PART ONE: BACKGROUND
This article provides an overview of United States Navy Officer Candidate School, generally referred to as OCS.
The programme of instruction undertaken by officer candidates during OCS was designed by Navy officers and educators to give candidates a basic working knowledge of the high-tech Navy establishment afloat and ashore.
It prepares candidates to assume responsibilities as Navy Officers by pushing them to work to their full potential. OCS is demanding, both physically and mentally, and only those with a strong desire to become Navy Officers will successfully graduate. Upon completion, future officers are commissioned as Ensigns with a minimum 4-year obligation from date of appointment.
This article is divided into four parts for easier reading. Part One is the background including a brief history. Part Two describes the training hierarchy, whilst Part Three outlines the training undertaken during OCS. Part Four provides some useful publications and links, and finally references.
The aim of this article is to describe the training process for those seeking to become a commissioned officer in the United States Navy through the Officer Candidate School.
OCS is one of five officer training programmes offered by the US Navy (Section 2.3).
1.2 What is the Purpose of OCS?
The purpose of the US Navy’s Officer Candidate School, aka boot camp, is to morally, mentally, and physically develop future leaders of character and competence imbuing them with the highest ideals of honour, courage, and commitment in order to serve as professional naval officers worthy of special trust and confidence.
1.3 Who is OCS for?
“After receiving a college degree from the institution of their choice, OCS provides future officers with a short, rigorous training program designed to move officers quickly to the fleet. The flexibility of the OCS program allows officer production to be raised or lowered at a moment’s notice, especially during periods of national emergency.” (Lehner, 2008, p.1).
OCS is an initial commissioning programme for individuals possessing at least a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution.
Selectees for OCS may choose, depending upon individual qualifications, designators within the:
- Officers of the line of the regular Navy and Navy Reserve who are not restricted in the performance of duty.
- Includes surface warfare, aviation, submarine, special warfare, and explosive ordnance disposal.
- “…the primary war-fighting community of the service.” (Lehner, 2008, p.1).
- Officers of the line of the regular Navy and Navy Reserve who are restricted in the performance of duty by having been designated for aviation duty, engineering duty, aerospace engineering duty, or special duty.
- Includes aerospace maintenance duty, information professional, information warfare, intelligence, public affairs nuclear power instructors, and oceanography.
staff corps designators.
- Can include medical service corps, nurse corps, supply corps, and civil engineer corps.
1.4 Brief History
“Less than one percent of the US Naval Officers between 1845 and 1901 rose from the enlisted force, but they were all pushed into the staff communities as paymasters, supply clerks, and other administrative jobs.” (Lehner, 2008, p.15).
Prior to the American Civil War (1861 to 1865) the US Naval Academy (USNA) was the only commissioning source for US Navy officers (Lehner, 2008). With the USNA taking four years to produce officers and many midshipmen and officers joining the Confederacy, there was a deficit in officer numbers which had to be addressed. An Act of Congress was passed to address this shortage which gave civilians temporary or acting appointments. The US Navy established schools to train these appointees in naval operations and gunnery.
“By 1865, about 7,500 commissioned officers were comprised of either commercial sailors or civilians.” (Lehner, 2008, p.16).
Despite the success of these appointees the USNA became, once again, the sole commissioning source after the war. The Spanish-American War (1898) would see civilians appointed once more, although this time “…they looked for individuals with higher levels of education and intelligence.” (Lehner, 2008, p.17) rather than recruit commercial sailors. Once again they were discharged at the end of hostilities.
During the early 1900s, the US Navy did allow direct commissions of warrant officers (six in 1901 and increased to 12 in 1903) but lack of formal education was a barrier to the commissioning examinations (Lehner, 2008). For example, in some years the commissions would not be filled due to failure to pass the exams.
“Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels allowed the selection of fifteen enlisted men per year for entry to the Naval Academy in 1914.” (Lehner, 2008, p.19).
In 1917, Officer Material Schools (aka Officer Candidate Schools) where established on the grounds of the USNA, and the campuses of 14 schools and universities. Their curriculum lasted only four months, in comparison to the USNA’s four years. Between 1916 and 1919, the US Navy officer corps would grow from 4,000 to 28,000. Direct enlisted commissions became a major source, with enlisted personnel providing approximately 11,000 commissioned officers during World War One (WWI).
Some of these Officer Material School graduates where allowed “to serve the duration of a career in the post-war Navy as regular commissioned officers.” (Lehner, 2008, p.20). After WWI, once again, the USNA became the sole commissioning source, lasting until 1941. The only exception was the twelve annual warrant officer commissions started in the early 1900s, which were required by law.
By 1918, one hundred enlisted men per year could enter the USNA, with the establishment of the Naval Academy Preparatory School in 1920 aiding their educational preparation.
“Beginning in the spring of 1940, officer candidate schools were established all over the country, similar to what was constructed in the First World War. These were called reserve midshipman schools, and consisted of a month of sea duty, followed by a three month period of instruction.” (Lehner, 2008, p.22).
There were three programmes:
- The V-7 programme was formed to help funnel college graduates into these reserve midshipman schools.
- The V-5 programme would place graduates into reserve flight programmes.
- The V-1 programme included working with V-7 or V-5 candidates who would pay for college at their own expense.
Originally the requirement was a two-year college degree, but this was increased to four-years cutting the failure rate by 50%. In 1941, the US Navy had 28,000 officers, growing to 317,000 by 1945.
“Throughout the war, reserve midshipmen schools (later OCS) would by far play the largest role in providing officers.” (Lehner, 2008, p.24).
World War II saw the USNA lose its monopoly as the sole commissioning source for officers. The ‘new’ threat from the Soviet Union after the war witnessed the end of the cycle of demobilisation following full-scale war.
“Navy OCS was established in 1951.” (Thornbloom, 2019).
The Navy begins the Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) Programme in 1955. It provided an avenue to commissioned service for applicants interested in serving as naval aviators, naval flight officers (NFO’s), intelligence officers, or as aviation maintenance duty officers (AMDO’s). AOCS candidates undertook a 14-week period of indoctrination training at Pensacola, Florida. Subjects of instruction included seamanship, organisational operations, naval administration, sea power, military law, naval leadership, aeronautics, engineering, and navigation.
At AOCS, all basic military training was administered by enlisted US Marine Corps drill instructors [LINK], a holdover from World War II when AOCS and Naval Cadet graduates were given an option of a commission as either an Ensign in the Navy or a 2nd lieutenant in the US Marine Corps. This facet of the training was considered a point of pride by the graduates of AOCS and a mark of distinction they felt separated themselves from the graduates of the original OCS in Newport, as well as NROTC and the USNA. Tradition dictated that when AOCS graduates were commissioned, the first salute they received was from their former Marine Corps drill instructor (returned with a silver dollar handshake). When AOCS and OCS merged, the unified OCS program retained the Marine Corps tradition alongside Navy Recruit Division Commanders (Section 3.1). This continuing Marine presence is the origin of the slogan “Navy owned, Marine Corps trained” and the distinctive blue “Bulldog” company guidons.
In February 1977, a report was published which recommended the reduction of OCS from 19 to 16 weeks in duration (Curry, Heidt & Miller, 1977).
In April 1994, the original OCS in Newport was closed when the OCS and AOCS were merged into a single OCS at Naval Air Station (NAS) Pensacola, Florida.
As part of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) commission of 2005, in September 2007 the OCS was relocated back to Newport.
In August 2011, the Immersive Naval Officer Training System (INOTS) is installed with a focus to supplement the Division Officer Leadership Course (DOLC) in support of the OCS and Officer Development School (ODS). In July 2013, INOTS was augmented with additional scenarios for use in the Limited Duty Officer/Chief Warrant Officer (LDO/CWO) Academy’s leadership curriculum.
“INOTS targets leadership and basic counselling for junior leaders in the US Navy. The INOTS experience incorporates a virtual human, classroom response technology and real-time data tracking tools to support the instruction, practice and assessment of interpersonal communication skills.” (USC Institute for Creative Technologies, 2015).
“FY14 selectees will enter the 13-week OCS course of instruction at Newport, RI, scheduled to graduate before September 30, 2014.” (AMDO, 2014).
PART TWO: TRAINING HIERARCHY
This section of the article outlines the personalities and organisations that have an impact on the training process of US Navy officers during OCS.
2.1 Naval Education and Training Command
The Naval Education and Training Command (NETC) is an enterprise level shore command of the US Navy that is responsible for the training, education and professional development of active duty and reserve Sailors through accession, continuing education, and advancement training.
The NETC is headquartered at the Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. It is led by the Commander NETC, a Rear Admiral, Upper Half (OF-7) who is assisted by:
- Executive Officer: A civilian of the Senior Executive Service.
- Chief of Staff: A Captain (OF-5).
- Force Master Chief (FORCM): A Master Chief Petty Officer (OR-9).
2.2 Naval Service Training Command
The Naval Service Training Command (NSTC) is a one-star Echelon III command of the US Navy that is responsible to the Commander NETC for the indoctrination and training of all new accessions into the Naval Service, with the exception of Midshipmen who access through the United States Naval Academy (USNA). This includes:
- All new recruits through Recruit Training Command;
- All officer candidates who are seeking a commission through the Officer Training Command; and
- The various Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) units in colleges and universities across the US.
The NSTC is headquartered at the Naval Station Great Lakes, Illinois. It is led by the Commander NSTC, a Rear Admiral, Lower Half (OF-6) who is assisted by:
- Deputy Commander: a Captain (OF-5).
- Chief of Staff: A Captain (OF-5).
- Command Master Chief (CMDCM): A Master Chief Petty Officer (OR-9).
2.3 Officer Training Command
The Officer Training Command Newport (OTCN) is a command of the US Navy responsible to the Commander NSTC for the initial training of naval officers.
The OTCN is located at Naval Station Newport, Rhode Island. It is led by the Commanding Officer OTCN, a Captain (OF-5) who is assisted by:
- Executive Officer OTC Newport: Commander (OF-4).
- Senior Enlisted Leader: Master Chief Petty Officer (OR-9).
- Director OCS: Commander (OF-4).
- Deputy Director OCS:
- Lead Class Officer OCS:
- Class Officer: oversee every aspect of class development and is responsible for the safety, training, discipline, integrity, conduct and general performance of assigned students from the reporting date to graduation and commissioning. The Class Officer’s role and involvement is constant, but becomes most critical in the later part of “applied leadership” training.
- Assistant Class Officer:
- Class Chief Petty Officer: is detailed as Recruit Division Commander (RDC) qualified (9508 NEC) and are entitled to Special Duty Assignment Pay (SDAP), if assigned to a 9508 NEC billet per EDVR. They function as senior enlisted technical experts and are responsible for the training, administration, good order and discipline and general welfare of assigned students throughout all phases of training.
- Class Drill Instructor: is assigned to OCS to indoctrinate candidates in basic military procedures including ceremonial drill and physical fitness, and adapt the class to the military lifestyle and intense environment expected during fleet assignment.
- Section Leader:
- Academics Instructors: are assigned to the Academics Department and are responsible for delivering all instruction to every school house at OTCN. These include subjects such as: Navigation, Seamanship, Pay and Allowances, Naval Warfare, Engineering, Military Indoctrination, Damage Control, Division Officer Leadership Course and much more. They use their leadership experience to bring real life experience to the material so students get first-hand knowledge of how it is applied in the fleet.
The OTCN offers five officer training programmes, including:
- Officer Candidate School (OCS).
- Direct Commission Officer Indoctrination Course (DCOIC) which provides Reservists (Staff Corps, Restricted Line, LDO’s/CWO’s) with indoctrination training necessary to function in their role as newly commissioned Naval Officers.
- Officer Development School (ODS) which provides Staff Corps Officers and several Restricted Line designators with training necessary to prepare them to function in their role as a newly commissioned Naval Officer.
- Limited Duty Officer/Chief Warrant Officer Programme (LDO/CWO) which is designed to prepare prior senior enlisted Sailors for their new roles in the wardroom per the Navy’s Officer Professional Core Competencies.
- Naval Science Institute (NSI), aka the Seaman to Admiral 21 Programme (STA-21), which provides a unique officer accession education and training programme. It provides an opportunity for enlisted personnel who possess outstanding qualifications and motivation for a naval career to obtain a commission.
OTCN trains approximately just over 5,000 students/candidates each year on the above courses.
2.4 Naval Station Newport
Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport is home to approximately 50 US Navy, US Marine Corps, US Coast Guard and US Army Reserve commands and activities.
NAVSTA Newport is the US Navy’s premier site for training officers, officer candidates, senior enlisted personnel and midshipman candidates, as well as testing and evaluating advanced undersea warfare and development systems.
For many years, NAVSTA Newport was Rhode Island’s largest single employer (both in terms of personnel and payroll) and is still the largest single employer in Newport County, and third overall in the state of Rhode Island.
PART THREE: OUTLINE OF TRAINING CURRICULUM
This part of the article outlines the training undertaken by officer candidates during OCS.
OCS is a mixture of mental training (e.g. memorisation of military knowledge, academic courses, and military inspections), physical training (e.g. running and swimming), leadership training and the profession of arms (e.g. discipline and bearing).
OCS is a 12-week, down from 13-weeks (AMDO, 2014), course designed to provide a working knowledge of the Navy (afloat and ashore) so that the candidate can develop the ability to execute basic naval officer functions that are expected upon earning a commission as an Ensign in the US Navy.
During OCS candidates receive the pay of an E-5 (Petty Officer 2nd Class), or current pay grade if higher.
3.1 Recruit Division Commanders
Within the US Navy, recruit instructors are known as Recruit Division Commanders (RDC’s).
RDC’s are Chief Petty Officers or Senior Petty Officers specially selected for their leadership and teaching abilities. They must attend and successfully graduate from their ‘C’ school in order to train recruits and officers.
“OTC annually graduates more than 2,900 students per year under the instructing guidance of 39 RDCs, Marine Corps drill instructors and technical trainers.” (Thornbloom, 2019).
3.2 Outline of Training Syllabus
Below is an incomplete outline of the OCS training syllabus.
- Week 01:
- In-processing including administration and medical readiness (e.g. physicals and medications).
- Week 02:
- Third Class swim qualification, which includes:
- Deep water jump: Jump from a three (3) metre tower to simulate abandoning ship.
- 50-yard swim (any stroke).
- Minute prone float (face in water).
- Shirt and trouser inflation: Fill a shirt and pair of trousers with air to remain afloat.
- Candidates who are unable to complete the Third Class swim qualification will be sent to remedial swim training.
- If candidates are unable to pass the Third Class Swim qualification by Week 09, they will be removed from their class for further remediation in Remedial Holding Company.
- Third Class swim qualification, which includes:
- Week 03:
- Week 04:
- Week 05:
- Week 06:
- Week 07:
- Week 08:
- Week 09:
- Week 10:
- Week 11:
- Week 12:
- Graduation Week.
3.3 Academic Training
OCS is designed to provide a baseline level of knowledge required of all commissioned officers in the US Navy. During the course candidates are instructed in the following:
- Division Officer Fundamentals: Covers numerous requirements and programmes to execute duties as a division officer.
- Naval History: Provides an overview of US Naval history and how various aspects of naval weaponry, engineering, ship and tactics have advanced since 1775.
- Engineering & Weapons: Introduces candidates to the fundamentals of shipboard naval engineering and various weapons in the US Navy arsenal.
- Damage Control: Introduces candidates to shipboard fire-fighting and flooding controls through hands-on training.
- Leadership and Ethics: Case studies of recent naval events are used to develop and apply leadership principles.
- Watch Officer: Introduces candidates to naval terminology, equipment, shipboard operations, navigation, and manoeuvring utilising simulators.
3.4 Military Training
OCS is designed to transform individuals into cohesive operating teams with the overall goal of training candidate officers to become professional, confident and competent future naval officers. Military training is comprised of the following:
- Physical Training: Candidates will be taught numerous exercises and proper form (Section 3.5).
- Room & Locker Inspections: Candidates will be taught how to maintain a living space to military standards. Living spaces may be inspected daily.
- Personnel Inspections: Candidates will be taught and inspected on military hygiene standards, uniform wear, and general appearance.
- Drill: Candidates will be taught utilising the US Marine Corps Rifle Drill manual.
- Battle Stations: Candidates will utilise skills learned to complete a series of events in a team setting.
- Commissioning Ceremony: Candidates will be taught military customs, courtesies, and traditions used during their commissioning ceremony.
As per OTCINST 1530.6K (Appendix B), candidates are expected to master certain knowledge which must be memorised verbatim (with Bravo Knowledge inspected from Week 3):
- Mission of the US Navy.
- Navy core values. Chief of Naval Operations core attributes.
- Star Spangled Banner.
- Anchors Aweigh.
- The Marines’ Hymn.
- Chain of command.
- Articles of the Code of conduct.
- General orders of a sentry.
- Watchstanding principles.
- Officer rank structure and insignia (Marine and Naval).
- Enlisted rank structure and insignia (Marine and Naval).
- Phonetic alphabet.
3.5 Physical Training
Physical training (PT) starts as soon as candidates arrive at OCS and consists of:
- Body composition analysis (BCA) within the first two days of training.
- Height and weight will be checked.
- Candidates who do not pass the initial height and weight check will be further assessed to determine if they meet the Navy’s body composition standards.
- Part 1 (Abdominal Circumference):
- Male: Less than or equal to 39.0 inches.
- Female: Less than or equal to 35.5 inches.
- Part 2 (Body Fat Composition):
- Male: 18-21 (22%); 22-29 (23%); and 30-39 (24%).
- Female: 18-21 (33%); 22-29 (34%); and 30-39 (35%).
- Part 1 (Abdominal Circumference):
- Navy physical fitness assessment (PFA) within the first week of training:
- The BCA forms a part of the PFA.
- Scoring is related to the gender and age group of the candidate.
- Must achieve Satisfactory Medium in all categories to start OCS training:
- 2 minutes of press-ups (push-ups):
- Male: minimum 42 (20-24) and 38 (25-29).
- Female: minimum 17 (20-24) and 15 (25-29).
- 2 minutes of sit-ups (curl-ups).
- Male: minimum 50 (20-24) and 47 (25-29).
- Female: minimum 50 (20-24) and 47 (25-29).
- 1.5 mile (2.4 km) run.
- Male: minimum 13:15 (20-24) and 13:45 (25-29).
- Female: minimum 15:15 (20-24) and 15:45 (25-29).
- 2 minutes of press-ups (push-ups):
- Initial strength test (IST).
- Passing requirements continuously increase for each of the above PFA’s.
- Navy Operational Fitness and Fuelling System (NOFFS).
- High-intensity Tactical Training (HITT).
- Strength and conditioning.
- Swim qualification.
3.6 Damage Control Training
Damage control training is conducted via the Damage Control Wet Trainer, better known as the “BUTTERCUP”, which is located in building 403.
It was renovated in 1993 to meet the demands of the fleet and to keep up with modern day training. It is 48 feet long, 24 feet wide, with a deck height of 8 feet and weighs approximately 38 tons. The pool that the trainer rests in is 5 feet deep on the starboard side and 8 feet on the port side which causes the trainer to take a sharp list during training. The pool holds approximately 37,000 gallons of fresh water.
The trainer consists of eight compartments including a fan room, Damage Control Central, Damage Control Repair Station, storerooms and a berthing compartment. The storeroom and berthing are subject to controlled flooding.
The trainer provides training in basic damage control to students in various officer accession programmes as well as to personnel from fleet and reserve units.
A maximum of 30 students can be supported during damage control training.
3.7 Fire-Fighting Training
The 19F3A Fire-fighting Trainer is a three story building which houses a simulated ship’s engine, boiler, supply rooms, CIC, laundry, electrical, berthing and galley compartments.
The trainer generates representative shipboard Class Alpha, Bravo, and Charlie fires for students to combat under realistic shipboard conditions (involving conventional and nuclear weapons). It also includes a 15×15 foot fire pit area utilised to teach fire hose handling techniques and to build confidence in students exposed to the intense heat of a large fire.
Included in the same compound with the 19F3A Trainer building are classrooms, administrative facilities, and a maintenance building.
The trainer simulates 15 different types of shipboard fires by burning propane gas and dispersing non-toxic simulated smoke. The various fire-fighting training scenarios and individual fire parameters are controlled at each of the Instructor/Operator Stations and equipped with a video console and keyboard which allows the operator to manually or automatically control the fires in each compartment to prevent unsafe conditions.
The course provides training on fire party positions including scene leader, nozzleman, hoseman, plugman and accessman using direct fire attack procedures.
- J-495-0412 is for personnel going to oxygen breathing apparatus (OBA) equipped ships; and
- J-495-0416 is for personnel going to self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) equipped ships.
Approximately 8,000 students per year are trained in live fire-fighting techniques at OTCN.
3.8 Water Survival Training
This phase of training is delivered in the Combat Training Pool (CTP, building 1357), with training including:
- Basic sea survival training;
- Lifeboat organisation;
- Survival kit contents and usage;
- Abandon ship scenario;
- 3rd Class Swim Qualification, consisting of:
- Jumping off a platform;
- Swimming 50 yards;
- 5-minute prone/supine float; and
- Clothing inflation.
The new CTP was opened 20 April 2009, and was officially dedicated to Lieutenant Michael P. Murphy, Medal of Honour recipient, on 09 July 2009. The CTP’s primary mission is to provide aquatics training for students of Officer Indoctrination School, Chaplain School, and the Naval Science Institute as well as other Officer Accession Programmes. The CTP is also utilised by various military units for water survival training, swimmer qualifications, and screen testing for SEALS, EOD and Navy Diver programmes. The CTP provides support to other naval personnel, area commands and fleet units, civic, local, state and federal agencies as needed.
The CTP is an L-shaped, 8 lane pool which holds approximately 347,000 gallons of chlorinated water. The CTP also has a training platform three metres above the water which is used only for military training, e.g., abandon ship drills, etc.
3.9 The Competition Series
During the first training week, divisions enter into the competitive aspects of training.
Performance in academic achievement, military drill, cleanliness, athletics, and overall excellence all count toward earning recognition flags. Flags are awarded to the winning divisions. These flags are carried in dress parades and reviews. The division ‘guidon’ (flag-bearer) carries the division number.
3.10 Graduation Requirements
There are several graduation requirements including:
- Pass Navy PFA in accordance with specified standards.
- Pass Third Class swim qualification.
- Pass fire fighting module.
- Pass Navy Handgun Qualification Course.
- Pass third class swim qualification.
- Pass all academic tests.
3.11 Graduation Week
Graduation week is were officer candidates are commissioned as officers in the US Navy. This week includes:
- Graduation Reception:
- Candidates are expected to attend a reception planned by candidates for families and friends which usually lasts about two (2) hours the Thursday evening prior to graduation.
- The venue for this event varies by graduating class.
- Graduation Ceremony:
- OCS Graduation Ceremonies are typically held in Kay Hall at 1030 on Fridays.
- The Graduation ceremony usually lasts ninety (90) minutes.
- Candidates will not be secured from training until noon on Friday.
Upon successful completion of OCS, candidates are commissioned as Ensigns with (typically) a minimum 4-year obligation from date of appointment. Aviators may have a longer obligation, 7-8 years, for example.
PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS
This article provides a broad outline of the basic military training undertaken by the US Navy’s sailor recruit, otherwise known as US Navy Boot Camp.
4.1 Useful Publications
- Secretary of the Navy Instructions (SECNAVINST):
- SECNAVINST 5300.26 (Series).
- Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Instructions (OPNAV):
- OPNAV 1420.1A: Enlisted to Officer Commissioning Programmes Application Administrative Manual. Change Transmittal 3. 07 June 2004 (Cancelled by OPNAV 1420.1B).
- OPNAV 1420.1B: Enlisted to Officer Commissioning Programmes Application Administrative Manual. 14 December 2009.
- Chapter 3: United States Naval Academy (USNA).
- Chapter 4: Officer Candidate School (OCS).
- Chapter 5: Medical Enlisted Commissioning Programme (MECP).
- Chapter 6: Medical Service Corps – Inservice Procurement Programme (MSC-IPP).
- Chapter 7: Limited Duty Officer/Chief Warrant Officer (LDO/CWO).
- Chapter 8: Seaman to Admiral – 21 Programme (STA-21).
- Naval Station Training Command Instructions (NSTCINST):
- NSTCINST 4100.1: Battle Stations 21 Change Management Policy. 18 March 2013.
- Officer Training Command Instructions (OTCINST):
- OTCINST 1530.6K: Appendix B – Required Knowledge for Inspections. 05 April 2018.
- Other OTC Documents:
- NAVCRUIT 1131/15: Commitment to Success (Version 2). 05 March 2018.
- Naval Officer Delayed Entry Programme (DEP) Guide (Version 3). 06 September 2018.
- Officer Candidate Regulations (OCR).
- Navy Recruiting Command Fitness and Nutrition Guide (Revision 2/22/17).
- Navy Officer Candidate School (24 January 2012).
- OCS Inspection Knowledge (04 February 2014).
- All Hands: Magazine of the US Navy.
- Curry, Jr., T.F., Heidt, E.A. & Miller, H. (1977) Officer Candidate School Curriculum Optimization. Orlando, Florida: Training Analysis and Evaluation Group.
- Lehner, W.D. (2008) An Analysis of Naval Officer Accession Programs. Master’s Thesis. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.
4.2 Useful Links
- Naval Education and Training Command (NETC):
- Naval Service Training Command (NSTC):
- Officer Training Command (OTC):
- Official Website: https://www.public.navy.mil/netc/NSTC/otcn/index.aspx.
- Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/OTCNewport.
- Officer Candidate School (OCS):
- Official Website: http://www.ocs.navy.mil/.
- Navy OCS Foundation: http://www.usnavyocs.com/portal/index.php.
- NOFFS Virtual Trainer: https://www.navyfitness.org/fitness/noffs-training/operational-series/virtual-trainer.
- Third Class Swim Qualification: https://www.public.navy.mil/netc/NSTC/otcn/swim_qualification.aspx.
AMDO (Aerospace Maintenance Duty Officer Association). (2019) Aviation Maintenance Duty Officer (AMDO) FY14 Officer Candidate School Application. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.amdo.org/AMDO_OCS-FY14.pdf. [Accessed: 15 February, 2019].
Curry, Jr., T.F., Heidt, E.A. & Miller, H. (1977) Officer Candidate School Curriculum Optimization. Orlando, Florida: Training Analysis and Evaluation Group.
Faram, M.D. (2018) Not your daddy’s boot camp – why Great Lakes got tougher. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.navytimes.com/news/your-navy/2018/11/24/not-your-daddys-boot-camp-why-great-lakes-got-tougher-2/. [Accessed: 06 February, 2019].
Lehner, W.D. (2008) An Analysis of Naval Officer Accession Programs. Master’s Thesis. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.
NSTC (Naval Service Training Command). (2019) CNO and MCPON Visit Boot Camp and Observe Changes to Recruit Training. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.dvidshub.net/news/308334/cno-and-mcpon-visit-boot-camp-and-observe-changes-recruit-training?fbclid=IwAR3ApKiJYNwMwezTzcl%E2%80%A6. [Accessed: 07 February, 2019].
NSTC Public Affairs (Naval Training Service Command Public Affairs). (2017) NSTC Introduces New Manual for Basic Military Training. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.militarynews.com/norfolk-navy-flagship/news/quarterdeck/nstc-introduces-new-manual-for-basic-military-training/article_af77407d-fab%E2%80%A6/ [Accessed: 06 February, 2019].
Nunn, A. (2017) Sailors making Sailors: Battle Stations-21. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.militarynews.com/norfolk-navy-flagship/news/quarterdeck/sailors-making-sailors-battle-stations/article_1d05a89c-73d7-5b9d-b659-48… [Accessed: 06 February, 2019].
Thornbloom, S. (2019) Officer Candidates School Graduations Now Being Live Streamed. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.dvidshub.net/news/307065/officer-candidate-school-graduations-now-being-live-streamed. [Accessed: 15 February, 2019].
USC Institute for Creative Technologies. (2015) INOTS – Immersive Naval Officer Training System. Available from World Wide Web: http://ict.usc.edu/wp-content/uploads/overviews/INOTS_Overview.pdf. [Accessed: 15 February, 2019].
Vazquez, C.M. (2018) ‘Making a Sailor’ documentary reveals what boot camp is like in modern-day Navy. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.stripes.com/news/making-a-sailor-documentary-reveals-what-boot-camp-is-like-in-modern-day-navy-1.557191. [Accessed: 07 February, 2019].