This article is organised as follows:

  • Part One: Background.
  • Part Two: Recruiting and Training Units & Organisations.
  • Part Three: Operational Units & Organisations.
  • Part Four: Miscellaneous.

PART ONE: BACKGROUND

1.0 Introduction

This article provides an overview of the United States Air Force (USAF) recruitment and and training organisations that select and train the Air Force’s Special Warfare operators, formerly known as Battlefield Airmen.

“The Air Force said earlier this year [2016] that at any given time, it is training 1,000 to 1,500 prospective battlefield airmen, but only about 20 percent of them will actually graduate.” (Losey, 2016).

Between 2017 and early 2019, the Battlefield Airman (BA) roles have undergone a number of changes, which will be reflected in this article, and a linked article. Some roles, like SOWT-E have been replaced by newer roles while others have been reclassified from special operations to combat support.

The recruiting, assessment and training of BA personnel has also witnessed a revamp to help reduce the attrition rates, which could range “between 40 and 90 percent depending on specialty.” (Pawlyk, 2019b).

These Air Commandos form the special operations element of the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) Special Operations Forces (SOF) community, which is the air component of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).

The role of the US Air Force Special Reconnaissance is to provide surveillance and collect information about the battlespace that commanders can exploit to their advantage, and performing operations for US Air Force and US Army support organisations activities.

From boot camp to first deployment, a SR candidate may undertake up to two years of training.

It must be emphasised that a candidate must be physically fit at the beginning of the SR training process if they are to stand any chance of success. The course requires far greater expenditure of physical energy than is normally required in other peace time training. It is essential that candidates arrive fully fit, carrying no injuries and with a sound grasp of basic navigational techniques.

SR Teams are commanded by Special Tactics Officers.

This article is divided into four parts for easier reading. Part One is the introduction, aim and identifies the various special warfare roles. Part Two outlines the various recruiting and training units and organisations involved in the recruitment, selection, and training of special warfare personnel. Part Three outlines the various operational units and organisations that have a recruitment, selection, ad training remit. Part Four provides a summary followed by useful publications and links, before finally providing a list of references.

1.1 Aim

The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the USAF units and organisations involved in the recruitment, selection, and training of USAF Special Warfare Operators.

1.2 Air Force Special Warfare Roles

In 2019, there was a change in which roles were considered special operations or combat support (Parker, 2018; Pawlyk, 2019a):

  • Special Operations:
    • Pararescue Jumper (PJ) (enlisted only).
    • Combat Controllers (CCT) (enlisted only).
    • Special Reconnaissance (SR) (enlisted only).
    • Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) (enlisted and officer).
    • Special Tactics Officer (officer only).
    • Combat Rescue Officer (officer only).
    • Non-rated Air Liaison Officer (ALO) (officer only).
  • Combat Support:
    • Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) (enlisted only).
    • Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Technician (enlisted only).

PART TWO: RECRUITING AND TRAINING UNITS & ORGANISATIONS

2.0 Air Education and Training Command

The Air Education and Training Command (AETC) is headquartered at Joint Base San Antonio-Randolph (JBSA-R).

It is led by the Commander, a Lieutenant General (OF-8), who is assisted by the Deputy Commander, a Major General (OF-7), and the Command Chief, a Chief Master Sergeant (OR-9).

AETC’s mission is to “…recruit, train and educate Airmen to deliver 21st Century Airpower.” (USAF, 2019b).

AETC is organised as follows:

  • Air Force Recruiting Service (AFRS).
  • Two numbered air forces.
  • The Air University.
  • 23 Wings (16 active-duty and 7 reserve).
  • Operates a number of major installations:
    • Altus Air Force Base (AFB), Oklahoma.
    • Goodfellow AFB, Texas.
    • Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas.
    • JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
    • JBSA-Randolph, Texas.
    • Luke AFB, Arizona.
    • Columbus AFB, Mississippi.
    • Keesler AFB, Mississippi.
    • Laughlin AFB, Texas.
    • Maxwell AFB, Alabama.
    • Sheppard AFB, Texas.
    • Holloman AFB, New Mexico.
    • Vance AFB, Oklahoma.
  • Supports tenant units on numerous bases worldwide.

With regards to Special Warfare, the first part of the AETC’s mission belongs to the AFRS, via the Special Operations Recruiting Squadron.

2.1 Special Operations Recruiting Squadron

Prior to 2018, recruitment for Air Force special operations was conducted solely through a number of Special Operations Recruiting Liaison Operating Locations (OL-C to O) throughout the US, which fell within the 24th Special Operations Wing.

On 29 June 2018, the Air Force set up its first Special Operations Recruiting Squadron (Pawlyk, 2019a). The reactivated 330th Recruiting Squadron directs and operates the Air Force special operations and combat support recruiting activities of 12 enlisted accession flights with approximately 141 active-duty personnel (USAF, 2018a & 2018b). The squadron sits within the Air Force Recruiting Service (AFRS) and has its headquarters (HQ) based at Randolph Air Force Base (AFB).

Key personalities within the squadron include (USAF, 2018):

  • Officer Commanding: Major (OF-3).
  • Squadron Superintendent: A Chief Master Sergeant.
  • Squadron Production Superintendent: A Senior Master Sergeant.
  • Twelve Flight Chiefs spread across the US.

Prior to 2018, candidates would have been assessed by a generalist recruiter, complete basic military training (BMT), and then progress onto an indoctrination course. Now, a specialist recruiter can aid candidates in their preparation for special operations or combat support from the very start.

In its first year the squadron aided approximately 1,000 candidates through the recruitment process and into BMT (Pawlyk, 2019a).

2.2 Second Air Force

The Second Air Force is part of the AETC and is headquartered at Keesler AFB, Mississippi. It is led by the Commander, a Major General, who is assisted by a Vice Commander, a Colonel, and the Command Chief, a Chief Master Sergeant.

The Second Air Force is organised as follows:

  • 381st Training Group, Vandenberg AFB, California.
  • 82nd Training Wing, Sheppard AFB, Texas.
  • 17th Training Wing, Goodfellow AFB, Texas.
  • 37th Training Wing, JBSA-Lackland, Texas.
  • Special Warfare Training Wing, JBSA-Medina Annex, Texas.
  • 81st Training Wing, Keesler AFB, Mississippi.
  • 602nd Training Group (P), Keesler AFB, Mississippi.

After completing the recruitment process with the Special Operations Recruiting Squadron, candidates will undertake Basic Military Training delivered by the 37th Training Wing.

2.3 37th Training Wing

The 37th Training Wing (37 TRW) is located at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland (JBSA), Texas, and is the largest training wing in the USAF. It is led by the Commander, a Colonel (OF-5), who is assisted by a Vice Commander, a Colonel, and the Command Chief, a Chief Master Sergeant.

The Wing operates schools at nine locations throughout the US, although most of its training is delivered at JBSA. The Wing trains Airmen, other military services, government agencies, coalition partners from over 100 countries and military working dogs.

The 37 TRW consists of five training groups and graduates more than 80,000 students annually:

  • 737th Training Group delivers Basic Military Training (BMT) to all enlisted personnel entering the Air Force, Air Force Reserve, and Air National Guard. It trains approximately 35,000 civilians each year with, on average, 650 graduating each week.
  • 37th Training Group provides professional and technical training to approximately 36,000 military and civilian personnel from across the armed forces, federal agencies, and international community.
  • 937th Training Group delivers nursing and health services admin officer courses and enlisted medical courses.
  • 637th Training Group consisting of the Inter-American Air Forces Academy (IAAFA), which delivers technical courses in Spanish and English to a variety of international students, and the Defense Language Institute.

2.4 Special Warfare Training Group

The Battlefield Airmen Training Group (BATG) is located at JBSA-Medina Annex, Texas, within the grounds of JBSA-Lackland.

The Battlefield Airmen Training Group (BATG) was activated on 02 June 2016, and has squadrons located at JBSA-Lackland, Kirtland AFB (New Mexico), and Pope Army Airfield (North Carolina). Between June 2016 and October 2018, BATG increased the overall graduation rate from 10% to 21% (Parker, 2018).

The role of BATG is to select, train, and mentor Airmen for global combat operations. It provides initial and advanced training to achieve this. BATG is organised as follows:

  • 350 Battlefield Airmen Training Squadron:
    • Located at JBSA-Lackland, its role is to train and develop BA candidates, (PJ, CCT, TACP, SOWT, CRO, STO, and non-rated ALO).
    • In addition, the 350th BA TS directs operations & training events for all instructor proficiencies and qualification requirements; they also ensure the cadre’s proficiency.
    • Superintendent, a Chief Master Sergeant (Parker, 2018).
    • Director of Operations, a Major (Losey, 2018b).
  • 351 Battlefield Airmen Training Squadron:
    • Located at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, its role is to deliver land warfare and technical recovery skills providing initial qualification training to meet combatant command requirements.
    • It provides entry-level training for all PJ’s and CRO’s.
    • The unit is also required to support Air Combat Command and Air Force Special Operations Command missions by developing BA to support core missions of both commands.
    • In addition, the 351st BA TS directs operations & training events for all instructor proficiencies and qualification requirements; they also ensure the cadre’s proficiency.
  • 352 Battlefield Airmen Training Squadron:
    • Located at Pope Army Airfield, North Carolina, its role is to deliver land warfare and austere drop zone skills providing initial qualification training to meet combatant command requirements.
    • It provides entry-level training for all CCT and STO’s.
    • The unit is also required to support CAF and AFSOC missions by developing BA to support core missions of both commands.
    • In addition, the 352d BA TS directs operations & training events for all instructor proficiencies and qualification requirements; they also ensure the cadre’s proficiency.
  • 353 Battlefield Airmen Training Squadron:
    • Located at JBSA-Lackland its role is to provide initial skills for 520 TACP and ALO candidates’ in order to award a 3 skill level, and 60 TACP enlisted members to earn their 7 skill level.
    • The 353d BA TS integrates close air support (CAS), airlift, reconnaissance and space assets into joint and combined battle plans in support of worldwide combatant commanders.
    • In addition, the 353d BA TS directs operations & training events for all instructor proficiencies and qualification requirements; they also ensure the cadre’s proficiency.
  • 354 Battlefield Airmen Training Support Squadron (Losey, 2016).
    • Located at JBSA-Lackland.
  • BATG Detachment One:
    • Provides direct support to all Air Force BA training.
    • It provides curriculum, faculty development and military training leader programme management for PJ, CRO, CCT, STO, SOWT (now SR), TACP, and ALO training.
    • BA TG Det 1 also manages contracts, facilities, and equipment for the entire BA enterprise.

During 2018, the BATG was renamed the Special Warfare Training Group, becoming part of the newly established Special Warfare Training Wing (Losey, 2018a).

2.5 Special Warfare Training Wing

Established on 10 October 2018, the Special Warfare Training Wing is located at JBSA-Lackland (Losey, 2018b). It is led by the Commander, a Colonel, and headquartered at JBSA-Randolph (Losey, 2018a). The Wing will have approximately 135 personnel (Losey, 2018a).

As well as the newly renamed Special Warfare Training Group, the Wing has a Human Performance Support Group (HPSG). The main role of the HPSG is to develop efficient and effective methods for improving human performance (Losey, 2018b). HPSG personnel (consisting of sport and medical) conduct injury assessments and screening of candidates in the athletic training facility, opened in February 2018. Services/treatments provided by the HPSG include (Losey, 2018b):

  • Prehabilitation or treatments to keep problems from getting worse.
  • Specialised anti-gravity treadmills, known as AlterG, which enables candidates to keep exercising without worsening issues such as shin splints/knee injuries.
  • Scanning all candidates using a motion capture system known as DARI (Dynamic Athletic Research Institute), named after the company that created it.
    • This records how a candidate’s body jumps, flexes, and balances.
    • A green screen floor and cameras map a virtual skeleton of the candidate and, whilst performing a sequence of exercises, the virtual skeleton records how their body moves.
    • This can show which muscles are, or are not, being used – which uncorrected could lead to injury.
  • Tailored corrective exercise programmes.
  • Biometric feedback.
  • Sensory deprivation tanks where candidates can float, resting injuries without putting pressure on them and facilitating the healing process.

Other changes include (Losey, 2018a & 2018b):

  • A common preparation course, known as the Special Warfare Preparation Course, all candidates attend regardless of their future role within Special Warfare.
  • A combined assessment and selection process for all candidates.

The Wing conducts training at numerous locations, including:

  • Lackland AFB, Texas:
    • Special Warfare Preparatory Course (SW PREP).
    • Special Warfare Assessment and Selection (A&S) Course.
    • PJ, CCT, TACP, and SR courses and apprentice (3-skill level) courses.
  • Panama City, Florida:
    • Air Force/Special Warfare Combat Dive Course.
    • Special Tactics training.
  • Fort Benning, Georgia:
    • Airborne School, Basic Airborne Course.
  • Yuma, Arizona.
    • Military Free-Fall Parachute Course (MFFPC).
    • Special Tactics training.
  • Fairchild AFB, Washington.
    • SERE training.
  • Keesler AFB, Mississippi.
    • Air Traffic Control.
  • Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.
    • PJ Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) B, P, and apprentice courses.
  • Pope Army Airfield, North Carolina.
    • CCT apprentice course.
  • Hurlburt Field, Florida.
    • Special Tactics training.

Special Tactics training is managed by the 24th Special Operations Wing (Section 3.1).

2.6 USAF Survival School

AETC also delivers Survival, Escape, Resistance and Evasion (SERE) training.

The 336th Training Group at the USAF Survival School, Fairchild AFB, Washington, provides SERE training to at risk of isolation personnel. Instruction concentrates on the principles, techniques and skills necessary to survive with confidence in any environment. In addition, the 336 TRG provides initial and follow-on training to all USAF SERE Specialists.

SERE specialists assigned to the survival school teach 15 different courses to approximately 17,000 students annually. Nine courses are taught at Fairchild AFB, with the other six courses being delivered by 336 TRG detachments at Eielson AFB (Alaska), Naval Air Station Pensacola (Florida), and JBSA-Lackland.

2.7 Naval Diving and Salvage Training Centre

The Special Warfare Combat Dive Course is eight weeks in duration and is delivered at the Naval Support Activity, Panama City (NSA-PC), Florida, part of the US Navy’s Naval Diving & Salvage Training Centre (NDSTC). On the NDSTC website the course is known as the Air Force Combat Dive Course (AFCDC or AFDC).

Administratively, the NDSTC delivers the combat dive course as two courses for the Air Force:

  • 5-week Air Force Combat Dive Course (Open Circuit).
    • 20 training days.
    • Six classes per year.
    • Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA).
    • Candidates learn basic diving and advanced rescue diving principles.
  • 3-week Air Force Combat Dive Course (Closed Circuit).
    • 13 training days.
    • Six classes per year.
    • Closed circuit underwater breathing apparatus (UBA).
    • Candidates learn advanced combat diving principles.
    • Delivered immediately after the 5-week course, i.e. no break in training.
    • Pre-requisite for attendance is successful completion of 5-week course.

The primary focus of these courses is to develop Air Force Special Warfare candidates into competent, capable and safe combat divers/swimmers.

The course provides diver training through classroom instruction, extensive physical training, surface and sub-surface water confidence pool exercises, pool familiarisation dives, day/night tactical open water surface/sub-surface infiltration swims, open/closed circuit diving procedures and underwater search and recovery procedures. The courses provide training to depths of 130 feet (40 metres) in a variety of operating conditions (including nil visibility).

2.8 Special Tactics Training Squadron

The Special Tactics Training Squadron is a unit of the 24th Special Operations Wing (24 SOW), and is located at Hurlburt Field, Florida.

The role of the squadron is twofold:

  1. Recruit, assess, select, trains and develop five-level combat controllers, special reconnaissance, pararescue jumpers and special operations qualified TACP members for the 24th Special Operations Wing (Section 3.1); and
  2. Provide initial joint terminal attack control (JTAC) training to Army, Marine Corps and Air Force special operations forces.

PART THREE: OPERATIONAL UNITS/ORGANISATIONS

3.0 Introduction

This section of the article outlines the operational units that have a recruitment and/or training function relating to the recruitment and training of special tactics operators, not support roles.

3.1 24th Special Operations Wing

The 24th Special Operations Wing (24 SOW) was established on 12 June 2012, with its headquarters at Hurlburt Field, Florida. It is the only special tactics wing in the USAF, and is a unit of the Air Force Special Operations Command.

It is led by the Commander, a Colonel, who is assisted by the Command Chief, a Chief Master Sergeant.

Approximately 2,500 personnel make up the special tactics community, with almost 1,500 assigned to the 24 SOW. There are approximately 1,000 special tactics operators and 650 combat mission support Airmen (24 SOW, 2019).

The 24 SOW is organised as follows:

  • 720th Special Tactics Group (Hurlburt Field).
  • 724th Special Tactics Group (Pope Army Airfield, North Carolina).
  • Special Tactics Training Squadron (Hurlburt Field, Florida).

The units of the Wing reside in 29 operating locations and have 16 geographically separated units.

3.2 720th Special Tactics Group

The 720th Special Tactics Group, 720 STG, is located at Hurlburt Field, Florida. It is led by the Commander, a Colonel. It has approximately 800 personnel.

The role of the groups is to organise, train and equip special tactics forces worldwide to integrate, synchronise, and/or control air power during operations.

720 STG is organised as follows:

  • 720th Special Tactics Group, Detachment 1, Hurlburt Field, Florida.
  • 17th Special Tactics Squadron, Ft. Benning, Georgia.
  • 21st Special Tactics Squadron, Pope Field, North Carolina.
  • 22nd Special Tactics Squadron, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington.
  • 23rd Special Tactics Squadron, Hurlburt Field, Florida.
  • 26th Special Tactics Squadron, Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico.
  • 720th Operations Support Squadron, Hurlburt Field, Florida.

3.3 724th Special Tactics Group

The 724th Special Tactics Group, 724 STG, is located at Pope Field, North Carolina. It is led by the Commander, a Colonel.

The mission of the group is to provide training and technical assistance in the development of tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP’s) to ensure standardisation across the AFSOC special tactics community. The unit has a mix of Special Tactics operators and support staff.

724 STG is organised as follows:

  • 24th Special Tactics Squadron.
    • 24 STS provides special operations airmen for the Joint Special Operations Command, including CCT, SR, PJ’s, and TACP personnel.
    • They are the Air Force’s Tier 1 unit, and 24th STS members are provided as enablers to the Army’s 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (aka Delta Force) and the Navy’s Special Warfare Development Group, or DEVGRU (aka SEAL Team 6) due to their specific skill sets.
    • As such, 24th STS members are also trained in conducting classified and clandestine operations including direct action, counter-terrorism, counter-insurgency, hostage rescue, and special reconnaissance.
  • 724th Operations Support Squadron.
  • 724th Intelligence Squadron.
  • 724th Special Tactics Support Squadron.

3.4 724 STG Recruitment and Selection

Although eligibility criteria for joining the 724 STG are minimal, operators must submit a formal application and then attend operator selection which is held twice per year. The 724 STG is fairly unique in that it hand-selects all members of the unit. Further, only existing active duty, Air National Guard, and reserve air force personnel can join.

An outline of the recruitment and selection process:

  • Phase 1:
    • Inform chain of command of intent to apply.
    • Complete application form.
    • Have 3 leadership evaluations.
    • Send application form for review.
    • Application reviewed for completeness.
  • Phase 1 Board:
    • Selects those deemed suitable for Phase 2.
  • Phases 2 to 4:
    • Take place at Pope Army Airfield.
    • Approximately 30+ days to prepare for Phase 2 from Phase 1 Board decision.
    • Potential operators are expected to have a basic understanding of troop leading procedures and small unit tactics:
      • TC 3-21.76: Ranger Handbook.
      • ATP 3-21.8: Infantry Platoon and Squad.
    • Potential operators will be tested on both general SOF and individual specialty skills:
      • Land Navigation;
      • Rifle and Pistol Fundamentals;
      • Mission Planning Basics (MDMP);
      • SMUT Basics (Tactical movement, CQC, etc.);
      • Patrolling Basics;
      • Forced March with 65-70lbs rucksack;
      • Critical thinking selection event; and
      • The Crucible event.
  • Phases 2 to 4, combined, last 10 days.
  • Decision made on the candidate’s selection to the 724 STG.
  • Each candidate receives feedback regardless of outcome.

The operator selection process is 11/12 days in duration.

3.5 724 STG DET-1 RAST-D

Detachment One’s Recruiting, Assessment, Selection, Training & Development (Det-1’s RAST-D) is the entry point for operators into 24 SOW.

Once selected candidates will attend the Operator Training Course which seven months in duration (verify course length).

PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS

4.0 Summary

The US Air Force’s Special Warfare roles are open to all appropriately qualified male and female personnel of the US Air Force. Special Warfare training seeks to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the US Air Force’s SOF community. This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for Special Warfare training.

4.1 Useful Publications

  • Air Force Policy Directives (AFPD):
    • AFPD 10-30 – Personnel Recovery. Dated 09 February 2012.
    • AFPD 10-35 – Battlefield Airmen.
    • AFPD 16-12 – Pararescue. Dated 01 July 1998.
    • AFPD 16-13 – Survival, Evasion, Resistance & Escape (SERE). Dated 01 March 2000.
  • Air Force Instructions (AFI):
    • AFI 13-112, Volume 1 – Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Training Programme.
    • AFI 13-112, Volume 2 – Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Standardisation/Evaluation Programme.
    • AFI 13-219, Volume 1 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Training. Dated 21 April 2011.
    • AFI 13-219, Volume 2 – Combat Control & Special Tactics Officer Standardisation & Evaluation. Dated 21 April 2011.
    • AFI 15-128 – Air Force Weather Roles & Responsibilities, Air Combat Command Supplement.
    • AFI 15-135, Volume 1 – Special Operations Weather Training.
    • AFI 15-135, Volume 2 – Special Operations Weather Standardisation & Evaluation.
    • AFI 15-135, Volume 3 – Special Operations Weather Team Operations.
    • AFI 16-1202, Volume 1 – Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Programme.
    • AFI 16-1202, Volume 2 – Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
      • AFGCM Supplement 16-1202, Volume 2, Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Standardisation and Evaluation.
    • AFI 31-501 – Personnel Security Programme Management.
    • AFI 36-2210 – Airfield Operations Officer Training Programme.
    • AFI 48-123 – Medical Examinations and Standards.
  • Career Field Education & Training Plans (CFETP):
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 13DX, Combat Rescue Officer. Dated 01 February 2015.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 15WX, Weather Officer. Dated 15 March 2012.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1C2X1, Combat Control. Dated 01 September 2014.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1T2XX, Pararescue Specialty. Dated 15 May 2008.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1W0X1-A, Weather. Dated May 2001.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1W0XX, Weather – Change 2. Dated 01 June 2010.
    • Career Field Education & Training Plan for AFSC 1W0XX, Weather – Change 5. Dated 15 March 2012.
  • Reports and Studies:
    • Allen, T.P. (2002) Improving USAF Special Tactics Readiness to meet the Operational Demands of the USAF and US Special Operations Command (SOCOM). Master’s Thesis. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404585. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Baumgartner, N. (2015) AF Tier Two Physical Fitness Tests and Standards Study. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.nsca.com/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=36507225370. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Cassidy, J.F. (2013) A History of the Implementing and Evolving of Medical Instruction and Medical Training given to USAF Pararescuemen from 1947 to 2000. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.alaska.net/~jcassidy/pdf_files/Pararescue%20Medical%20Training%20History.pdf. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].
    • Coble, B.B. (1997) Benign Weather Modification. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air Univeristy Press.
    • Manacapilli, T., Hardison, C.M., Gifford, B., Bailey, A. & Bower, A. (2007) Common Battlefield Training for Airmen. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG624.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Occupational Analysis Programme (1998) Occupational Survey Report: Weather, AFSCs 1W0X1/A and 15WX/A, AFPT 90-1W0-098. Available from World Wide Web: www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a343938.pdf. Accessed: 10 march, 2016].
    • Physical Fitness Tests and Standards for Battlefield Airmen Study. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Physical%20Fitness%20Tests%20and%20Standards%20for%20Battlefield%20Airmen%20Study.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Rose, M.R. & Barron, L.G. (2015) Validation Review and Documentation for CRO, STO, CCT, and SOWT Assessment Programs. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/wisr-studies/USAF%20-%20Validation%20Review%20and%20Documentation%20for%20CRO%20STO%20CCT%20and%20SOWT%20Assessment%20Programs.pdf. [Accessed: 03 March, 2016].
    • Rush, S., Boccio, E., Kharod, C.U. & D’Amore, J. (2015) Evolution of Pararescue Medicine During Operation Enduring Freedom. Military Medicine. 180(3), pp.68-73. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273318279_Evolution_of_Pararescue_Medicine_During_Operation_Enduring_Freedom. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].
    • Walker, T.B., Lennemann, L.M., McGregor, J.N., Mauzy, C. & Zupan, M.F. (2011) Physiological and Psychological Characteristics of Successful Combat Controller Trainees. Journal Of Special Operations Medicine. 11(1), pp.39-47.
  • Books:
    • Caldwell, M.F. (2015) Pararescue – It’s a Fine Madness: Volume One – Through the Looking Glass. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
    • Allen, R.C. (ed) (2001) Pararescue Medication and Procedure Handbook. 2nd Ed. 28 February, 2001. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.ciomr.org/download/res/PARARESCUE_MEDICATION_AND_PROCEDURE_HANDBOOK-1.pdf. [Accessed: 13 March, 2016].

4.2 Useful Links

  • US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM): http://www.socom.mil/.
  • Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC): http://www.afsoc.af.mil/.
  • Hurlburt Field: http://www.hurlburt.af.mil/.
  • 24th Special Operations Wing: http://www.24sow.af.mil/FAQs.aspx.
  • Air Force Special Tactics: https://www.airforcespecialtactics.af.mil/.
  • Battlefield Airmen Training Group (BATG): https://www.37trw.af.mil/Units/Battlefield-Airmen-Training-Group/.
  • Special Warfare Training Wing: https://www.specialwarfaretw.af.mil/.
  • 37th Training Wing: https://www.37trw.af.mil/.
  • Air Education and Training Command (AETC): https://www.aetc.af.mil/.
  • 2nd Air Force: http://www.2af.aetc.af.mil/.
  • 724th Special Tactics Group:
    • Official: https://www.airforcespecialtactics.af.mil/724STG/.
    • YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsfogvEjXh-KgKy-8lbxoUg.

4.3 References

24 SOW (24th Special Operations Wing). (2019) Unit Fact Sheet. 15 May 2019. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.airforcespecialtactics.af.mil/Portals/80/Images/ST%20fact%20sheet_CAO%2015%20May%2019.pdf?ver=2019-05-17-130355-003. [Accessed: 15 August, 2019].

Losey, S. (2016) Air Force to cut battlefield airmen training locations in half to save money, time. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.airforcetimes.com/news/your-air-force/2016/10/01/air-force-to-cut-battlefield-airmen-training-locations-in-half-to-save-money-time/. [Accessed: 15 August, 2019].

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