This article is divided into several pages for easier reading:
- Part 01: Introduction and Defining the Terms.
- Part 02: What is Piriformis Syndrome?
- Part 03: Anatomy of the Gluteal Region.
- Part 04: What can cause Piriformis Syndrome?
- Part 05: Who can be Affected by Piriformis Syndrome?
- Part 06: Prevalence and Risk Factors.
- Part 07: What are the Symptoms?
- Part 08: How is Piriformis Syndrome Diagnosed?
- Part 09: Differential Diagnosis for Piriformis Syndrome.
- Part 10: Treatment.
- Part 11: What is the Prognosis or Outlook?
- Part 12: References and Bibliography.
6.0 Prevalence and Risk Factors
The prevalence of risk factors for piriformis symdrome include:
- Epidemiological figures of the prevalence are unknown, but are estimated to be about 12.2% to 27% (Knudsen, Mei-Dan & Brick, 2016).
- “Reported incidence rates for piriformis syndrome among patients with low back pain vary widely, from 5% to 36%.” (Boyajian-O’Neill et al., 2008, p.657).
- “Other studies report varying incidence of PS (8% to “rare”) in patients presenting with low back/buttock pain.” (Miller, White & Ross, 2012, p.577).
- “…occurs most frequently during the fourth and fifth decades of life and affects individuals of all occupations and activity levels.” (Boyajian et al., 2008, p.657).
- Being middle-aged (mean age 38) (Jankovic, Peng & van Zundert, 2013).
- It is more common in women than men, possibly because of biomechanics associated with the wide quadriceps femoris muscle angle (i.e. ‘Q angle’) in the os coxae (pelvis) of women (Pace & Nagle, 1976).
- Being female (Jankovic, Peng & van Zundert, 2013).
- Overuse or vigorous activity.
- Improper use or prolonged disuse of the pelvis.
- Prolonged sitting, walking or running, and may feel better after lying down on the back (supine).
- Blunt trauma in the gluteal region. It is believed to result from a haematoma following trauma, the commonest mechanism being compression or scarring of the sciatic nerve following a simple fall onto the buttocks.
- Asymmetry/anatomical variation of the piriformis muscle(s).
- Disease, for example a tumour.
6.1 Inaccuracy across Studies
- “Many of these studies are hampered by a retrospective design and are weakened by a lack of uniform inclusion criteria.” (Miller, White & Ross, 2012, p.577).
- “Review of this subject is hampered by a lack of standardized and accepted diagnostic criteria, making objective, rigorous comparison of different syndromes impossible.” (Miller, White & Ross, 2012, p.587).
|Return to Part 05||Continue on to Part 07|