RAAF Badge1.0     Introduction

Training is the process of preparing men and women for their careers in the military. Training is progressive and continues all the way through an individual’s career; being a mixture of mandatory, optional, individual and collective training and educational programmes.

Established in 1921, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the second-oldest independent Air Force in the world, and forms the air power element of the Australian Defence Force (ADF). RAAF personnel receive some of the best military training in the world and there are a number of stages to their training.

First, they will complete Phase 1 initial (basic) military training, the purpose of which is to turn civilian recruits into partly-trained airmen/airwomen (providing foundational skills). The RAAF’s Phase 1 initial military training produces fit, motivated individuals capable of carrying out air operations’ tasks in any operational environment. Those who pass are fully prepared to embark onto Phase 2 of their RAAF training.

When individuals complete their initial training, they will move to their Corps school for Phase 2 Initial Employment Training (IET) which qualifies individuals for their chosen profession within the RAAF. The length and location of this training will depend on the job the individual has chosen. From there individuals will begin their work within a RAAF unit, but will continue to train and learn throughout their career.

The RAAF is structured into a number of different functional groups, termed Force Elements but the Group in the title. For example, the Combat Support Group is responsible for the movement of personnel and equipment and the Air Force Training Group is responsible for training.

This article is divided into five sections for easier reading with part one providing some background information, whilst section two looks at the organisation of training in the RAAF. Sections three and four outline the training provided to recruit airmen/airwomen and officer cadets, including some of the personalities and training facilities involved. Section five will provide an alternative view on the role of Phase 1 initial training, and will also provide some useful links/documents and references.

1.1     Structure of the Royal Australian Air Force

Figure 1 provides an overview of the current structure of the RAAF as of November 2015.

Figure 1: Structure of RAAF

Figure 1: Structure of the RAAF

1.2     Training Approach

The induction of any recruit (Officer or Airman/Airwoman) into the RAAF is one of the most important phases of their military career. The experience and attitudes they gain during this time will help to form the individual’s character and approach to the Air Force. It is critical for initial (Phase 1) training establishments to ensure that individuals under training become proficient in the basic skills required by every person in the Air Force. The training emphasis should be on progressive development and achievement throughout the initial training programme.

Specifically, the RAAF “philosophy of training is to take the qualities already possessed by the recruits and build on them through instruction, ‘learning by doing’, coaching and mentoring. Putting in an honest effort, making and learning from mistakes, and doing better next time are essential features of the training process.” (RAAF, 2015a).


2.0     An Overview of the Royal Australian Air Force’s Phase 1 Initial Military Training Landscape

The structure and organisation of the RAAF’s training establishments depends principally on the training requirement for employment categories. Figure 2 provides an overview of the current, November 2015, RAAF Phase 1 initial military training landscape.

Figure 2: RAAF Military Training Landscape

Figure 2: RAAF Phase 1 initial military training landscape

2.1     Air Force Training Group

RAAF, AFTG BadgeThe Air Force Training Group (AFTG) is one of six Force Element Groups within RAAF Air Command. AFTG is considered a long term strategic asset with the responsibility to train Air Force and selected personnel from the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army and overseas Defence Forces, thereby enhancing air power capability. It is also responsible for the development of training policy and procedures.

Formerly known as Training Command – Air Force, AFTG came under the control of Air Commander Australia as a Force Element Group on 01 July 2006.

AFTG is led by the Commander AFTG, an Air Commodore (OF-6), and is located in RAAF Base Williams, Victoria. AFTG is comprised of four major elements, not including HQ AFTG, with each having a specific responsibility in relation to Air Force training, and report directly to Commander AFTG, and include (Curran, 2010):

  1. Air Training Wing;
  2. Ground Training Wing;
  3. RAAF College; and
  4. Reserve Training Wing.

AFTG also supports Air Force public relations activities through the well-known Roulettes aerobatic team, the RAAF Balloon, the RAAF Museum and the Air Force Band.

2.1.1     Headquarters Air Force Training Group

The Headquarters Air Force Training Group (HQ AFTG), located at RAAF Base Williams, is responsible for:

  • The provision of policy guidance, support and strategic planning to Commander AFTG for the successful management of Air Force training;
  • Conducting higher-level training evaluation studies;
  • Conducting training design;
  • Conducting research and development in the area of training technology;
  • Providing oversight of rationalised training on behalf of Air Force; and
  • Issuing nationally recognised civilian awards based on Service vocational training and experience.

2.1.2     Air Training Wing

The Air Training Wing (ATW) is responsible for conducting basic and instructor training for pilots, air combat officers, and air traffic controllers; as well as basic photographer training and aircrew combat survival training in the Air Force and for selected ADF personnel. ATW currently manages eight units that are located throughout Australia:

  1. ADF Basic Flying Training School (located at RAAF Base Tamworth): is responsible for flight screening and basic flying instruction for the RAAF, RAN and Australian Army; the school conducts training under a contract with BAE Systems Australia and operates C/T4B Airtrainers.
  2. No. 2 Flying Training School (located at RAAF Base Pearce): is responsible for advanced flying instruction for both the RAAF and RAN, and operates Pilatus PC-9 aircraft.
  3. Combat Survival and Training School, located at RAAF Base Townsville;
  4. Central Flying School (located at RAAF Base East Sale): also operates PC-9s, and is responsible for training flight instructors and maintaining flying standards across the RAAF; it controls the Roulettes aerobatic team and the RAAF Balloon.
  5. School of Air Warfare, located at RAAF Base East Sale;
  6. School of Air Traffic Control, located at RAAF Base East Sale;
  7. No. 32 Squadron (located at RAAF Base East Sale): operates Beechcraft King Air B350 aircraft that provide direct support to the School of Air Warfare.
  8. RAAF Museum (located at RAAF Base Williams, Point Cook): operates several types of heritage aircraft for flying displays.

ATW also promotes RAAF Public Relations through flypasts and flying displays by the RAAF Roulettes, the RAAF Museum and the RAAF Balloon.

2.1.3     Ground Training Wing

The Ground Training Wing (GTW), located at RAAF Base Wagga, is responsible for providing technical and other non-flying training to Air Force personnel. Part of AFTG when the group was formed in 2006, GTW merged with RAAF College on 01 January 2008, before being re-raised as a separate wing on 01 December 2009. RAAF College and GTW split the various schools and training establishments between them to improve the quality of development, conduct and evaluation of ab-initio military training, Initial Employment Training (IET), post-IET and promotion courses; the Combat Survival Training School also moved as this time (Curran, 2010). GTW currently manages four Schools in New South Wales and Queensland:

  1. Defence Explosive Ordnance Training School, located at Defence Establishment Orchard Hills;
  2. RAAF Security and Fire School, located at RAAF Base Amberley.
  3. RAAF School of Administration and Logistics Squadron, located at RAAF Base Wagga; and
  4. RAAF School of Technical Training, located at RAAF Base Wagga.

2.1.4     RAAF College

RAAF, RAAF College BadgeThe RAAF College, commanded by a Group Captain (OF-5), is responsible for all initial, career development, promotion and leadership training. The Commandant is assisted by the Deputy Commandant, a Wing Commander (OF-4). RAAF College also provides entry level and specialist training across a broad range of ground-based roles and specialisations including security, fire and ground defence, administration and logistics, technical trades, and explosive ordnance.

RAAF College was formed at RAAF Base Point Cook on 01 August 1947 and reorganised as RAAF Academy in 1961. It was re-formed again, as RAAF College, in 1986, following the establishment of the tri-service Australian Defence Force Academy. RAAF College took over the schools and responsibilities of Ground Training Wing on 01 January 2008 before the latter was re-raised as a separate organisation on 01 December 2009. RAAF College currently manages five Schools and Units in New South Wales and Victoria:

  1. No. 1 Recruit Training Unit, located at RAAF Base Wagga;
  2. Officers’ Training School, located at RAAF Base East Sale;
  3. School of Postgraduate Studies, located at RAAF Base Wagga (with Corporal promotion centres at RAAF Base Richmond and RAAF Base Amberley;
  4. Air Force Band (Squadron Leader), located at RAAF Base Williams; and
  5. Defence International Training Centre (cultural and military familiarisation training for foreign military personnel training in Australia), located at RAAF Base Williams;

The RAAF College promotes Public Relations through the Air Force Band.

2.1.5     Reserve Training Wing

The Reserve Training Wing (RTW) formed on 01 January 2006 at RAAF Base Amberley. RTW provides ground training to the Air Force Reserve, and training and administrative support to ADF units employing Air Force Reserves.

RTW was formed on 18 May 1998 as Combat Reserve Wing, under Combat Support Group, and renamed Reserve Training Wing on 01 January 2006. RTW currently manages ten Squadrons based throughout Australia:

  1. No. 13 (City of Darwin) Squadron, located at RAAF Base Darwin, Northern Territory;
  2. No. 21 (City of Melbourne) Squadron, located at RAAF Williams (Laverton Base);
  3. No. 22 (City of Sydney) Squadron, located at RAAF Base Richmond, New South Wales;
  4. No. 23 (City of Brisbane) Squadron, located at RAAF Base Amberley;
  5. No. 24 (City of Adelaide) Squadron, located at RAAF Base Edinburgh, South Australia;
  6. No. 25 (City of Perth) Squadron, located at RAAF Base Pearce, Western Australia;
  7. No. 26 (City of Newcastle) Squadron, located at RAAF Base Williamtown, New South Wales;
  8. No. 27 (City of Townsville) Squadron, located at RAAF Base Townsville;
  9. No. 28 (City of Canberra) Squadron, located at HMAS Harman, Canberra; and
  10. No. 29 (City of Hobart) Squadron, located at Anglesea Barracks, Hobart, Tasmania.

2.2     Australian Defence College

The Australian Defence College (ADC) is part of the Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) Group and is led by the Commander Australian Defence College (COMADC), an OF-7 level officer. ADC is Defence’s centre of expertise in vocational and professional education and training, together with related research in areas of Defence interest.

The ADC is governed by the Australian Defence College Advisory Board which provides advice to COMADC on major issues relating to the ADC. ADC consists of:

  • ADC Headquarters;
  • The Centre for Defence and Strategic Studies (CDSS);
  • The Australian Command and Staff College (ACSC);
  • The Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA), see Part 5;
  • The Defence Learning Branch (DLB); and
  • A number of other Learning Centres.

A detailed description of ADC can be found here [LINK to page, TBC].


3.0     Introduction

The initial training of all airmen/airwomen for the RAAF is conducted at the No.1 Recruit Training Unit (1RTU), which was established on 02 August 1954, and is located at RAAF Base Wagga.

This training, delivered over nearly 13 weeks (12.6 weeks, previously 10.2 weeks), provides all new recruits (up to 1200 per year) with the basic military attitude, skills and knowledge (ASK) to become productive members of the RAAF. As a result of this function, 1RTU trains approximately two-thirds of the RAAFs new workforce, with the other third being officers trained at the Officer Training School (Section 4.0).

Important attributes are developed in recruits during their time with 1RTU, and include:

  • Teamwork;
  • Self-discipline;
  • Esprit de Corps; and
  • Respect for RAAF values (respect, excellence, agility, dedication, integrity and teamwork).

3.1     Background

1RTU was formed on 02 August 1954 and, for the first time, consolidated male recruit training at one central location (RAAF, 2015b). Prior to this period training for new male recruits was delivered at a variety of training establishments located across Australia.

1RTU witnessed a number of relocations before finally settling in RAAF Base Wagga, as outlined below:

  • RAAF Base Richmond (near Sydney), 02 August 1954;
  • RAAF Base Rathmines (near Newcastle), 28 April 1958;
  • RAAF Base Wagga (near Forest Hill), 30 November 1960;
  • RAAF Base Edinburgh (near Adelaide), 27 March 1964; and
  • RAAF Base Wagga, 2008.

The Women’s Royal Australian Air Force (WRAAF) was established in 1950, with training undertaken at several locations across Australia. However, on 21 July 1965 the WRAAF Recruit Training Flight was incorporated into 1RTU which centralised WRAAF initial training.

In preparation for the absorption of the WRAAF into the RAAF in 1977, delivery of WRAAF initial training was transferred to the Women’s Training Unit (WTU) located at Tottenham, near Melbourne, on 13 June 1976; the WTU later relocated to RAAF Laverton in January 1977.

From 1950 to 1981 the training of WRAAF recruits was delivered separately from their male counterparts. However, in January 1981 the WTU was disbanded and 1RTU took over responsibility for the training of both male and female recruits at one central location.

3.2     Structure of 1RTU

RAAF, 1RTU BadgeThe 1RTU staff and administration building is a two-storey office building incorporating a number of discrete functions including the induction centre, executive cell and training flights. The building provides a combination of offices and open plan work areas, crew rooms, amenities and meeting and conference rooms. Examples of key personalities include:

  • Commanding Officer, Wing Commander (OF-4).
  • Senior Administrative Officer, Squadron Leader (OF-3).
  • Recruit Flight Commander, Flight Lieutenant (OF-3).
  • Chief Instructor, Squadron Leader (OF-3).
  • Warrant Officer Disciplinary, Warrant Officer (OR-9).
  • Training Warrant Officer, Warrant Officer (OR-9).
  • Section Commander Training Management Section, Flight Sergeant (OR-7).
  • OIC Small Arms Training Section, Flight Sergeant (OR-7).

3.3     Recruit Instructors

There are a number of instructional staff employed at 1RTU and include:

  • Military Skills Instructors (MSIs), deliver the majority of recruit training;
  • Air Defence Guards (ADGs), deliver ground defence training; and
  • Physical Training Instructors (PTIs), deliver physical training.

MSIs are the supervising and instructing staff for recruits undergoing training at 1RTU, and as such train recruits in core military attitudes, skills and knowledge (ASK) essential for their service.

Any airman/airwoman can apply to become an MSI, and if successful they can then be considered for a posting at 1RTU as an instructor. The MIS course is designed to give individuals the grounding needed to perform their duties as an MSI.

Back in the early 2000s potential MSIs attended the 11-week MSI course at RAAF Base Edinburgh, now at RAAF Base Wagga (Caddaye, 2002). Over the 11-weeks 14 trainees undertook:

  • 2-weeks of instructional techniques: delivered by RAAF School of Management and Training Technology (SMTT) personnel;
  • 2-weeks of weapons instructional techniques: delivered by Airfield Defence Guard staff from the RAAF Security and Fire School;
  • 7-weeks of specific MSI training: leadership training, history of the RAAF, drill lessons, and being involved in ground training exercises with a recruit course.

MSI trainees will be taken through virtually every aspect of the RAAF, beginning with the basics, and is both mentally and physically challenging with a tough learning curve.

MSIs can be employed at a variety of locations, including:

  • 1RTU;
  • RAAF Base Wagga;
  • Australian Defence Force Academy;
  • Officer Training School; and
  • Defence Force Corrective Establishment.

3.4     Outline of Training

When recruits first arrive at 1RTU they will be divided into groups of approximately 30 and overseen by two non-commissioned officer (NCO) instructors, who deliver the majority of training.

Recruits reside in four-person room, dormitory style accommodation with communal shared amenities. Military clothing is typically issued on the first Thursday, so (smart) personal clothing is required for the first three days.

Recruits will also have to pass an Initial Fitness Assessment (IFA) on arrival, failure of which will result in removal form the course (following a failed re-test), and includes:

  • 10 Press-ups for males or 4 press-ups for females (sub-maximal effort);
  • 20 sit ups with feet held (male and female) (sub-maximal effort); and
  • Level 6.5 on the beep test (male and female) (should desire to exceed this level).

During Week 2 of training recruits will undertake the Initial Fitness Test (IFT) and during Week 8 of training will undertake the summative IFT, consisting of:

  • Press-ups or flexed arm hang;
  • Sit-ups (feet held or un-held); and

All physical training is progressive and conducted under the guidance and control of physical training instructors (PTIs) and, besides the IFA and general conditioning classes, recruits will also undertake a number of diverse activities such as the confidence course, field exercises, battle physical training, and cardiovascular and strength training.

The aim of the physical training programme is to increase strength, cardiovascular endurance and core stability in preparation for the ground defence phase of training where running and intense physical exertion is required. Failure to demonstrate the required fitness standard may result in a recruit’s removal from training and a transfer to the Rehabilitation and Mentoring Section (RMS) for further training and administrative action.

RAAF initial training is designed to be a total learning experience and as such very little time is available for anything not directly related to recruit training. Within this in mind, recruit training encompasses both active outdoor training in practical skills and indoor formal classroom lessons, such as:

  • Outdoors:
    • Drill;
    • Weapon handling and firing;
    • Airfield defence;
    • Fire fighting; and
    • Physical fitness.
  • Indoors:
    • RAAF history;
    • Customs and traditions;
    • Service knowledge;
    • First aid;
    • Military law;
    • Sexual ethics;
    • Ethical citizenship skills; and
    • Character development skills.

Recruits are also assessed throughout the course on their standard of behaviour and attitude towards training.

Although recruits may elect to discharge within ninety days of enlistment, this would not normally occur until they have completed the first thirty days of initial training.

3.5     Reserve Airman/Airwoman Training

Reserve, or part-time, airmen/airwomen also undertake their initial training with 1RTU. Although reservists can opt for training on a full-time basis alongside their regular counterparts, most reservists opt for the part-time option.

Both the full-time and part-time options cover the same topics, however, the part-time option is conducted over a longer time frame (up to 2-years) and is divided into four phases:

  • Phase 01: 3.6 weeks;
  • Phase 02: 2-weeks;
  • Phase 03: 3-weeks; and
  • Phase 04: 4-weeks.

3.6     Graduation

On the Wednesday of week twelve, there is a Graduation Parade that is held on the main parade ground commencing at 11.00am, to which friends and family are invited.

3.7     Phase 2: Initial Employment Training

Phase 2 Initial Employment Training (IET) follows Basic Training and prepares airmen/airwomen for the specific job they will ultimately be doing, i.e. their trade or category. The length, location and recognised qualifications of this training are dependent on the job. After this airmen/airwomen will be sent to an Air Force unit and their career as an airman/airwoman will have begun.


4.0     Introduction

The Officers’ Training School (OTS) is the unit responsible for preparing recruits, senior Airmen/Airwomen and Warrant Officers for careers as commissioned officers in the RAAF. OTS, led by a Wing Commander (OF-4), is located at RAAF Base East Sale, Victoria; with approximately 200-300 students graduating each year.

Training aims to prepare students for their careers as officers and leaders by providing them with skills in decision-making, communication, management and leadership. As such, the School delivers the majority of initial officer training for the RAAF via the Initial Officer Course (IOC).

4.1     Background

The OTS was formed at RAAF Base Rathmines on 12 April 1950, originally a World War II flying boat base located at Lake Macquarie, New South Wales. Later reorganisations of training requirements saw each flight of OTS become an independent squadron and on 16 May 1956 Officers’ Training Flight became Officers’ Training Squadron, with No 30 Officer Initial Training Course being the last to graduate on 03 November 1960.

In 1961, following the closure of RAAF Base Rathmines in December 1960, the Officers’ Training Squadron relocated to RAAF Base Point Cook, Victoria, under its original name of the OTS.

By the end of 1986 the OTS was closed and its functions absorbed into the RAAF College organisation. However, in July 1998 the OTS was re-established as an independent unit, under the then RAAF Training Command, with a Wing Commander (OF-4) as Commanding Officer. The RAAF Training Command was reorganised as Air Force Training Group in 2006.

After a Defence Efficiency Review (DOD, 2005) the OTS was relocated, in January 2008, from Point Cook to the new facility at RAAF Base East Sale, and commenced its first course at this new location (ABC News, 2008). The official opening of the new facility was conducted on the 14th March 2008.

4.2     Structure of OTS

RAAF, OTS BadgeThe OTS staff and administration building incorporates a number of discrete functions including the induction centre, executive cell and training flights. The building provides a combination of offices and open plan work areas, crew rooms, amenities and meeting and conference rooms. There are also the Learning Centre and Theatre building situated next to the main OTS building. Accommodation for students consists of four separate blocks located next to the main OTS building. Examples of key personalities include:

  • Commanding Officer, Wing Commander (OF-4).
  • Training Flight Commander, Squadron Leader (OF-3).
  • Course Flight Commander, Flight Lieutenant (OF-2).
  • Training Systems Flight Commander, Flight Lieutenant (OF-2).

4.3     Outline of RAAF Officer Training

The IOC caters for a number of different students:

  • Regular RAAF officer cadets: Approximately 200 students per year on the 17-week IOC.
  • Reserve RAAF officer cadets:
  • Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) students:
    • The OTS is responsible for overseeing Single Service Training for RAAF officer cadets of the ADFA.
    • This training, together with the Common Military Training taught at the ADFA, provides ADFA students with the equivalent of the 17-week IOC.
  • Reserve Specialist Officer Familiarisation course: delivered bi-annually.

The OTS provides training to approximately 300 Reserve and ADFA students across the year.

4.3.1     Initial Officer Course (Regular)

The 17-week (formerly 18-weeks) Initial Officer Course, delivered by the OTS, is for regular officers of the RAAF and has a number of major components, including:

  • Introduction to military life
  • RAAF values and attitudes;
  • Command and leadership training;
  • Physical fitness;
  • Management skills;
  • Fire safety and first aid;
  • Individual commitment and personal responsibility;
  • Personal development;
  • Communication (written and oral) and teamwork (leader and member) skills;
  • Adventurous training and experiential learning;
  • Ground defence and weapons training (consisting of basic weapon handling, field craft, camouflage and concealment, and ground defence);
  • Air force operations studies; and
  • Military law.

These components manifest through presentations, essays, group tasks, classes (theory- and practical-based), and tactical and non-tactical exercises. In synergy with a broad academic programme, the IOC develops the attitudes, skills and knowledge (ASK) required of a modern professional RAAF officer. As a consequence, officer cadets are assessed throughout the IOC on their officer qualities.

Table 1 provides a general outline of RAAF initial officer training.

 Table 1: Outline of OTS training
Week Description
  • Line up.
  • Dental check.
  • Introduction to room inspections.
  • Begin lessons on military history, drill instruction, sewing and ironing, and how to pack kit for field exercises.
  • A 4-day adventure training package at Buchan Caves consisting of caving, abseiling, navigation exercise, a ration pack ‘3 course meal’ challenge, and white water rafting.
  • 3 nights in tents.
  • Physical training session(s).
  • Field-based training.
  • Development of teamwork and leadership skills through group exercise.
  • First exercise ‘Iostopes’, how to deal with a chemical spill.
  • Weapon training on the ranges.
  • Leadership and command tasks.
  • Classroom-based exercise(s) followed by the practical application!
  • Officer Cadets are given difficult, but not impossible, tasks designed to test their leadership, motivational and communication skills.
  • ‘Real life’ military operational scenarios designed to test the officer cadets’ skills and knowledge developed over the previous weeks.
  • Operations include: rescue/evacuation missions, security procedures (e.g. vehicle check points) and coping with losing communications (and setting up new lines of communication somewhere else).
  • Preparation for graduation.
  • Graduation ceremony.

4.3.2     Initial Officer Course (Reserve)

RAN, RANR, RAN Reserve LogoThe Reserve, part-time, version of the IOC covers the same topics as the Regular IOC, albeit over a longer time period. It is delivered on a part-time basis (up to 2 years) over four (previously five) phases of training, and includes:

  • Phase 01: delivered at OTS over 4-weeks.
  • Phase 02: delivered at OTS over 2-weeks.
  • Phase 03: self-paced, distance learning package over 6-months.
  • Phase 04: delivered at OTS over 2-weeks.

Phases 01 and 02 can be taken separately or consecutively over one 6-week block.

Reserve officer cadets can opt to complete the 17-week IOC with their Regular counterparts.

4.4     Physical Training Screen

During training trainees will be expected to participate in three Physical Training (PT) Screens which are conducted for different reasons:

  • PT Screen 1: used as an introduction to assess personal physical fitness, identifying students who possess a fitness standard below that of the minimum standard and may be at a greater risk of injury while on IOC.
  • PT Screen 2 (Formative Assessment); and
  • PT Screen 3 (IFT Summative Assessment).

Table X [00,04,07 – Outline of IOC PT Screens] provides an outline of each of the PT Screens including criteria and standards for both men and women.

4.5     Phase 2: Initial Employment Training

All officers will move on to employment training, known as Category Training, at a Phase 2 training establishment, known as a Category School.


5.0     Another Perspective: Training, Inspections and Parades

If you would like to read some interesting, if not thought-provoking, articles on military inspections, parades and basic training then view:

5.1     Useful Links

Listed are some links which the reader may find useful:

5.2     Useful Documents

5.3     References

ABC News (2008) Class Starts at East Sale RAAF Base. Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 20 June, 2014].

Caddaye, B. (2002) Back to School for Pair. Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 26 November, 2015].

Curran, A. (2010) Spreading its Wings: AFTG Splits into Four. Air Force, February 4, 2010. pp.20. Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 20 June, 2014].

DOD (Department of Defence) (2005) Relocation of RAAF College, RAAF Base East Sale, Victoria and RAAF Base Wagga, New South Wales: Statement of Evidence to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works. Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 20 June, 2014].

RAAF (Royal Australia Air Force) (2015b) History. Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 26 November, 2015].

RAAF (Royal Australian Air Force) (2105a) No.1 Recruit Training Unit. Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 26 November, 2015].