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This article is organised as follows:
- Part 01: Background to the UK’s Military Annual Training Tests (MATTs).
- Part 02: MATT Policy
- Part 03: An Overview of the MATTs.
- Part 04: MATTs and the Other Services.
- Part 05: Oversight and Governance.
- Part 06: Employer Benefits.
- Part 07: Miscellaneous.
PART ONE: BACKGROUND
MATTs are an important part of the training activity carried out by every officer and soldier in the British Army, regardless of whether they are part of the Regular Army or Army Reserve.
MATTs are divided into nine sections and cover a range of subjects considered important to the profession of soldiering, focussing on skills and attitudes that contribute to operational effectiveness.
These subjects include shooting, fitness, first aid, navigation and operational law amongst others, and individuals have to achieve and maintain a standard appropriate to their role and their likeliness of operational deployment.
MATTs are also referred to as Mandatory Annual Training Tests and Mandated Annual Training Tests, and abbreviated as MATT’s or MATTS.
This article is divided into seven parts for easier reading. Part One provides a background to MATTs, discusses what they are, and when and where they are delivered, as well as a brief history. Part Two discusses MATT policy, outlining the various MATTs levels, and the annual training and testing requirements. Part Three provides an overview of the MATTs. Part Four looks at MATTs in the other Services. Part briefly describes the responsibilities of commanders and training officers. Part Six outlines some of the benefits to employers of officers and soldiers who have undertaken MATTs training. Finally, Part Seven provides some useful publications and references.
The aim of this article is to provide a broad outline of the British Army’s Military Annual Training Tests, commonly known as MATTs.
1.2 What are MATTs For?
In order that the attitudes, skills, and knowledge (ASK) gained during Phase 1 (initial) training are maintained to a defined standard, and consistent with operational readiness requirements, the British Army directs military training activities, which are to be completed within specified time periods.
These common core skills (CCS) are currently termed Military Annual Training Tests or MATTs, and they represent the minimum start-standard for collective training. As such, MATTs state the mandatory annual individual training requirement, and minimum testing standards, applicable to all Regular Army and Army Reserve officers and soldiers, including those personnel serving in headquarters (HQs), Ministry of Defence (MOD) appointments, and those serving with other commands and forces worldwide.
MATTs test training standards in basic military skills (common military skills, CMS) which have been taught to all officers and soldiers during Phase 1 training and they are also used as the start standard for many Phase 3 (career) courses, as well as for Mission Specific Training (MST). MATTs are a product of training policy which is reviewed annually to ensure that they are relevant, but inevitably there can be a lag, since the requirement for CCS will evolve continuously.
Annual mandated training standards such as MATTs will provide a base-line minimum standard, but as the army prepares for a contingent future, MATTs will evolve and there are other skills which should be incorporated as standard. The nine MATT subject areas at Level 1 form the basis of the individual military training curriculum, to which can be added: command and information systems (CIS), cultural awareness and language, field-craft, and personal security.
MATTs are delivered as a series of lectures and tests designed to maintain a base skill set/level, and are considered the first ‘building block’ of operational training, aimed at testing soldiers at the individual level.
The next level of operational training, known as collective training, builds on this individual training – mainly being aimed at testing groups of soldiers (in units) in their ability to conduct military operations coherently.
1.3 When are MATTs Delivered?
Every officer and soldier in the British Army is expected to complete their MATTs annually.
Some MATTs are tested once per year (April to March) and some are tested twice per year (April to September and October to March), with a period between tests of at least three months.
1.4 Where are MATTs Delivered?
Exactly where military units conduct their MATTs will vary between units. For example, some units may deliver MATTs:
- Within the ‘normal’ working week, within the barracks environment.
- As part of an annual training period or training camp (during the working week or over the weekend).
- As part of a specific field training exercise (FTX) or overseas training exercise (OTX).
- As a combination of the above.
MATTs may be undertaken at the troop/platoon, squadron/company, and/or regiment/battalion level. For example, it is not uncommon for soldiers to conduct their annual fitness test (an 8-mile load march) collectively as part of CO’s PT (Commanding Officer’s Physical Training).
1.5 The Nine MATTs
“There are 10 MATTs covering subjects including weapon training, values and standards, and battlefield casualty drills.” (DSA, 2017, p.34).
There are nine MATTs, as outlined below:
- MATT 01: Personal Weapon Training.
- Training in the operation of rifles and machine guns and/or pistols through classroom-based practice and live firing exercises on shooting ranges.
- Soldiers learn the technical aspects of operating weapons and safety is paramount.
- They must be able to react with speed, efficiency and accuracy and demonstrate quick thinking while always remaining calm and focused.
- MATT 02: Fitness.
- Soldiers are recommended to take at least three 45-minute training sessions each week in their own time. Two tests are conducted each year to ensure the soldier has the required level of fitness to carry out their role.
- The Personal Fitness Assessment (PFA) comprises press-ups, sit-ups and an aerobic test while the Annual Fitness Test (CFT) requires the soldier to travel eight miles in two hours carrying all their equipment.
- Both the PFA and CFT have been updated, with new activities – the Soldier Conditioning Review (SCR) and Physical Employment Standards (PES) respectively.
- MATT 03: Battlefield Casualty Drills (BCD).
- All soldiers train to save life and stabilise a casualty’s condition.
- Basic training covers: management of casualty scenes and casualties, treatment of bleeding and breathing difficulties.
- More advanced training includes the treatment of breaks, dislocations, burns, shocks and evacuation procedures.
- All training includes stressful scenarios and requires that soldiers react calmly, think quickly and put theory into practice.
- MATT 04: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN).
- Soldiers must know the drills necessary to survive a CBRN attack including how to decontaminate themselves and administer self-aid for poisoning.
- Some of the training takes place in a Respirator Testing Facility (RTF) using ‘tear gas’ which requires soldiers to react calmly in a pressurised situation while maintaining awareness of the surrounding environment.
- Giving and receiving clear orders and attention to detail are critical.
- MATT 05: Navigation.
- Soldiers must pass practical and theory tests demonstrating proficiency in map reading and navigation without aids other than a map and compass.
- MATT 06: Values and Standards (V&S).
- The Army has exacting standards for the values, attitudes and behaviour of its soldiers.
- The training is broken down into presentations and scenario discussions, covering: core values (selfless commitment, respect for others, loyalty, integrity, discipline and courage), personal security, substance misuse, healthy living, and equality and diversity.
- MATT 07: Operational Law (Op Law).
- This training ensures soldiers are familiar with their legislative requirements according to operational law.
- Topics covered include rules of engagement, appropriate use of force, law of armed conflict and prisoner handling.
- MATT 08: Survive, Evade, Resist, and Extract (SERE).
- SERE training covers the principles of survival and the actions to be undertaken when captured by the enemy.
- It ensures soldiers are well prepared for pre-deployment training and can apply the principles, if necessary, in an operational theatre.
- MATT 09: Counter Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED).
1.6 Brief History
- ITD 2 (Fitness).
- Replaced Army Training Directive No.7.
- ITD 3 (First Aid).
- With the exception of a short introductory video, the course was entirely taught and assessed on practical models.
- ITD (A) 3 taught a systematic approach to every incident and to each injured soldier.
- It was presented in a robust, waterproof pocket aide memoire of Battlefield First Aid Drills, which was an individual issue item.
- ITD 6 (Law of Armed Conflict).
- ITD 10 (Equal Opportunities).
- ITD 12 (Substance Misuse Training) Part 1 (Alcohol).
- ITD 12 (Substance Misuse Training) Part 2 (Drugs).
In April 2006, the MATT framework consisting of 6 MATTS replaced the 12 ITD’s.
With the new MATTs came a new supporting package of DVD’s, CD’s, instructor’s notes and individual instructional specifications (ISPECS, aka lesson plans). Part of the plan was to make the delivery of individual training much more user friendly and easier to administer, with the new packs containing all the material required to administer, deliver, and test the MATTs.
Under the MATTs framework, the recognition ITD was removed (becoming dependent on role) and map reading (MATT 5: Navigation) became a formal addition (unit prerogative prior to this).
In 2007, the British Army undertook a pilot and proof-of-concept project to test the feasibility of mobile devices for military training, with a later project targeted specifically towards iPhones and Android-based phones (British Army & Intuition, 2011). MATT 2 (fitness) was cited as “being a perfect fit for mobile.” (British Army & Intuition, 2011, p.3).
“The Military Annual Training Test (MATT2) Policy was introduced in August 2008 (last amended in April 2013) and details the basic level of physical fitness testing for all Officers and Soldiers, in order to ensure that individuals are prepared for the physical and psychological demands of combat.” (Army Secretariat, 2014, p.2).
In 2008, MATT 6 (Law of Armed Conflict, and encompassing values and standards) was split into two MATTS – MATT 06 (Values and Standards) and MATT 07 (Operational Law). MATT 8 (SERE) was also introduced in 2008.
In 2012, the E-Learning Awards 2012 Best Use of Mobile Learning Category was awarded to the British Army, in partnership with Intuition, for producing learning apps that allow its soldiers to use their own smartphones, whether in the comfort of their own homes or training in the field (Threapleton, 2013).
“The traditional method of training delivery within The British Army is hands-on, via simulations, or in classrooms. The introduction of mobile learning challenged the culture of centralised classroom delivery.” (Threapleton, 2013, p.3).
The army estimated it could save “£10 per soldier taking a MATTs module via mLearning”, between £300,000 and £2.1 million per year (Threapleton, 2013, p.6).
“The ‘A3 Test’ was designed by Wattbike in partnership with the British Army to help evolve their testing and physical assessments. It is a three-part assessment on the Wattbike that allows accurate testing of individuals’ aerobic fitness. The aim was to increase resilience and reduce the incidence of further injury whilst making a positive contribution to recovery times and long term exercise adherence. The test still provides a challenge, but an impact-free one for soldiers. There are now over 2000 Wattbikes within Army units and now over 100 specially trained Master Trainers who deliver the training throughout the Army. The A3 Test has now been officially written into the MATT 2 fitness policy document which maps out the mandatory fitness tests.” (HCM, 2017, p.90-91).
Updates of MATTs include:
- Issue 1: April 2006.
- Issue 2: August 2008 (2008DIN07-109).
- Issue 3: April 2011.
- Issue 4: April 2012.
- Issue 5: April 2013.
- Issue 6: April 2014
- Issue 7: April 2015
- Issue 8: Published in June 2016 but dated April 2016 (DSA, 2017, p.36).
- Issue 8.1: Updated on 04 November 2016 (DSA, 2017, p.60).
PART TWO: MATT POLICY
MATT policy is published and reviewed annually by Army HQ, Directorate of Training (Army) and incorporates Army Reserves MATTS requirements. It is the reference document to determine the standards required and the frequency of testing.
- Details of MATTs to be passed in order to qualify for bounty (by Reservists) are published periodically by Directorate of Training (Army).
- Army Fitness Policy issued periodically by Directorate of Training (Army) sets out the standards and regulations for MATT 2 (Fitness).
2.1 MATT Levels
The MATTs currently have three levels and are largely based on whether the individual is to be deployed, as outlined in Table 1 below.
|Table 1: MATT Levels|
2.2 Annual Training/Testing Requirements
The annual training/testing requirements differ between the various MATTs and the level to be achieved, as outlined in Table 2 below.
|Table 2: Annual Training/Testing Requirements|
|Shooting||Fitness||BCSD||CBRN ||Nav||V&S||Op Law||SERE||C-IED|
|1||WHT x2, ACMT||AFT x1
|BCD L1||TO 4.1
|Nav & Map Reading||All||All||All||All|
|2||WHT Live Fire 2 (25m shoot)||AFT x1
AFT (AR) x 1 
|BCD L2||TO 4.2||Map Reading||All||All
Tst LOAC only
|3||WHT x1||PFA x2||BCD L3||Nil||Nil||All||All
Test LOAC only
- TO = training objective. TO 4.1 is operate and TO 4.2 is survive.
- Army Reserve must pass AFT to become fit for mobilisation.
- The Commanding Officer of an Army Reserve regional unit or Commander Central Reserve Headquarters (CRHQ) may authorise all training with the limits specified within the Army Reserve Regulations 1978 (as amended).
- Only Army Reserve soldiers who are trained to at least Phase 2 (employment) training may mobilise.
2.3 Army Reserve MATTs
MATTs are carried out in accordance with direction issued by Army HQ, Directorate of Training (Army) and are to be completed at Level 2. This qualifies Army Reservists for their Annual Certificate of Efficiency; the completion of MATTs is a qualifying criterion for the award of Army Reserve Bounty and there is a direct relationship between MATTs and Army Reserve remuneration; this requirement remains extant.
High Readiness Reserve (HRR) personnel, Reserve personnel serving in Regular deployable units, and Reserve personnel warned for operations complete MATTs at Level 1.
- Reserve Bands complete MATT 2 at Level 3, 2 x PFA plus MATTs 6 & 7 at Level 3.
- Full Time Reserve Service Home Commitment (FTRS HC), FTRS HC Reserve Staff Group (FTRS HC (RSG)), and FTRS Limited Commitment (FTRS LC) are to complete MATTs at Level 3.
- FTRS (HC) and RSG are not required to complete MATT 2.
- FTRS Full Commitment (FTRS FC) are to complete MATTs to the same standard expected of a Regular officer or soldier in their unit. Commanding Officers may determine if their Reserve personnel should complete MATTs to a higher level ahead of a period of training, an OTX, or support to Defence Engagement.
In order to support Army Readiness requirements, a 12 month ‘rolling’ currency for MATTs was introduced from 01 April 2015 (refer to 2015DIN07-081, MATT policy update, and 2016DIN07-053).
MATTs are to be completed by all members of the Army Reserve, except for:
- Engineer and Logistic Staff Corps RE.
- RLC/EFI Staff.
- Officer Cadets of the Held Strength (Unpaid) category.
MATT 2 (fitness) policy is set out in Army Fitness Policy published by the Directorate of Training (Army) and includes policy on those 50 years of age and over.
Unlike other MATTs which are only recorded on the operational deployability record (ODR), MATT 2 (Fitness Tests) are also recorded on the Fitness Information Software System (FISS) for both Regular Army and Army Reserve, as per Army Fitness Policy (the army is/was looking at automatically populating the ODR from FISS).
2.4 MATT Exemptions
There are certain exemptions to the MATTs, as outlined in Table 3 below.
|Table 3: MATT Exemptions|
|MATT||Desxcription||Course/Professional Exemption Qualification||Proof of Validity|
|1||Personal Weapon Training||Nil||N/A|
|5||Navigation||Land Navigation SME .||N/A|
|6||Substance Misuse only||RNO’s||Whilst in role|
- The BCDT course is no longer taught and ceased to exist after March 2013 (2012DIN07-042).
- RMO = Regimental Medical Officer.
- CMT = Combat Medical Technician: CMT’s at Regimental Duty are exempt MATT 3, whilst CMT’s in secondary care must complete MATT 3.
- RNO = Regimental Nursing Officer.
- SME = subject matter expert.
- Time period only relates if not currently employed in role.
PART THREE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE MATTS
This part of the article provides a brief outline of each individual MATT.
Prior to any testing or assessment, an instructional package must be delivered, for example:
- Classroom-based lessons (e.g. discussions and small group work);
- DVD/CD video;
- Indoor practical lessons; and/or
- Outdoor practical lessons.
3.1 MATT 1: Personal Weapon Training
- Weapon Handling Test (WHT); and
- Annual Combat Marksmanship Test (ACMT), formerly Annual Personal Weapon Test (APWT).
Collectively these two elements include:
- Making a weapon safe (safety catch on and no rounds in the weapon);
- Loading a weapon (putting a magazine on the weapon);
- Making a weapon ready (to fire by putting a round in the breach);
- Unloading a weapon (by safely removing any rounds and removing the magazine);
- Conducting a make safe (unload followed by a load);
- Zeroing a weapon (i.e. what you aim at is what you shoot!).
- Firing a weapon at a target at distances between 100 to 600 metres, with and without a respirator.
A pass score in the Annual Combat Marksmanship Test (ACMT) should be regarded as the minimum standard for every soldier. The British Army states that every officer and soldier must be able to fire all relevant in-service weapons effectively, in realistic tactical settings by day or night. They go on to argue that this level of proficiency requires constant practice, a combination of simulation and live firing, and a managed progression, and that competitive shooting from sub-unit to army level promotes interest and can lift standards.
MATT 1 training can be delivered by a variety of personnel, including those who have successfully completed the:
- All Arms Skill at Arms (AA SAA) instructor’s course;
- Section Commander’s Battle Course (SCBC), generally Infantry;
- Combat Marksmanship Coaching Qualification (CMCQ); and/or
- Range Management Qualification 1-3 (RMQ 1-3).
The aim of the AA SAA course is to train AA NCO’s to be instructors on those Infantry platoon weapons with which they are armed and to qualify them to conduct and supervise live firing. The course is 6-weeks in duration (module 1 is 4-weeks and module 2 is 2-weeks). The AA SAA instructor course is for those holding the substantive rank of Corporal or above.
The SCBC is for those holding the substantive rank of Lance Corporal, and is a mandatory career course for Infantry personnel. The SCBC encompasses the AA SAA course.
The CMCQ qualifies students to act as coaches and safety supervisors on all forms of military ranges, and is for those holding the substantive rank of (Acting) Lance Corporal or above. The Regular Army version of the course is delivered in one period whilst the Army Reserve version is generally delivered over two weekends. Successful students are awarded the specialist qualifications 3768 and SA (K) 90, and can attend the RMQ 1-3 course.
The CMCQ course objectives are to instruct students in order to be able to:
- Safety Supervise and Coach an individual on all types of standard military ranges using the LSW and rifle;
- Understand and teach the Marksmanship principles;
- Be able to correctly zero & bore sight a weapon;
- Be able to set up and control the Butts on a Converted Gallery (CG) range;
- Be able to set up and control Electronic Target Range (ETR) console operations; and
- Understand and use the Army Operational Shooting Pamphlet (AOSP) Volume 1.
The RMQ 1-3 qualifies students to conduct live firing stages 1 to 3 (Live Firing Marksmanship Training (LFMT)), and is for those holding the substantive rank of (Acting) Lance Corporal or above. The Regular Army version of the course is delivered in one period whilst the Army Reserve version is generally delivered over three weekends. Successful students are awarded the specialist qualification SA (B) 90.
The RMQ 1-3 course objectives are to instruct students in order to be able to:
- Organise a range activity;
- Understand and use Pamphlet 21 rules;
- Understand and use the AOSP Volume 1;
- Understand and adhere to range standing orders;
- Conduct firing on a 25m range, Gallery, CG and ET ranges;
- Control the Butts;
- Control ETR console operations (including SARTS range system); and
- Write a Range Action and Safety Plan (RASP) and a Range Aide Memoire (RAM).
3.2 MATT 2: Fitness
- Personal Fitness Assessment (PFA): Tested twice per year (April to September and October to March), with a period between tests of at least three months.
- Annual Fitness Test (AFT): Tested once per year (April to March), with a period between tests of at least three months.
The AFT is gender free, meaning all personnel have the same test regardless of age or gender. In contrast, the PFA is gender fair meaning all personnel have to reach a minimum standard in accordance with age group and gender – older personnel and females get more time. Personnel aged 50 or older are exempt the AFT.
The PFA consists of three elements:
- Two minutes of press-ups;
- Two minutes of sit-ups; and
- 1.5 mile (2.4 km) run, or multi-stage fitness test (MSFT).
Soldiers are required to attain a pass at the gender fair level equivalent to a PFA ‘green’ (Army Secretariat, 2014). A soldier’s inability to attain a pass in any of the three elements will be deemed a fail and require remedial action in accordance with the current Fitness Test Failure Policy.
The AFT is designed to assess soldiers’ lower and upper body strength and endurance. The test was formerly known as the Combat Fitness Test (CFT) – and is still generally known as such. The AFT involves a fast-paced march at fifteen minutes per mile (brisk walking pace), in full combat gear including personal weapon, across rough terrain and roads. Although all (both men and women) will cover a distance of 8 miles in 1 hour 55 minutes to 2 hours, the exact weight of equipment carried will depend on the unit and arm or service not gender. Generally:
- Combat Troops (e.g. Infantry and armour) units will carry the most weight (25 kg);
- Combat Support (CS) Troops (e.g. engineers and artillery) will carry an intermediate weight (20 kg); and
- Combat Service Support (CSS) Troops (e.g. Logistics, Medical, REME, and clerks) will carry the lowest weight (15 kg).
The PFA and AFT should be regarded as the minimum standard.
As reported in 2016, there is some speculation that the fitness tests will be re-written to ensure that women can qualify for close combat roles in the Infantry and armoured regiments (Sculthorpe, 2016) now that they are open to women. It is expected that the new standards would be introduced from 2019 (Sculthorpe, 2016).
3.3 MATT 3: Battlefield Casualty Drills
Soldiers are issued a BCD aide memoire, and the British Army argues that all soldiers should expand their first aid competence and confidence beyond the level defined in MATT 3.
Although now outdated, the document Battlefield Casualty Drills Aide Memoire, 5ed (January 2007) provides a clear outline of the process soldiers are expected to follow when dealing with casualties.
MATT 3 training is delivered by a qualified MATT 3 Instructor, formerly BCDT, who must carry out two periods of instruction (assessed), and plan and stage a practical Battlefield Casualty incident to qualify. There is a written exam on day one of the course. Once qualified a MATT 3 instructor:
- Will qualify as an Individual Team Medic;
- Can conduct MATT 3 training up to level 1.
- Can train soldiers in their unit in Battlefield Casualty Drills to MATT 3 standard;
- Can plan and stage battlefield casualty exercises;
- Can assess soldiers in their units against the MATT 3 standard; and
- Can maintain battlefield casualty instructional aids.
The Regular Army version of the MATT 3 Instructor course is delivered in one period whilst the Army Reserve version is generally delivered over three weekends. The qualification is valid for two years.
The MATT 3 instructor course is for those holding the substantive rank of Lance Corporal or above.
3.4 MATT 4: CBRN
MATT 4 is concerned with Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN), and formerly known as IDT (A) NBC (Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical). With regards to MATT 4, it is essential that individual officers and soldiers can not only ‘survive to fight’, but that they have the appropriate current CBRN skills and knowledge to operate in a CBRN environment.
- The warning signs of a CBRN attack;
- How to don protective clothing and the respirator;
- How to decontaminate themselves, others, and equipment;
- How to operate and fight in a CBRN environment;
- A variety of other important CBRN-related procedures.
Released on 01 April 2013, Issue 5 of MATTs saw a re-write to MATT 4 to include the general service respirator (GSR), although the package still contained training material for the S10 respirator for units that had yet to convert. The GSR has been improved with the design of the GSRe and GSReS models (Scott Safety, 2011).
The MATT 4 CBRN Defence Assistant Instructor course is a precursor to the CBRN Instructor’s course held at the Defence CBRN Centre (DCBRNC), Salisbury. The course provides students with the skills and knowledge to operate CBRN equipment at sub-unit level and to assist a CBRN Instructor to MATT4 level. The Regular Army version of the course is delivered in one period (3 weeks) whilst the Army Reserve version is generally delivered over three weekends or three weeks (MOD, 2018).
The CBRN Instructor course, which superseded the CBRN Trainer and Operational Instructor courses, is aimed at military personnel, who are responsible to the CBRN Defence Advisor, who deliver MATT 4, Common Military Skills (CMS) or Common Core Skills (CCS) training (MOD, 2018; RAF, 2018). The course trains personnel to:
- Fit, repair and maintain in-service respirators (GSR, S10 and FM12);
- Operate the ‘basic’ and advanced respirator testing system (RTS and ARTS);
- Use CBRN training aids and facilities such as Confirmation Training Facilities;
- Operate and maintain in-service sense and monitoring equipment;
- Conduct reconnaissance and survey; and
- Implement CBRN warning measures and maintain hazard management at a CBRN incident site, including equipment decontamination.
A CBRN Defence Advisor is responsible to the commander for the tactical planning and execution of CBRN defence measures and unit CBRN training.
The assistant instructor course is for those holding the substantive rank of Lance Corporal or above (or senior Privates granted the local rank of Lance Corporal). The instructor course is for those holding the substantive rank of Corporal or above.
3.5 MATT 5: Navigation
Although ‘Military Survey’ was involved in the production of Manuals of Map Reading for many years, it was only in 1980 that it assumed the responsibility for map reading training at recruit level by agreeing to run a course for recruit map reading instructors of all arms at the School of Military Survey (Nolan, 2008).
For the short, two-week, Map Reading Instructor Course (MAPRIC) a set of student hand-outs, similar to précis, was initially produced. At the same time a MAPRIC training package, comprising two ‘flipatrans’ volumes, was produced in 1983 containing lesson plans and vufoils for overhead projection, these being printed in the Litho Wing of the school. Later, a 35mm film-strip version of this package was produced by the Services Kinema Corporation.
Prior to the introduction of MATTs in 2006, map reading was not a mandated training requirement. With the introduction of MATT 5, map reading was boosted to encompass a wider-remit, being renamed to the broader title of navigation.
Although MATT 5 is constructed by the Assistant Chief of Staff (ACOS) Plans, Joint Force Intelligence Group, the activity is governed by the Commanding Officer of the unit conducting the activity; it is common for units to participate in orienteering events to fulfil some of the requirements.
Released on 01 April 2013, Issue 5 of MATTs saw a complete re-write to MATT 5 to include a more focussed approach and an enhanced training package to be used for anyone who fails to meet the required standard.
Prior to 01 April 2017, MATT 5 could be delivered by:
- A Map Reading Instructor (MAPRIC);
- Someone deemed a Competent Map Reader (who was signed off by a MAPRIC Instructor holding the MAPRIC qualification);
- A MATT 5 Unit Navigation Assistant Instructor;
- A MATT 5 Unit Navigation Instructor; or
- A Land Navigation Subject Matter Expert (Land Nav SME), introduced in 2013.
For the MAPRIC qualification candidates had to successfully pass an entrance test and field test on day one, then five more tests that contributed 20% each to the final test. There was a theory and practical in the first week, a theory and practical in the second week, and a teaching practice in the second week (achieving 60% on each). There was also a night navigation exercise and a couple of field planning exercises completed as syndicates. The MAPRIC qualification ceased to be valid on 01 April 2017.
The MATT 5 Unit Navigation Assistant Instructor course provided competent map readers with the skills and knowledge to instruct and revise land navigation to MATT 5 Level 1 standards in order for them to train and test soldiers in MATT 5. The Regular Army version of the course was delivered in one period whilst the Army Reserve version was generally delivered over two weekends, being a mixture of theory and practical lessons, and exercises. Assessment included two assessed land navigation lessons and production of a land navigation exercise instruction. The qualification was valid for three years.
An assistant instructor could:
- Conduct revision training at MATT 5 level 1 and 2 prior to testing;
- Plan and stage MATT 5 testing; and
- Conduct MATT 5 testing at level 1 and 2.
The assistant instructor course was for those holding the substantive rank of Lance Corporal or above.
The Land Navigation Subject Matter Expert (Land Nav SME) course, which has superseded MAPRIC, is aimed at military personnel who will deliver navigation training (including MATT 5). The course trains personnel to:
- Use a range of map reading and navigation techniques.
- Use a range of civilian and in-service GPS/GNSS.
- Plan navigation exercises using mission planning software.
- Produce a land navigation exercise instruction.
- Assess navigation at both basic (MATT 5) and advanced competencies.
- Locally (i.e. within unit) train and qualify competent persons to deliver cascade training of MATT 5 under their authority and supervision. Land Nav SME can train their own Land Navigation Map Reading instructors to both basic and advanced competency, as well as train GPS instructors.
The course is three weeks (15 working days) and there are currently nine courses per year, with one specifically for reservists delivered over a two week period (including weekends, 16 working days). Candidates are expected to be at a very good MATT 5 standard of navigation – there is an entrance test on the first day.
A Land Nav SME acts as the Commanding Officer’s advisor on navigation and is responsible for the unit’s navigation (including instruction, training and assessment) – as such, the course is designed for those in the substantive rank of Sergeant or above (or Corporals granted the local rank of Sergeant). Major units are established for two Land Nav SME and minor unit’s one.
The British Army argues that advanced navigation skills, well beyond the MATT requirement, are essential for officers and soldiers who cannot count on having tools such as GPS on future operations.
Budding Land Nav SME can use this computer graded map reading skills test to assess their current level of knowledge.
3.6 MATT 6: Values and Standards
MATT 6 training is broken down into presentations and scenario discussions, covering:
- Core values (selfless commitment, respect for others, loyalty, integrity, discipline and courage);
- Personal security;
- Substance misuse;
- Healthy living; and
- Equality and diversity.
Values underpin personal motivation and therefore also leadership. The British Army’s six core values provide a moral foundation to guide the decisions and actions of the officer and soldier.
When values are declared and followed, they form the basis of trust. Therefore, leaders who exercise the army’s core values shape the attitudes of subordinates and in the training environment generate motivated, committed and resilient soldiers imbued with a common ethos.
Further information regarding the British Army’s values and standards can be found here.
3.7 MATT 7: Operational Law
All Service personnel are provided with training on the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC), including during initial basic training phases, staff and promotion courses. Personnel are required to undertake periodic LOAC training to agreed standards. LOAC is aimed at teaching soldiers about the Geneva Convention and the basics of what you can and cannot do in certain combat situations, and the difference between care of combatants and non-combatants in an operational situation.
As ITD 6, the LOAC module centred on a ‘Cold War’ video made in the 1970s/early 80s. Ideally, an officer from the Brigade legal
As noted in the Aitken Report, MATT 6 originally encompassed the British Army’s requirement (under Defence Information Note 06-093) for LOAC training (British Army, 2008). Introduced in April 2006, MATT 6 replaced ITD (A) 6 and was a significant improvement as it was tested. MATT 6 included a 22-minute LOAC training video, which had been updated in line with routine practice in 2004 and again in 2006. MATT 6 also covered training on the army’s values and standards, plus its internal policies on bullying and harassment. It is conducted annually by all members of the army and is, as directed in the Land Mounting Instruction, to be conducted in the 6 months prior to deployment.
In 2008, MATT 6 was divided into MATT 6 (Values and Standards) and MATT 7 (Operational Law) following the Directorate of Operational Capability (DOC) audit 4/07 and the Aitken Report (British Army, 2010).
MATT 6 was to be completed in full by all personnel whilst MATT 7 depended on deploy/non-deploy status (British Army, 2010). For personnel in non-deployable units or non-deployable HQ posts MATT 7 consisted of a single module on the LOAC. Those in deployable units, and all individuals deploying on operations, were required to complete a more comprehensive MATT 7 package that included a module on Search and Prisoner Handling; this included specific coverage of the five prohibited techniques (see below), direction for humane treatment for all persons at all times, and instruction that tactical questioning and interrogation would only be conducted by qualified personnel. Initial training for both officers and non-commissioned officer (NCO) ranks was based on the full MATT 7 package.
In 2012, as a consequence of the Final Report of the Army Inspectorate Review into the Implementation of Policy, Training and Conduct of Detainee Handling (dated 15 July 2010) and the Baha Mousa Public Inquiry (released 08 September 2011), a number of structural and conceptual changes regarding captured persons (CPERS) were made. JDP 1-10 – Captured Persons, the doctrinal paper developed by the Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre (and the underpinning document regarding this subject), and MATT 7 were revised.
The five prohibited techniques in the treatment of captured persons (CPERS) were redefined for MATT 7 in January 2012 (Morrison, 2013).
- Stress Positions: Any physical posture which a CPERS is deliberately required to maintain will be a stress position if it becomes painful, extremely uncomfortable or exhausting to maintain.
- Hooding: Placing a cover over a CPERS’ head and face.
- Subjection to Noise: Holding a CPERS in an area where there is unnecessary excessive noise.
- Deprivation of Sleep and Rest: Depriving a CPERS of the minimum requirement of sleep and rest.
- Deprivation of Food and Water: Depriving a CPERS of the minimum requirement of food and water.
I am remember having ‘fun’ with 1, 3 (occasionally) and 4 as a recruit in the 1990s. Sleep deprivation is a given on field exercises and holding a bumper to the ceiling with legs bent leaning against the wall which was quite fatiguing after a while (sad face) for misdemeanors.
Anyway, the British Army states that these five techniques, as redefined above, must never be used as an aid to tactical questioning or interrogation, as a form of punishment, discriminatory conduct, intimidation, coercion, or as deliberate mistreatment. Hooding is prohibited at any time, for whatever purpose.
With the release of Issue 5 of MATTs on 01 April 2013, MATT 7 was extensively re-worked and new videos clips included in order to reinforce key learning points. The training requirement was also amended to include delivery of all material at all levels, although there was no increase in the testing requirement.
The army argues that in order to maintain moral legitimacy and win over populations in an increasingly complex and populated battlespace, soldiers and officers will need to:
- Understand and abide by complex Rules of Engagement (ROE);
- Undertake detention operations (in accordance with CPERS policy); and
- Manage civilian populations in a humane manner.
Currently, MATT 7 provides training and assessment in (Hansard, 2016b):
- Module 1: LOAC;
- Module 2: Investigations and accountability;
- Module 3: CPERS; and
- Module 4: The use of force.
All Army personnel conduct MATT 7 training Modules 1-3 on an annual basis and are required to pass tests. Those who are completing initial training, and personnel that are deployable, also conduct MATT 7 training Module 4 and pass a test. Deployable Service personnel must complete Module 4 on an annual basis.
- MATT 7 – Operational Law by James Curry on Prezi (07 March 2017).
3.8 MATT 8: SERE
SERE is Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Extraction. MATT 8 SERE should not be confused with the SERE training undertaken by personnel with ‘prone to capture’ and ‘survival’ in their job descriptions (e.g. Special Forces and aircrew), delivered by the Defence Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Extraction (SERE) Training Organisation (DSTO) located at RAF St Mawgan (RAF, 2017).
SERE training is delivered at three levels:
- Level A: Theoretical training, scenario based, Computer Based Training or a DVD. This is the standard that all UK service personnel receive on the subject of SERE, annually and lasting around an hour. For MATT 8 only.
- Level B: Theoretical training with applied practical skills that support planning and preparation as well as actions to take in the event of difficulties or survival situations happening.
- Level C: Theoretical training with in-depth practical skills, which are both tested fully through scenario based training with a high degree of realism (Normally very specialist courses and provided ONLY to those with the direct need).
Introduced in 2008, MATT 8 training consists of a DVD detailing SERE methods so that soldiers have an understanding of what to suspect in this type of scenario.
With the Issue 5 of MATTs (01 April 2013) a new video was produced which covered the full training requirement for MATT 8.
The British Army argues that on future operations there are unlikely to be conventional frontlines, and, particularly when operating in small groups, soldiers will be more vulnerable to capture or detention than has been the case in the past.
3.9 MATT 9: C-IED
MATT 9, Counter – Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED), was developed as a response to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Training extended to countering all mines and booby traps, through basic search and ground sign awareness. The British Army argued that such devices were likely to feature on future operations.
With the release of Issue 5 of MATTs on 01 April 2013, MATT 9 was revised to reduce the training burden. Although it remained Afghan-centric, it was subject to an ongoing training needs analysis (TNA) with the purpose to deliver training better suited to contingency in the future.
The All Arms C-IED (AA C-IED) Assistant Instructors course is a precursor to the AA C-IED Instructor’s course held at the Defence Explosive Munitions Search School (DEMSS).
The purpose of the AA C-IED Instructor course is train and qualify NCO’s to instruct and conduct C-IED uplift training and test up to MATT 9 Level 1 standard. The Regular Army version of the course is delivered in one period whilst the Army Reserve version is generally delivered over three weekends, being a mixture of classroom and outdoor practical’s. Assessment includes a written exam, and delivery of a theory and practical lesson. Students will also receive training and assessment on the current/in-service hand held metal detector (HHMD, VALLON) which if successful will qualify them as a VALLON Instructor.
Both instructor courses are for those holding the substantive rank of Corporal or above.
3.10 Additional Training
The British Army states that the following should be delivered in addition to MATTs (British Army, 2013, p.4-4 to 4-5):
- Command and Information Systems:
- This is a relatively new requirement, often termed ‘skill at information’, but it is likely to include minimum standards of proficiency at Information Communication Technology (ICT), abilities to analyse, manage and communicate information and intelligence, and proficiency in the employment of all relevant tactical Communication Information Systems (CIS).
- Cultural and Language Skills:
- All personnel deployed on operations must be appropriately familiar with the culture within which they operate, so that they can exert influence, contributing to mission success.
- Even when not preparing for a particular theatre, soldiers and officers must have opportunities and be encouraged to learn about other cultures.
- Cultural awareness needs to be broadened beyond the limited theatre-specific syllabus that has hitherto been delivered as part of mission specific training.
- All officers and SNCOs should have an understanding of the core principles of social anthropology: ‘how contemporary human beings behave in social groups’.
- Language skills should also be encouraged in all officer and soldiers, but are time consuming to develop and not always available for contingent deployments.
- The components of cultural awareness training are: structures and politics, history, social conventions, daily life and verbal/non-verbal communications.
- Field-craft is a broad topic, which encompasses the:
- Ability to live in unfamiliar environments (rural and urban);
- Conceal oneself (camouflage and concealment); and
- Detect the enemy and signs of the abnormal (surveillance).
- Field-craft should therefore include activities such as:
- Administration in the field;
- Camouflage and concealment; and
- Ground sign awareness.
- All officers and soldiers, irrespective of Arm (i.e. job/role), must be able to operate for long periods in the field, rather than from fixed bases.
- Field-craft is a broad topic, which encompasses the:
- Personal Security:
- Whether it is:
- Providing immediate defence for their force element;
- Contributing to the Operational Security (OPSEC) plan; and/or
- Protecting themselves and the force in their personal communications,
- All officers and soldiers must be able to maintain their own and their comrades’ security.
- Whether it is:
PART FOUR: MATTS AND THE OTHER SERVICES
This part of the article looks at the MATTs framework from the perspective of the other Services that make up the armed forces of the UK and how they are tailored to suit the needs.
4.1 MATTs and the Royal Navy
In May 2011 an enhanced initial naval training course was introduced at HMS Raleigh (MOD, 2012). The course is underpinned by nine core maritime skills (CMS) that are the foundations of naval life and the basis of operational effectiveness. CMS is the naval equivalent of MATTs, and follows the same numerical sequence; e.g. CMS 7 is Operational Law (British Army, 2010) and is conducted annually (Hansard, 2016b).
“For the RNR [Royal Naval Reserve], that blended initial training develops Core Maritime Skills (CMS) and includes basic health and safety, learning to live together on a mess deck and in field conditions, basic fitness (including passing a swimming test), parade training, operating in the maritime environment, weapon handling, damage control and general naval knowledge.” (Hansard, 2016a).
Personnel must also be familiar with Operational Detention and Use of Force in accordance with the latest published guidance (Hansard, 2016b).
4.2 MATTs and the Royal Marines
“For the RMR [Royal Marines Reserve], Unit training is focused on building physical endurance, whilst weekends develop Military Annual Training Test (MATT) skills for operating in field conditions and includes basic field admin, harbour routines, field craft and navigation, and patrolling. Throughout initial training the RNR and RMR are tested to the same basic standards as their regular counterparts and on successful completion are awarded the same competencies.” (Hansard, 2016a).
4.3 MATTs and the Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force (RAF) Generic Education and Training Requirement (GETR) stipulates a through life training requirement in Phase 1 to 3 training for both officers and airmen in, for example, Force Protection, military skills, ethos, Law of Armed Conflict and Air Power (British Army, 2010; Hansard, 2016b).
Some elements require annual training, such as fitness tests, but other elements do not such as the treatment of CPERS (MATT 7, although there are some exceptions according to role and capability).
The RAF operates a 3-category pre-deployment training system in accordance with Permanent Joint Headquarters (PJHQ) Individual Pre-Deployment Training (IPDT) Policy (refer to PJHQ IPDT Policy, PJHQ/J7/77/7700/0 dated 07 May 2009). LOAC and detainee handling is delivered on all 3 categories of courses.
- Category 1 IPDT is delivered at regional training centres throughout the UK for those individuals who routinely operate within the confines of a main operating base.
- Category 2 is for those who conduct missions’ off-main operating bases and is delivered at the RAF Force Protection Centre (for individuals) and at three dispersed training locations for formed units.
- Category 3 training is aimed at those individuals who are routinely involved in a direct close combat role, i.e. the RAF Regiment, and is delivered by the Operational Training Advisory & Standardisation Squadron (OPTASS) in accordance with PJHQ Mounting Instructions and Joint Commander’s Operational Training Requirement (JCOTR).
PART FIVE: OVERSIGHT & GOVERNANCE
This part of the article outlines the responsibilities of commanders and training officers.
5.1 Command Responsibilities
MATTs are not a discretionary activity; their completion is mandatory on an annual basis.
With this in mind, the chain of command has a governance and assurance responsibility regarding MATTs which includes:
- Overseeing MATTs completion;
- Recording of data;
- Verification of statistical data; and
- Maintaining an audit trail of the MATTs process.
5.2 Training Officer Responsibilities
- Read and comply with all MATT policy documents.
- Ensure that only qualified instructors instruct and test MATT training.
- Ensure instructors read and understand the instructor notes before conducting training and plan the training they are tasked to deliver.
- Produce a training programme ensuring adequate time for each MATT (level dependent).
- Book appropriate resources for training and testing soldiers undertaking MATT training.
- Ensure all results are recorded on the joint personnel administration (JPA) system and also onto unit dry training record cards.
- Ensure test/assessment documentation is kept for a minimum of five years (for audit purposes).
- Support instructors, ensuring time for correct lesson and drills rehearsal.
- Ensure all training adheres to the Unit Health & Safety policy and is supported by the appropriate Health & Safety documentation (e.g. Risk Assessments).
- Ensure failures are dealt with as per MATT Policy document
- Ensure all training References are available and up to date in the training library.
PART SIX: EMPLOYER BENEFITS
This part of the article looks at how employers can benefit from the MATTs training received by officers and soldiers during their military careers.
6.1 How Do Employers Benefit?
Employers can benefit from the skills, knowledge and experience gained by individuals from the accomplishment of MATTs – regardless of whether they are serving or ex-soldiers, or Regular Army or Army Reserve.
MATT training and assessments require soldiers to demonstrate a range of abilities, and are both intellectually and physically demanding. At a fundamental level, the values and standards training embodies qualities that all employers desire in their employees: commitment, respect, integrity, and discipline.
6.2 Workplace Relevance
A common theme across MATT training, which is relevant to many working situations, is:
- The ability to work calmly under pressure; and
- To react both thoughtfully and quickly in difficult situations.
The fitness requirement means that service personnel are generally less likely to be absent because of ill health, and demonstrates motivation and determination.
6.3 Key Skills and Qualities Developed
In brief, the key skills and qualities developed include:
- Commitment, respect for others, loyalty, integrity, and discipline;
- Ability to react quickly, calmly, and thoughtfully in high-pressure situations;
- Analytical thinking and logical application of theory into practice;
- Ability to both give clear communications and receive instructions;
- Ability to absorb important information and relate it to real situations;
- A professional approach to policy and procedures; and
- Self-discipline, self-motivation, confidence, and taking responsibility for actions.
6.4 Cost of MATTs Training
According to research endorsed by the Chartered Management Institute, if an employer was to pay for training to deliver equivalent employee development it would cost them in the order of £3,000 per year per employee (SaBRE, 2010).
It is important to note that this relates just to the development which is relevant to a civilian workplace and only includes the MATT training and testing. Service personnel undergo a considerable amount of other training each year, depending upon their role.
PART SEVEN: MISCELLANEOUS
MATTs are an important part of the training activity carried out by every officer and soldier in the British Army, regardless of whether they are part of the Regular Army or Army Reserve.
They are mandatory and divided into nine sections and cover a range of subjects considered important to the profession of soldiering, focussing on skills and attitudes that contribute to operational effectiveness.
These subjects include shooting, fitness, first aid, navigation and operational law amongst others, and individuals have to achieve and maintain a standard appropriate to their role and their likeliness of operational deployment.
7.1 Useful Publications
- MATTS Training Officers’ Guide (latest edition).
- Battlefield Casualty Drills Aide Memoire (latest edition), Army Code 71638.
- HQLF/ DTrg(A)/12/25 AA C-IED Instructor Policy 2010/11.
- ABN 74/16: MATTs 2 Fitness (10 June 2016).
- Infantry Training Volume IV, Pamphlet 21.
- Army Field Manual Volume 1, Part 7: Training (May 2013).
- JWP 3-66: Joint Personnel Recovery.
- The Infantry Basic Map Reading Handbook (2003): Available through S03 TDT, HQ DINF.
- Manual of Map Reading & Land Navigation, Army Code 70947 (2007).
- Manual of Map Reading & Land Navigation, Issue 1, Army Code 71874 (April 2009).
- Military Map Reading v2.0 (December 2010).
- Defence Instructions and Notices (DIN):
- 2014DIN07-164: First Aid Training in the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Naval Reserves. Guidance on the procedure for conducting First Aid Training (levels 1, 2 & 3) and the requirements for consideration as a RN First Aid Instructor.
- 2014DIN07-151: Team Medic (Army) Courses. Guidance on who can and how to deliver the Team Medic (Army) training course.
- 2014DIN07-133: Introduction of Online Training for Ethical Issues for Medical Personnel (CPERS) Awareness – PMS 124A.
- 2014DIN07-083: Military Annual Training Test (MATTS) and Workplace Induction Programmes Policy Update.
- 2014DIN07-086: Phase 1 Training of Army Reserve Musicians and Military Annual Training Tests (MATT) Standards for Army Reserve Musicians.
- 2014DIN07-066: The Royal Navy Core Maritime Skills Continuation Training Requirements.
- 2014DIN07-081: Physical Training Policy for Army Reserve and Full Time Reserve Service.
- 2013DIN07-044: Joint and Single Service Security, Intelligence, Photographic And Geo-Spatial Training Course For Training Year.
- 2013DIN07-053: Military Annual Training Test (MATTS) and Workplace Induction Programmes Policy Update.
- 2013DIN07-126: Law of Armed Conflict Training Directive – Naval Service.
- 2013DIN07-128: New Pamphlet No. 21 Training Regulations AC:71855 – A Summary of Changes and Mandatory Requirements.
- 2013DIN07-107: Production of JSP 926 Counter-Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (C-CBRN) Aide Memoire.
- 2013DIN07-110: Individuals Competent to Conduct Single Service Physical Fitness and Swimming Tests and Assessments, together with Phase I & II Syllabused Physical Training, and the Use of Endurance Training Leaders (ETLs)/Physical Training Leaders (PTLs).
- 2013DIN07-054: Military Annual Training Tests (MATTS) and Workplace Induction Programmes Policy Update.
- 2012DIN07-121: Core Maritime Skills 7 – Operational Law.
- 2012DIN07-122: First Aid Training in the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Naval Reserves.
- 2012DIN07-109: Mandated Course Trained Personnel within an Army Unit.
- 2012DIN07-042: Update of Military Annual Training Tests – Military Annual Training Test 3 Instructor (MATT 3 Instr).
- 2012DIN07-053: Military Annual Training Tests (MATTs) and Workplace Induction Programmes Policy Update.
- Army Reserve Regulations 1978, Amendment 29 (23 July 2015).
- Reserve Forces Act 1996.
- Regular Reserve Regulations 1997.
- Reserve Forces (Army) Regulations 1997.
- Defence Reform Act 2014.
- The Reserve Land Forces Regulations (October 2016).
7.2 Useful Links
Army Secretariat (2014) MATTs Policy PFA and AFT. FOI Request FOI2014/01133/13/04/72991 dated 23 June 2014.
British Army & Intuition (2011) Evaluating the Opportunity for Mobile Learning in a Defence Organisation. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.intuition.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Mobile-Case-Study-British_Army.pdf. [Accessed: 06 February, 2018].
British Army (2008) The Aitken Report: An Investigation into Cases of Deliberate Abuse and Unlawful Killing in Iraq in 2003 and 2004. 25 January 2008.
British Army (2010) Army Inspectorate Review into the Implementation of Policy, Training and Conduct of Detainee Handling. Final Report by The Army Inspector. 15 July 2010.
British Army (2013) British Army Field Manual. Volume 1, Part 7: Training. May 2013.
DSA (Defence Safety Authority) (2017) Service Inquiry: Death of a Soldier During an Annual Fitness Test at Brecon. 19 July 2016. London: Ministry of Defence.
Hansard (2016a) Reserve Forces: Training: Written Question – HL5550. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-question/Lords/2016-01-27/HL5550/. [Accessed: 10 February, 2018].
Hansard (2016b) International Law: Training: Written Question – 31271. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-question/Commons/2016-03-16/31271/. [Accessed: 10 February, 2018].
HCM (Health Club Management) Smarter Testing & Performance. Health Club Management. April 2017, pp.90-91.
MOD (Ministry of Defence) (2012) New Navy recruits arrive at HMS Raleigh. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-navy-recruits-arrive-at-hms-raleigh. [Accessed: 10 February, 2018].
MOD (Ministry of Defence) (2018) Guidance: Defence Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Centre. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/defence-chemical-biological-radiological-and-nuclear-centre-dcbrnc. [Accessed: 11 February, 2018].
Nolan, M.A. (2008) School of Military Survey Précis – An Introduction. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defencesurveyors.org.uk/Images/SMS%20Precis/SMS_Precis_Introduction-2.pdf. [Accessed: 12 February, 2018].
RAF (Royal Air Force) (2017) Defence SERE Training. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.raf.mod.uk/rafstmawgan/aboutus/defenceseretraining.cfm. [Accessed: 12 February, 2018].
RAF (Royal Air Force) (2018) CBRN Defence Trainer Course – R051. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.raf.mod.uk/idtraf/courses/r051.cfm. [Accessed: 11 February, 2018].
SaBRE (Supporting Britain’s Reservists and Employers) (2010) Reserve Forces Training: A Guide for Employers – Annual Training. London: Ministry of Defence.
Scott Safety (2011) GSRe Brochure. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.militarysystems-tech.com/files/militarysystems/GSRe%20Brochure.pdf. [Accessed: 08 February, 2018].
Sculthorpe, T. (2016) Army Fitness Tests to be Re-written to Make Sure Female Soldiers can Qualify for Front Line Duty. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3521538/Army-fitness-tests-written-make-sure-female-soldiers-qualify-line-duty.html. [Accessed: 06 February, 2018].
Threapleton, M. (2013) The British Army Compliance Training Goes Mobile. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.towardsmaturity.org/elements/uploads/The_British_Army_Case_Study_Final.pdf. [Accessed: 06 February, 2018].