile.
  • Problem solving; and
  • Interpersonal skills.

Assessments are conducted in high stress tactical settings to assess a candidate’s ability to:

  • Recall directions;
  • Identify and react to threats;
  • Handle weapons safely; and
  • Make decisions under physical and mental duress.

Officer candidates must also undertake an additional component which assesses their organisational, analytical, and communicative and presentation skills under continued physical and mental duress.

During the assessment process, candidates may decide that the job, as previewed during the assessment process, is not right for them, and thereby voluntarily withdraw (VW). In the same vain, the Unit may decide that a candidate, based on multiple assessments during the assessment process, is not suitable for further training.

From this perspective, assessment centres are not only a cost-effective approach to selection as personnel are screened-out prior to expensive training, but they also ensure that the right person is put into the right job, at the right time.

Upon completion of the JTF 2 Assessment Centre, a selection board is held to determine which candidates that have completed the assessment process will be invited to attend further training on the Special Operations Assaulter Course. Successful completion of the JTF 2 Assessment Centre does not guarantee selection. Typically, candidates will be allowed a maximum of three attempts at this phase.

3.5     Special Operations Assaulter Course

The Special Operations Assaulter Course (SOAC) is approximately 7 months in duration, and is overseen the SOAC Warrant Officer.

During the SOAC, candidates receive individual and collective training in (but not limited to):

  • Land navigation;
  • Patrolling;
  • Basic and advanced weapons; and
  • Insertion and extraction techniques.

3.6     Graduation

Upon successful completion of the Special Operations Assaulter Course, the candidate will officially become one of the approximately 600 members of JTF 2.

Candidates will receive their tan beret and join (based on their category):

  • The operations squadron;
  • One of the multiple sabre squadrons (with multiple troops);
  • The combat support squadron;
  • The combat service support squadron; or
  • The training squadron.

The Military Occupational Structure Identification (MOSID) for special operations is MOSID 00369, Special Forces Operations (SF OP). Non-commissioned Members (NCM) transfer to this MOSID, commissioned officers retain their original MOSID.

Application and selection for JTF 2 is a separate process; candidates cannot laterally transfer from the CSOR to JTF 2. JTF 2 Special Operations Assaulters are required to serve with JTF 2 for three/four years after completion of the SOAC.

3.7     Special Operations Support Orientation Course

Upon arrival at JTF 2, all new (non-Assaulter) members undergo the Special Operations Support Orientation course. This course prepares support personnel for their duties as a member of JTF 2 and ensures a heightened level of deployment readiness.

PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS

4.0     Summary

The Canadian Joint Task Force Two training pipeline is open to all male and female officers and enlisted personnel of the Canadian Armed Forces, subject to certain criteria. JTF 2 training seeks to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the Canadian Joint Task Force Two. This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for the Canadian Joint Task Force Two.

4.1     Useful Books, Documents and Magazines

  • JTF 2 Pre-Selection Physical Fitness Training Programme:
    • Third Edition: Wenger, H., Jaenen, S., Simard, M., Couturier, D. & Allard, D. (2006) JTF 2 Pre-Selection Physical Fitness Training Programme.
    • Fourth Edition: Wenger, H., Jaenen, S. & Carlson, M. (2015) SOA: Special Operations Assaulter Pre-Selection Physical Fitness Training Programme.
    • JTF2 Pre-Selection Physical Fitness Evaluation (2008).
    • Second Edition: An Interim Operations Manual for the JTF 2 Physical Fitness Selection Test. 2007.
    • DND 2473 JTF2 Physical Fitness Selection Test Reporting.
    • Interim Operations Manual for the Special Operations COXSWAIN Physical Fitness Selection Test 2007.
    • CANFORGEN 172/14 Joint Task Force two (JTF2) Selection 2015 for Special Operations Coxswain (SO COXN).
  • CSOR Pre-Selection Physical Fitness Training Programme:
  • The FORCE (Fitness for Operational Requirements of CAF Employment) Programme Operations Manual. 1st Ed. 01 April 2014.
  • Canadian Forces EXPRES Operations Manual. 5th Ed. July 2012.
  • Canadian Armed Forces Medical Standards (CFP 154). A-MD-154-000/FP-000 – Appendix 1, Annex D: Task Statement for Military Occupational Structure Identification – 00369 Special Forces Operations. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-policies-standards-medical-occupations/mosid369-special-forces-operations.page. [Accessed: 22 April, 2016].
  • Horn, B. & Balasevicius, T. (eds) (2007) Casting Light on the Shadows: Canadian Perspectives on Special Operations Forces. Kingston, Ontario: The Dundurn Group and Canadian Defence Academy Press.
  • Spencer, E. (2009) (ed) The Difficult War: Perspectives on Insurgency and Special Operations Forces. Kingston, Ontario: The Dundurn Group and Canadian Defence Academy Press.
  • Spencer, E. (ed) (2012) Special Operations Forces: Building Global Partnerships. Kingston, Ontario: The Dundurn Group and Canadian Defence Academy Press.
  • Rouleau, M. (2012) Between Faith and Reality: A Pragmatic Sociological Examination of Canadian Special Operations Forces Command’s Future Prospects. Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press.
  • Crabbe, R.R., Mason, L.G. & Sutherland, F.R. (2007) A Report on the Validation of the Transformed Canadian Forces Command Structure. Ottawa, Ontario: Report Prepared for the Chief of the Defence Staff, 31 January 2007.
  • Day, M. & Horn, B. (2010) Canadian Special Operations Command: The Maturation of a National Capability. Canadian Military Journal. 10(4), pp.00-00. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol10/no4/12-day%20horn-eng.asp. [Accessed: 20 April, 2016].
  • Day, S.J. (2013) 9/11 and Canadian Special Operations Forces: How ’40 Selected Men’ Indelibly Influenced the Future of the Force. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA583821. [Accessed: 17 April, 2016].
  • Horn, B. (2012) “We Will Find a Way”: Understanding the Legacy of Canadian Special Operations Forces. JSOU Report 12-2. February 2012. Available from World Wide Web: http://jsou.socom.mil/JSOU%20Publications/12-2_Horn_CanadianSOF(Feb12)_final.PDF. [Accessed: 17 April, 2016].
  • Horn, B. (2014) A Reflection on Leadership: A Comparative Analysis of Military and Civilian Approaches. Available from World Wide Web: http://jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/553. [Accessed: 18 April, 2016].
  • Morehen, T.A. (2010) The Proposed Canadian Mode for Special Operations Forces Aviation Part 2. Available from World Wide Web: http://airforceapp.forces.gc.ca/CFAWC/eLibrary/Journal/Vol3-2010/Iss1-Winter/Sections/05-The_Proposed_Canadian_Model_for_Special_Operations_Forces_Aviation-Part_2_e.pdf. [Accessed: 18 April, 2016].

4.2     Useful Links

4.3     References

Campion-Smith, B. (2016) Looking for a Few Good Women – Canada’s Military goes on a Hiring Spree. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2016/03/14/looking-for-a-few-good-women-canadas-military-goes-on-a-hiring-spree.html. [Accessed: 20 April, 2016].

Carlson, M.J. & Jaenen, S.P. (2011) Development of a Pre-Selection Physical Fitness Training Program for Canadian Special Operations Regiment Applicants. 2nd International Congress on Soldiers’ Physical Performance. 04-07 May 2011, p.212. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.jyu.fi/sport/laitokset/liikuntabiologia/en/congresses/archive/icspp2011/final_announcement. [Accessed: 21 April, 2016].

Couturier, D. (2015) Amendment – CSOR Pre-Screening Physical Fitness Test – Operations Manual – Amendments. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.cfmws.com/en/AboutUs/PSP/DFIT/Fitness/Pages/Canadian-Special-Operations-Regiment-(CSOR).aspx. [Accessed: 21 April, 2016].

Day, A. (2006) Canada’s New Special Ops. Available from World Wide Web: https://legionmagazine.com/en/2006/11/canadas-new-special-ops/. [Accessed: 21 April, 2016].

Day, S.J. (2013) 9/11 and Canadian Special Operations Forces: How ’40 Selected Men’ Indelibly Influenced the Future of the Force. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA583821. [Accessed: 17 April, 2016].

Engler, Y. (2015) If Re-Elected Harper Government Would Expand Canada’s Special Forces … To be Deployed Internationally on Behalf of Pentagon. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.globalresearch.ca/if-re-elected-harper-goverment-would-expand-canadas-special-forces-to-be-deployed-internationally-on-behalf-of-pentagon/5479849. [Accessed: 17 April, 2016].

Freeze, C. (2010) Silent Killers: Secrecy, Security and JTF2. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/silent-killers-secrecy-security-and-jtf2/article1319588/. [Accessed: 17 April, 2016].

Horn, B. (2012) “We Will Find a Way”: Understanding the Legacy of Canadian Special Operations Forces. JSOU Report 12-2. February 2012. Available from World Wide Web: http://jsou.socom.mil/JSOU%20Publications/12-2_Horn_CanadianSOF(Feb12)_final.PDF. [Accessed: 17 April, 2016].

Jean, G. (2006) Commandos See Expanded Mission Portfolio. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2006/June/Pages/CommandosSee2954.aspx. [Accessed: 17 April, 2016].

Knarr, W., Turnley, J.G., Stewart, D.J., Rubright, R. & Quirin, J. (2014) Special Operations Forces Mixed-Gender Elite Teams (SOFMET): Examining Socio-Cultural Dynamics of SOFMET. Joint Special Operations University, Centre for Special Operations Studies and Research. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/SOCOM%20-%20JSOU%20Study%20on%20Special%20Operations%20Forces%20Mixed-Gender%20Elite%20Team3.pdf. [Accessed: 20 April, 2016].

Pugliese, D. (2014) Canada’s Secret Soldiers: Special Forces’ Work Takes Place Under The Radar. Available from World Wide Web: http://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/canadas-secret-soldiers-special-forces-work-takes-place-under-the-radar. [Accessed: 22 April, 2016].

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