This article on interval training is divided into five parts for easier reading:

PART FIVE: MISCELLANEOUS

5.0     Summary

Interval training is a form of repetition training, which in turn is a form of intermittent training –which is often contrasted with continuous training.

It was first mentioned, in written form, during the 1500s but was frowned upon for several centuries for a variety of reasons, and subsequently faded as a method of training. However, during the early 1900s interval training slowly started to re-emerge when pioneer athletes were looking for an advantage over their competitors.

It was not until the 1950s that interval training started to become widespread among athletes, and another 40 years before recreational athletes became gripped with ‘HIIT fever’.

The 1950s and 1960s witnessed the publication of scientific studies regarding the merits of interval training, and its physiological effects. However, the debate concerning high- versus low-intensity exercise continues, and although a significant amount of more recent research has focused on the aerobic benefits of HIIT, experts cannot reach any single conclusion regarding its efficacy, because it all depends on the perspective from which they approach the argument.

Research has revealed that HIIT-type workouts result in similar improvements in VO2max and mitochondrial density (amongst other physiological attributes) as bouts of lower-intensity exercise, but there is little consensus on which form of training is most appropriate for a sprint athlete versus a participant looking to improve their health (and is perhaps overweight).

Research suggests that interval training can improve both aerobic and aerobic capacity versus continuous training, which generally improves aerobic capacity. However, academic wisdom informs us that cardiorespiratory training should be one of four training methods employed as part of a wider training programme.

There are now a variety of interval training methods, and the manipulation of the training variables enables an almost infinite range of sessions – although the session should be person- and sport-specific.

Although interval training sessions are hard, some research suggests participants prefer them to continuous training sessions – perhaps due to the stop/start nature of the intervals. However, this stop/start element may make it difficult for participants to adjust psychologically to the demands of continuous workouts, were mental fatigue may trump physical fatigue. But, of course, it depends on the outcome the participant is aiming for – general health or competition.

Within the military environment, interval training is evolving and HIFT programmes are being developed which stress both aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways and are balanced in addressing power, strength, flexibility, speed, endurance, agility, and coordination.

5.1     Useful Publications

  • Books:
    • Raju, K.S. & Prashobhith, K.P. (2016) Effect of Continuous Running and Interval Running on Selected Physical and Physiological Parameters. Lulu.com.
    • Gibala, M.J. (2017) The One-Minute Workout. London: Random House.
    • Bartram, S. (2015) High-Intensity Interval Training for Women. London: DK Publishing.
    • Driver, J. (2012) HIIT – High Intensity Interval Training Explained. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
    • Mosley, M. (2014) Fastexercise: The Simple Secret of High-Intensity Training. London: Atria Books.
    • Coe, A. Slightly Higher Interval Training for 5K Runners. Kindle Edition.
    • Hall, R. (2015) Tabata Workout Handbook : Achieve Maximum Fitness with Over 100 High Intensity Interval Training Workout Plans. 1st Ed. London: Hatherleigh Press.
    • Edwards, M. & Wight, K. (2017) Deep End of the Pool Workouts: No-Impact Interval Training and Strength Exercises. Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press.
    • Forte, M. HIIT – High Intensity Interval Training: Strength and Body Sculpting Fitness. Kindle Edition. London: White Owl Publishing.
    • Ward, B. (2015) Cycling: HIIT Bike Training! Interval Training To Get Faster, Stronger, Fitter & Lose Weight. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
  • Research:
    • Reindell, H. & Roskamm, H. (1959) Ein Beitrag zu den Physiologischen Grundlagen des Intervalltrainings unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Kreislaufes. Schweiz Z Sportmed. 7, pp.1-8.
    • Hohwü, C.E. (1960) Intervallarbeit und Intervalltraining. Internationale Zeitschrift für angewandte Physiologie einschließlich Arbeitsphysiologie. 18(4), pp.345-356. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00699375.
    • Daniels, J. & Scardina, N. (1984) Interval Training and Performance. Sports Medicine. 1(4), pp.327-334.
    • Bourne, N.D. (2008) Fast Science: A History of Training Theory and Methods for Elite Runners through 1975. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Texas. Available from World Wide Web: https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/17760/bournen.pdf?…2. [Accessed: 07 July, 2017].
    • Billat, L.V. (2001) Interval Training for Performance: A Scientific and Empirical Practice. Special Recommendations for Middle- and Long-distance Running. Part I: Aerobic Interval Training. Sports Medicine (Auckland, NZ). 31(1), p.13-31.
    • Billat, L.V. (2001) Interval Training for Performance: A Scientific and Empirical Practice. Special Recommendations for Middle- and Long-distance Running. Part II: Anaerobic Interval Training. Sports Medicine (Auckland, NZ). 31(2), p.75-90.
    • Buchheit, M. & Laursen, P.B. (2013) High-Intensity Interval Training, Solutions to the Programming Puzzle. Part II: Anaerobic Energy, Neuromuscular Load and Practical Applications. Sports Medicine. 43(10), pp.927-954. doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0066-5.
    • Seiler, S. & Hetleid, K.J. (2005) The Impact of Rest Duration on Work Intensity and RPE during Interval Training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 37(9), pp.1601-1607.
    • Gentil, P. & Del Vecchio, F.B. (2017) Commentary: High-intensity Intermittent Training vs. Moderate-intensity Intermittent Training: Is It a Matter of Intensity or Intermittent Efforts? Frontiers in Physiology. 8:370. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00370. eCollection 2017.
    • Jiménez-Pavón, D. & Lavie, C.J. (2017) High-intensity Intermittent Training versus Moderate-intensity Intermittent Training: Is It a Matter of Intensity or Intermittent Efforts? British Journal of Sports Medicine. pii: bjsports-2016-097015. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-097015. [Epub ahead of print].
    • Karlsen, T., Aamot, I.L., Haykowsky, M. & Rognmo, Ø. (2017) High-intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. pii: S0033-0620(17)30051-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2017.03.006. [Epub ahead of print].
    • Astroino, T.A. & Thum, J.S. (2016a) Within-session Repsonses to High-intensity Interval Training in Spinal Cord Injury. Disability and Rehabilitation. 8, pp.1-6. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2016.1260648. [Epub ahead of print].
    • Robinson, E., Durrer, C., Simchouk, S., Jung, M.E., Bourne, J.E., Voth, E. & Little, J.P. (1985) Short-term High-intensity Interval and Moderate-intensity Continuous Training Reduce Leukocyte TLR4 in Inactive Adutls at Elevated Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, MD). 119(5), pp.508-816. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2015. Epub 2015 Jul 2.
    • Sawyer, B.J., Tucker, W.J., Bhammar, D.M., Ryder, J.R., Sweazea, K.L. & Gaesser, G.A. (1985) Effects of High-intensity Interval Training and Moderate-intensity Continuous Training on Endothelial Function and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Obese Adults. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, MD). 121(1), pp.279-288. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00024.2016. Epub 2016 Jun 2.
    • Eskelinen, J.J., Heinonen, I., Löyttyniemi, E., Hakala, J., Heiskanen, M.A., Motiani, K.K., Virtanen, K., Pärkkä, J.P., Knuuti, K., Hannukkainen, J.C. & Kalliokoski, K.K. (2016) Left Ventricular and Metabolic Adaptations to High-intensity Interval and Moderate Intensity Continuous Training: A Randomized Trial in Healthy Middle-aged Men. The Journal of Physiology. 594(23), pp.7127-7140. doi: 10.1113/JP273089. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
    • Heiskanen, M.A., Leskinen, T., Heinonen, I.H., Löyttyniemi, E., Eskelinen, J.J., Virtanen, K., Hannukainen, J.C. & Kalliokoski, K.K. (2016) Right Ventricular Metabolic Adaptations to High-intensity Interval Training and Moderate-intensity Continuous Training in Healthy Middle-aged Men. American Journal of Physiology. 311(3), pp.H667-H675. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00399.2016. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    • Kong, Z., Sun, S., Lui, M. & Shi, Q. (2016) Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2016:4073618. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    • Smith-Ryan, A.E., Melvin, M.N. & Wingfield, H.L. (2015) High-intensity Interval Training: Modulating Interval Duration in Overweight/Obese Men. The Physician and Sports Medicine. 43(2), pp.107-113. doi: 10.1080/00913847.2015.1037231.
    • Martins, C., Kazakova, I., Ludviksen, M., Mehus, I., Wisloff, U., Kulseng, B., Morgan, L. & King, N. (2016) High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 26(3), pp.197-204. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0078. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

5.2     Useful Links

  • New Interval Training website by Peter John L Thompson, a coach of British birth who has coached athletes to world record performances for over 40 years: http://www.newintervaltraining.com/index.php.
  • Racing Past, a non-profit website dedicated to the history of competitive running, by John Cobley: http://www.racingpast.ca/john_home.php.
  • Billatraining, by Veronique Billat: http://www.billatraining.com/.
  • Website dedicated to Paavo Nurmi: http://paavonurmi.fi/en/.
  • USMC High-Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) Website: http://www.usmc-mccs.org/services/fitness/high-intensity-tactical-training/.
  • USMC HITT Programme on Dartfish TV: http://www.dartfish.tv/ChannelHome.aspx?CR=p96647.
  • HITT Centre at Marine Corps Community Services Quantico (MCCS Quantico): http://www.quantico.usmc-mccs.org/index.cfm/semper-fit/semper-fit-facilities/hitt-high-intensity-tactical-training-center/.
  • USMC MCCS Forward: http://www.usmc-mccs.org/topics/fitness/.

5.3     References

ACE (American Council on Exercise) (2011) Aerobic Interval Training and Moving Away from Antiquated Models. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.acefitness.org/blog/1498/aerobic-interval-training-and-moving-away-from-antiquated-models. [Accessed: 24 July, 2017].

Astorino, T.A. & Thum, J.S. (2016) Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury. Disability & Rehabilitation. pp.1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2016.1260648.

Astrand, I., Astrand, P.O., Christensen, E.H. & Hedman, R. (1960) Intermittent Muscular Work. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 48(3-4), pp.448-453. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1960.tb01879.x.

Atzler, E. (1938) Occupational Physiology [in German]. Ergebnisse der Arbeitsphysiologie. 40, pp.325-341.

Barker, S. (2016) The Aussie Stats behind LinkedIn’s 100 Million APAC Membership Swell. Available from World Wide Web: https://itbrief.com.au/story/the-aussie-stats-behind-linkedins-100-million-apac-membership-swell/. [Accessed: 22 March, 2017].

Bar-Or, O. (1987) The Wingate Anaerobic Test: An Update on Methodology, Reliability, and Validity. Sports Medicine. 4, pp.381-394.

Bar-Or, O., Dotan, R. & Inbar, O. (1977) A 30 Seconds All Out Ergometric Test: Its Reliability and Validity for Anaerobic Capacity. Israel Journal of Medical Science. 113, pp.226-230.

Bartlett, J.D., Close, G.L., MacLaren, D.P., Gregson, W., Drust, B. & Morton, J.P. (2011) High-intensity Interval Running is Perceived to be more Enjoyable than Moderate-intensity Continuous Exercise: Implications for Exercise Adherence. Journal of Sports Science. 29(6), pp.547-553.

Bevegård, S., Holmgren, A. & Jonsson, B. (1963) Circulatory Studies in Well-trained Athletes at rest and during Heavy Exercise, with Special Reference to Stroke Volume and the Influence of Body Position. Acta Physiol Scand. 57, pp.26-50.

Billat, L.V. (2001a) Interval Training for Performance: A Scientific and Empirical Practice. Special Recommendations for Middle- and Long-distance Running. Part I: Aerobic Interval Training. Sports Medicine (Auckland, NZ). 31(1), p.13-31.

Billat, L.V. (2001b) Interval Training for Performance: A Scientific and Empirical Practice. Special Recommendations for Middle- and Long-distance Running. Part II: Anaerobic Interval Training. Sports Medicine (Auckland, NZ). 31(2), p.75-90.

Bourne, N.D. (2008) Fast Science: A History of Training Theory and Methods for Elite Runners through 1975. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Texas. Available from World Wide Web: https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/17760/bournen.pdf?…2. [Accessed: 07 July, 2017].

Boutcher, S.H. (2011) High-intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss. Journal of Obesity. 868305. Published online 2010 Nov 24. doi: 10.1155/2011/868305

Carter, N. (Ed) (2011) Coaching Cultures. London: Routledge.

Christ, H. (1894) The Influence of Muscular Work on Heart Action. [Translated from German]. Deutsch Archives of Clinical Medicine. 53, pp.102-140.

Coe, S. (2013) Running My Life – The Autobiography. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Collins, M. (2012) Emil Zatopek: The Greatest Champion? Available from World Wide Web: https://www.runnersworld.co.uk/health/emil-zatopek-the-greatest-champion. [Accessed: 17 July, 2017].

Colwin, C.M. (2002) Breakthrough Swimming. London: Human Kinetics Publishers.

Cook, R. & Pembrey, M.S. (1913) Observations on the Effects of Muscular Exercise on Man. Journal of Physiology. 45, pp.429-446.

Cooper, S.M., Baker, J.S., Eaton, Z.E. & Matthews, N. (2004) A Simple Multistage Field Test for the Prediction of Anaerobic Capacity in Female Games Players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 38, pp.784-789.

Counnsilman, J.E. (1968) The Science of Swimming. Later Print Edition. London: Pelham Books.

Daniels, J. & Scardina, N. (1984) Interval Training and Performance. Sports Medicine. 1(4), pp.327-334.

Eskelinen, J.J., Heinonen, I., Löyttyniemi, E., Hakala, J., Heiskanen, M.A., Motiani, K.K., Virtanen, K., Pärkkä, J.P., Knuuti, J., Hannukainen, J.C. & Kalliokoski, K.K. (2016) Left ventricular vascular and metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate intensity continuous training: a randomized trial in healthy middle-aged men. The Journal of Physiology. 594(23), pp.7127-7140. doi: 10.1113/JP273089. Epub 2016 Sep 27.

Flint Jr, A. (1871) On the Physiological Effects of Severe and Protracted Muscular Exercise: With Special Reference to its Influence Upon the Secretion of Nitrogen. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Fox, E.L. & Matthews, D.K. (1974) Interval Training Conditioning for Sports and General Fitness. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Fox, E.L., Billings, C.E., Bason, R. & Mathews, D.K. (1967) Improvement of Physical Fitness by Interval Training, II: Required Training Frequency. USA: Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Surgeon General, US Army; 1967 Apr. Report no.: RF 2002-3.

Foyer, S.J. (1707) The Physician’s Pulse-Watch, or, An Essay to Explain the Old Art of Feeling the Pulse, and to Improve it by the Help of a Pulse Watch. London: Sam Smith and Benjamin Walford.

Fry, A.C. & Kraemer, W.J. (1997) Resistance Exercise Overtraining and Overreaching: Neuroendocrine Responses. Sports Medicine. 23, pp.106-129.

Fry, R.W., Morton, A.R. & Keast, D (1991) Overtraining in Athletes: An Update. Sports Medicine. 12(1), pp.32-65.

Garber, C.E., Blissmer, B., Deschenes, M.R., Franklin, B.A., Lamonte, M.J., Lee, I-M., Nieman, D.C. & Swain, D.P. (2011) Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory, Musculoskeletal, and Neuromotor Fitness in Apparently Healthy Adults: Guidance for Prescribing Exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 43(7), pp.1334-1359. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb.

Gerschler, W. (1963) Interval Training. Track Technique: The Journal of Technical Track and Field Athletics. September 1963, pp.391-396.

Gibala, M.J. & McGee, S.L. (2008) Metabolic Adaptations to Short-term High-intensity Interval Training: A Little Pain for a Lot of Gain? Exercise and Sport Science Review. 36, pp.58-63.

Graf, O. (1943) The Question of the Working and Rest Time during Assembly-line Production [in German]. Arbeitsphysiol. 11, pp.503-510.

Gunnarsson, T.P. & Bangsbo, J. (2012) The 10-20-30 Training Concept Improves Performance and Health Profile in Moderately Trained Runners. Journal of Applied Physiology. 113, pp.16-24.

Haddock, C.K., Poston, W.S.C. & Jahnke, S.A. (2011) Addressing the Epidemic of Obesity in the United States Fire Service. Greenbelt, MD, National Volunteer Fire Council. Available at http://www.nvfc.org/files/documents/Obesity_Study.pdf. [Accessed: 24 July, 2017].

Haddock, C.K., Poston, W.S.C., Heinrich, K.M., Jahnke, S.A. & Jitnarin, N. (2016) The Benefits of High-Intensity Functional Training Fitness Programs for Military Personnel. Military Medicine. 181(11), pp.e1508-e1514. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00503.

Heiskanen, M.A., Leskinen, T., Heinonen, I.H., Löyttyniemi, E., Eskelinen, J.J., Virtanen, K., Hannukainen, J.C. & Kalliokoski, K.K. (2016) Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men. American Journal of Physiology. 311(3), pp.H667-675. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00399.2016. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Horst, E.J. (2008) Training for Climbing: The Definitive Guide to Improving Your Performance. 2nd Ed. Guidlford, CT: Rowman & Littlefield.

Karlsen, T., Aamot, I-L., Haykowsky, M. & Rognmo, Ø. (2017) High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2017.03.006.

Katch, V.L., McArdle, W.D. & Katch, F.I. (2011) Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 4th Ed. Batlimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Kenney, W.L., Wilmore, J.H. & Costill, D.L. (2012) Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 5th Ed. Leeds: Human Kinetics.

Kolb, G. (1893) Physiology of Sport. 2nd Ed. London: Krohne & Sesemann.

Kuipers, H. (1998) Training and Overtraining: An Introduction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 30(7), pp.1137-1139.

LinkedIn (2017) Interval Training (search term). Available from World Wide Web: https://www.linkedin.com/search/results/people/?keywords=interval%20training&origin=FACETED_SEARCH. [Accessed: 25 July, 2017].

Martins, C., Kazakova, I., Ludviksen, M., Mehus, I., Wisloff, U., Kulseng, B., Morgan, L. & King, N. (2016) High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 26(3), pp.197-204. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0078. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Mathews, D.K., Fox, E.L., Bartels, R.L. & Billings, C.E. (1966) Improvement of Physical Fitness by Interval Training, I: Relative Effectiveness of Short and Long Distance Running. USA: Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Surgeon General, US Army; 1966 Nov. Report no.: RF 2002-2.

McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I. & Katch, V.L. (2006) Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 3rd Ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

McKinzie, R.T. (1909) Exercise in Education and Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Medbø, J.I. & Burgers, S. (1990) Effect of Training on the Anaerobic Capacity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 22(4), pp.501-507.

Mendez, C. (1960) Book of Bodily Exercise. Published in 1553. Baltimore: Waverly Press.

Moore, K. (2006) Bowerman and the Men of Oregon: The Story of Oregon’s Legendary Coach and Nike’s Cofounder. PLACE: Holzbrinck Publishers.

Mosley, M.J. (2012) Can Three Minutes of Exercise a Week Help Make You Fit? Available from World Wide Web: http://www.bbc.com/news/health-17177251. [Accessed: 20 July, 2017].

Porcari, J.P., Bryant, C.X. & Comana, F. (2015) Exercise Physiology. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.

Poston, W.S.C., Haddock, C.K., Heinrich, K.M., Jahnke, S.A., Jitnarin, N. & Batchelor, D.B. (2016) Is High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit Safe for Military Fitness Training? Military Medicine. 181(7), pp.627-637. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00273.

Quintana, M., Lindberg, T., Jansson, E. & Kaijser, L. (2006) High Intensity Deep Water Training can Improve Aerobic Power in Elderly Women. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 98(2), pp.117-123.

Reindell, H. & Roskamm, H. (1959) Ein Beitrag zu den Physiologischen Grundlagen des Intervall Training unter Besonderer Berücksichtigung des Kreilaufes. Schweiz Z Sportmed. 7, pp.1-8.

Reindell, H., Roskamm, H. & Gerschler, W. (1962) Das Intervall Training. Munchen (Germany): John Ambrosius Barth Publishing.

Robinson, B.A. (1734) A Treatise of Animal Oeconomy. 2nd Ed. Dublin: George Ewing and Edwin Smith.

Robinson, E., Durrer, C., Simtchouk, S., Jung, M.E., Bourne, J.E., Voth, E. & Little, J.P. (1985) Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. Journal of Applied Physiology. 119(5):508-16. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2015. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Roy, T.C., Springer, B.A., McNulty, V. & Butler, N.L. (2010) Physical Fitness. Military Medicine. 175(8 Suppl), pp.14-20.

Running Past (2011) Gordon Pirie Profile. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.racingpast.ca/john_contents.php?id=138. [Accessed: 07 July, 2017].

Running Past (2014) Profile: Emil Zatopek. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.racingpast.ca/john_contents.php?id=147. [Accessed: 07 July, 2017].

Running Past (2015a) Profile: Mihaly Igloi. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.racingpast.ca/john_contents.php?id=146. [Accessed: 07 July, 2017].

Running Past (2015b) Coach Profile: Woldemar Gerschler. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.racingpast.ca/john_contents.php?id=129. [Accessed: 07 July, 2017].

Running Past (2016) Profile: Paavo Nurmi. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.racingpast.ca/john_contents.php?id=112. [Accessed: 07 July, 2017].

Ryffel, J.H. (1910a) Critical Review: Lactic Acid in Metabolism. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. 3(2), pp.221-231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.qjmed.a069245.

Ryffel, J.H. (1910b) Experiment on Lactic Acid Formation in Man. Journal of Physiology (London). 39, pp.xxix-xxxii.

Saltin, B., Essen, B., Pedersen, P.K. (1976) Intermittent Exercise: Its Physiology and some Practical Applications. In: Joekle, E., Anand, R.L. & Stoboy, H. (Eds) (1976) Advances in Exercise Physiology. Medicine Sport Series. Basel: Karger Publishers.

Santorio, S. (1676) Medicina Statica or, Rules of Health in Eight Sections of Aphorisms. London: John Starkey.

Sawyer, B.J., Tucker, W.J., Bhammar, D.M., Ryder, J.R., Sweazea, K.L. & Gaesser, G.A. (1985) Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults. Journal of Applied Physiology. 121(1), pp.279-288. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00024.2016. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Seiler, K.L.E. & Seiler, D.J. (2008) KARATE-DO: Traditional Training for All Styles. 2nd Ed. Lulu.com.

Smit, C. (1959) Interval Training. In Wilt, F. (Ed) Run, Run, Run. Los Altos, California: Track and Field News Inc. pp.180-185.

Sutherland, A. (2013) Functional Fitness Program Reduces Injuries. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.military.com/daily-news/2013/02/19/functional-fitness-program-reduces-injuries.html. [Accessed: 27 March, 2017].

Tabata, I., Nishmura, K., Kouzaki, M., Hirai, Y., Ogita, F., Miyachi, M. & Yamamoto, K. (1996) Effects of Moderate-Intensity Endurance and High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Anaerobic Capacity and VO2max. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 28(10), pp.1327-1330.

The Science of Running. (2016) Ernst Van Aaken: The Pure Endurance Method. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.scienceofrunning.com/2016/07/ernst-van-aaken-the-pure-endurance-method.html. [Accessed: 18 July, 2017].

Thompson, P.J.L. (2010) Home Page. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.newintervaltraining.com/index.php. [Accessed: 06 July, 2017].

Tipton, C.M. (Ed) (2014) History of Exercise Physiology. Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics.

USMC (United States Marine Corps) (2006) Announcement of the USMC Concept for Functional Fitness. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.marines.mil/News/Messages/Messages-Display/Article/894767/announcement-of-the-usmc-concept-for-functional-fitness/. [Accessed: 21 July, 2017].

USMC (United States Marine Corps) (2014) Semper Fit (MRS) Announces Availability of the High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) Program Website and Mobile Application. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.marines.mil/News/Messages/Messages-Display/Article/896295/semper-fit-mrs-announces-availability-of-the-high-intensity-tactical-training-h/. [Accessed: 21 July, 2017].

Wang, Y., Shepherd, J.T., Marshall, R.J., Rowell, L.B. & Taylor, H.L. (1961) Cardiac Response to Exercise in Unconditioned Young Men and in Athletes. Circulation. 24, pp.1064. (Abstract).

Wilmore, J.H. & Costill, D.L. (2004) Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 3rd Ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Return to the Main Page

Advertisements