Last Updated: 08 August, 2016
Training is the process of preparing men and women for their careers in the military. Training is progressive and continues all the way through an individual’s career; being a mixture of mandatory, optional, individual and collective training and educational programmes.
The purpose of the Royal Marines initial military training is to turn civilian recruits into operationally ready marines’ and officers’ lasting 32 and 60 weeks respectively. The Royal Marines initial military training produces fit, motivated individuals capable of carrying out a variety of infantry and amphibious tasks in a range of operational environments. Those who pass are fully prepared to their role in a Commando unit.
This article provides an overview of the structure and organisation of training of the Royal Marines. The article then looks at the Commando Training Centre and each of the training wings under its aegis, with a brief outline of the Training Support Department. The article then outlines both recruit and officer training before highlighting the Battle Physical Tests and Commando Tests that everyone must pass. The article moves to the Wet/Dry routine and Kit Muster before finally providing some useful links. The article is presented as follows:
- Structure of the Royal Marines
- Organisation of Training
- Commando Training Centre Royal Marines
- Training Support Department
- Royal Marines Recruits
- Royal Marines Officers
- Battle Physical Tests & Commando Tests
- Wet/Dry Routine
- Kit Muster
- Another Perspective: Training, Inspections & Parades
- Useful Links
It should be noted that service with the Royal Marines is
still open to men only except for the Royal Marines Band Service and the All Arms Commando Course (AACC).
On 08 July 2016, the MOD announced that all Ground Close Combat Roles (RAC, Infantry, Royal Marines and the RAF Regiment) would be opened to women by 2018 (British Army, 2016).
Structure of the Royal Marines
The Royal Marines is made up of a number of units and establishments which are highlighted in figure 1 below.
Figure 1: Structure of the Royal Marines
The Royal Marines with the Royal Navy combine to form the Royal Naval Service.
The Royal Marines is made up of both Commissioned Officers and Other Ranks (known as Marines).
1 RIFLES Battalion
1 RIFLES are a Light Role Infantry Battalion, a unique role within the infantry. They are currently part of 160 (Wales) Brigade, the only Regular Army unit, having previously been an element of 3 Commando Brigade.
For approximately 5½ years – from 01 April 2008 to late 2013 – 1 RIFLES was permanently attached to 3 Commando Brigade, where it served as one of 3 Commando Brigade’s four manoeuvre battalions/units alongside the three commandos of the Royal Marines. The Battalion worked extensively with the Royal Marines on operations in Afghanistan.
Several Riflemen capitalised on other opportunities during the Battalion’s time with the Commandos to complete amphibious training at Company level, mountain and arctic warfare training and the AACC. 3 Riflemen won Commando Medals which are awarded for the student on each Commando course whose performance and attitude best embodies the Commando ethos.
Organisation of Training
Figure 2, below, presents the ‘current’ (February 2014) Royal Marines military training landscape.
Figure 2: Royal Marines Military Training Landscape
The Commando Training Centre Royal Marines (CTCRM) is the principal training centre for the Royal Marines and is based at Lympstone in Devon. The primary purpose of the CTCRM is to:
‘Deliver initial, career and specialist training for Royal Marines and attached personnel, whilst supporting assisting and advising frontline units in order to contribute to the operational capability of the fleet.’
The CTCRM selects and trains all Royal Marines Officers, recruits and reserves and is also unique in that it also provides all Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) command training as well as training 70% of all Royal Marines specialists. Another unique point is that the Royal Marines is the only element of the armed forces to train officers and other ranks at the same location.
CTCRM is the only UK training establishment that trains to Operational Performance Standard which means that on departing CTCRM all trainees are trained and able to deploy direct on Operations.
CTCRM is a reasonably large organisation that has, on average, 1,300 recruits, 2,000 potential recruits and 400 potential officers attend training courses and acquaint courses every year delivered by approximately 500 trainers and support staff. In addition the Training Wings run upwards of 320 courses a year for a further 2,000 students. Whilst CTCRM has a relatively small campus it conducts training across the world making use of the extremes of climate and topography.
CTCRM is divided into 3 training wings, each commanded by its own Commanding Officer (CO) and supported by the Training Support Department which provides the training infrastructure.
- Command Wing;
- Commando Training Wing; and
- Specialist Wing.
CTCRM has a number of facilities which include:
- A first class gymnasium complex and swimming pool for combat swimming tests (CST);
- An indoor range simulator incorporating the latest laser technology;
- A modern urban combat training complex;
- A nearby 300-metre rifle range to hone recruits’ shooting skills; and
- On-site training areas within the 77 acre base.
In addition CTCRM has access to 2,500 acres of nearby Woodbury Common, as well as the training areas of Dartmoor and others in Wales and Scotland.
The Command Wing is responsible for training all Royal Marines Young Officers (RMYOs) and NCO’s from Lance Corporal to Warrant Officer Class One. Command courses are undertaken by candidates for promotion, encompassing the military and leadership skills required at the higher rank as well as the management skills required for supervisory roles.
The Command Wing is also responsible for the command training of the Royal Marines Band Service and the Royal Marines Reserves.
Commando Training Wing
The Commando Training Wing trains all Royal Marines Recruits, as well as Reserves and the initial training for all Bandsmen and Women. The Commando Training Wing is also responsible for running the All Arms Commando Course (AACC) which selects and trains Servicemen and Women from the other three services, and occasionally from abroad, to be able to serve alongside the Royal Marines anywhere in the world.
The Specialist Wing trains 70% of all Royal Marines specialists Phase 2 training, ranging from:
- Weapons instructors (light and heavy weapons);
- Physical Training Instructors (PTI);
- Mountain Leaders (ML);
- Armoured Vehicle Operators;
- Assault Engineers;
- Drill Leaders;
- Signallers; to
- Information Managers.
The other 30% of Phase 2 training is delivered by other defence training establishments.
Training Support Department
The Training Support Department (TSD) is responsible for ensuring that all training at CTCRM effectively prepares personnel for their jobs working in (Marine recruits and RMYO) or alongside (AACC) the Corps. Additionally, the role of TSD includes monitoring, evaluating and influencing the extent to which training objectives are reached in relation to the expenditure of resources.
TSD is commanded by a CO, a Lieutenant Colonel, and is organised into three departments:
- Training Management;
- Education and Staff Training; and
- Training Resources.
The primary responsibility of the TSD is to oversee the management of training, ensuring a standardisation of policy throughout the CTCRM.
Training Management coordinates the training schedules for all Wings, evaluates and maintains the quality of training and designs the training for new courses or alterations to existing courses.
Education and Staff Training
Education and Staff Training runs educational and current affairs training for Recruits and Young Officers. It also delivers a range of personal development courses for trained ranks such as; GCSEs, administering NVQs, resettlement courses and computer based Interactive Learning.
Training Resources provides graphics support to all Wings for the benefit of Staff and trainees, and includes a training aids library, photographic section, reprographics section and illustrators. It is also responsible for managing and allocating to other units the Woodbury Common Training Area (WCTA) and Straight Point Ranges.
Royal Marines Recruits
All Royal Marines recruits, regardless of their eventual specialism, will complete the 32-week recruit training programme. The programme is a combined Phase 1 & 2 training programme, similar in principle to the British Army’s combined Phase 1 & 2 Combat Infantryman’s Course delivered by the Infantry Training Centre. Click for: Table1, Outline of Royal Marine Recruit Training at CTCRM.
Every two weeks a new batch of up to 60 Royal Marine Commando aspirants will start the 32-week recruit training programme. On average, 1 in 3 recruits will not make it and 1 in 6 recruits are expected to hand in their chit (resignation letter).
Commando aspirants should note that when Royal Marines do most of their training, it is not after a full nights rest on a full stomach, it will be after little sleep, having been cold and wet for several days and then aspirants will be asked to perform physically. This is where people come unstuck.
Training for recruits consists of two distinct phases which include a number of elements:
- Phase 1, including:
- Foundation training in weeks 1-5;
- Gym Test, with preparation in weeks 6-9; and
- Phase 1 ‘pass out’ exercise in week 15.
- Phase 2, including:
- Crash Week in week 19;
- Bottom field pass out in week 20
- Commando stage in weeks 30-31; and
- King’s Troop in week 32
Training during Phase 1 follows the broad principle of Phase 1 initial training in the other Services, i.e. taking civilians and turning them into partly trained soldiers/sailors/air personnel.
During weeks 1 and 2 recruits are accommodated in the Foundation Centre in a large communal dormitory which is able to accommodate 60 people. Each recruit is pre-allocated a bed space identified by their name and regimental number. Although recruits will be introduced to their training team and allocated a troop on the first day, during these initial two weeks recruits are overseen by one person, their drill instructor (a Corporal).
On the first evening recruits will attest (i.e. complete the pledge of allegiance) and then serve a minimum of 28-days before they can request dismissal as of right (i.e. request to leave of their own accord). A trip to the barbers follows in the morning after reveille at 0530. Recruits must quickly grasp the concepts of time limits (e.g. 5 minutes) and times to be ready (e.g. 07:00). Recruits will also be informed of the warning system which is based on the three strikes and out concept:
- Section Commanders warning;
- Troop Commanders warning; and
- OCs (Officer Commanding) warning.
This stage of training will see recruits learning the initial steps of military training (including housekeeping, etiquette and personal hygiene) as well as adapting to a new way of life. Recruits will also receive basic fitness training, including conducting the beep test (multi-stage fitness test, MSFT) to gauge baseline fitness as one of their first lessons.
Once in military uniform recruits will wear a red tab on their rank slide to distinguish their foundation training status. At the end of week 1 recruit’s will receive a practice inspection in preparation for the foundation final inspection at the end of week 2.
On the second night of week 2 recruits will experience their first night in the field, known as Exercise First Step and is located within the confines of CTCRM. Prior to this recruits will receive a skill at arms (SAA) lesson (i.e. how to handle a weapon safely using what is known as NSPs or normal safety procedures). This exercise is also the first introduction to the wet/dry routine (see below).
The Friday of week 2 is the ‘experience’ of final inspection and if completed successfully will see recruits move to their training block (over the weekend) and, barring injury or back-trooping, will be their accommodation for the remainder of the course.
From week 3 recruits come under the aegis of their training team, which for each Troop consists of:
- One Troop Commander: A Captain (OF-2)
- One Troop Sergeant: A Sergeant (OR-6)
- Four Section Commanders: Corporals (OR-4)
- One Drill Instructor: A Corporal (OR-4)
- One Physical Training Instructor (PTI): A Corporal (OR-4)
Accommodation in the training block consists of 6 person rooms, although some rooms will have bunk beds, and recruits will be allocated their Section Commander (a Corporal).
During week 5 recruits will conduct their first ‘proper’ exercise, Exercise Quick Cover, which is a 3-day (Monday-Wednesday) ‘jolly’ including basic field craft and close quarter battle. Thursday will see recruits prepare for Families Day on the Friday. Friends and family are invited to a progress parade after which recruits can go home for the first time. Families Day signals the end of Foundation Training.
Weeks 6 to 15 will see a rapid progression in the intensity of training with the training team expecting more and more the recruits.
During week 6-9 recruits will conduct fitness training geared towards the gym test which is undertaken on the Friday of week 9. Recruits must complete a tough series of physical challenges in the gym which culminates in three rope climbs. This is a pass/fail test and those who fail will be subject to back-trooping. This means the recruit will have to redo the previous four weeks with a new troop.
At week 15 recruits will experience the joy that is Exercise Baptist Run. This is a 4-day exercise that assesses everything taught during Phase 1, such as field craft and endurance. It must be passed in order to progress to Phase 2 of training. Those recruits who fail this exercise will leave the troop for re-training (i.e. back-trooping). After a full week in the field recruits must pass a final kit inspection with all exercise kit laid out on their poncho in a clean and serviceable condition (see below).
Training during Phase 2 follows the broad principle of Phase 2 specialist training in the other Services, i.e. taking partly trained soldiers/sailors/air personnel and providing them with the specialist skills and qualifications to perform their role.
During Phase 2 of training, on average, 25% of the troop is expected to drop out. At the start of Phase 2 selected recruits will be chosen for nominal command positions, e.g. Section 2IC, and will wear a white tape to denote their status.
The first major exercise in Phase 2 is Exercise First Base, which is a 4-day exercise consisting of tactical field patrols race and observation posts and harbour drills.
The next pass/fail element for recruits is the Bottom Field pass out in week 20 which is a Battle Physical Test with four sub-tests (see below). Week 19 is known as Crash Week and is spent almost entirely in preparation for the four tests in week 20. By week 19 a troop may have lost up to 50% of its recruits.
During weeks 30 and 31 recruits will enter the commando stage of training conducting four gruelling tests. If recruits fail a test twice then they will be subject to back-trooping, with the exception of the Tarzan aerial assault course in which recruits have three attempts. Recruits who require a retest may find they are conducting the test by themselves, notwithstanding the PTI! Any retests are conducted after the 30-miler.
The King’s Badge Award is an accolade for the best overall recruit during training. The King’s Badge recipient is chosen from among the diamonds (denoted by the diamond on their rank slide). Diamonds are recruits who hold command responsibilities within the troop and will hold leadership roles when on exercise. Only nominated diamonds will be put forward for the King’s Badge panel for best overall recruit. The panel consists of the Commanding Officer of Commando Training Wing (a Lieutenant Colonel) the Regimental Sergeant Major (a WO1) and the Wing Training Warrant Officer (a WO2). Recruits will be quizzed on their Corps history and operations, as well as military knowledge (e.g. the NATO orders process). The Badge is a physical badge worn on the recruit’s uniform for the rest of their career and is highly regarded. King’s Badge recipients may be selected for promotion ahead of their peers.
The last week of training is a full week of drill in preparation for the final pass out parade.
Finally, all Royal Marines recruits become a general duties (GD) marine when they complete their training, serving as a Rifleman in a commando unit, joining the Fleet Protection Group guarding the UK’s nuclear weapons or training to board ships at sea as part of a Fleet Standby Rifle Troop. After one or two years marines wanting a specialism, for example chef, will attend a further Phase 2b training course.
Royal Marines Officers
Direct Entry Officers
The Royal Marines Young Officer (RMYO) course begins with 32 weeks of initial training, which will take place at the CTCRM. During the early weeks RMYOs start with the basics, like marching, weapon handling and drills, looking after their kit and generally learning to live, work and think as a Royal Marines Commando. Later, RMYOs will work on more advanced combat skills, such as patrolling, setting ambushes, cliff assaults and ﬁghting in built-up areas (FIBUA).
RMYO training is longer and more difficult than Royal Marines Recruit training at 60 weeks (15 months) rather than 32 weeks. This is because the men under an officer’s command need to know they will never be asked to do something the officer cannot do themselves.
RMYO training also includes the development of advanced tactical skills and leadership qualities required to motivate, train and inspire Royal Marines Commandos in camp, on exercise and in the field. Like Royal Marines Recruits, during training RMYOs take part in regular exercises, including a three-week deployment to the USA towards the end of the course, to put together everything that has been learned so far.
The culmination of 15 months training, turning civilians into junior commando leaders, is Exercise Final Nail which demonstrates that the RYMO is ready to direct the actions of a troop of Royal Marines in any situation at sea or on land.
The following is a general breakdown of the RMYOs training course: Table2: Outline of Royal Marines Young Officer Training at CTCRM. The initial period whilst the RMYOs are training at Lympstone is referred to as Phase 1. Phase 2 of training will commence once the RMYO is in a Commando Unit doing the job of a Troop Commander. On completion of Phases One and Two the Officer will have completed all of his training.
Late Entry Officers
Late Entry Officers attend a single 14-week course that is programmed annually. The aim of the Senior Corps Commission (SCC) course – for Warrant Officers, Senior or Junior Non-Commissioned Officers in the Corps – is to give the newly commissioned Officers an opportunity to adjust to their new status and to equip them with the general professional knowledge necessary to fulfil their future duties.
The Course syllabus includes strategic studies, tactical and military training and staff duties; in addition to numerous visits to other units and agencies. Newly commissioned SCC Officers have extensive and varied experience from many years service within the Royal Marines. Naturally they are already commando trained and a certain high level of knowledge is understandably assumed.
Battle Physical Test and Commando Tests
The four commando tests, which come towards the end of training, are the final proof that individuals are ready for their green beret – and to start their career as a Royal Marines Commando, continue RMYO training or graduate from the All Arms Commando Course.
Training in the late 1960s comprised a 17-week course consisting of an infantry course followed by the commando course. The Commando test consisted of four sub-tests:
- Speed March: this six-mile (9.65km) march had to be completed in 60 minutes carrying a rifle and equipment, and finished at a rifle range with a marksmanship test.
- Endurance Test: a four-mile (6.4km) run with a rifle and equipment over bog and rough country, overcoming obstacles and crawling through tunnels, one filled with water. This test had to be completed within 80 minutes and finished at the rifle range, where marksmanship had to be proved.
- Assault Course: this was over varying obstacles, carrying a rifle and equipment, and had to be completed in five minutes.
- Twelve-mile (19.3km) Cross-country March: this was undertaken carrying 90lb (40.8kg) of equipment.
By the early 1980s the Commando tests were very similar to the late 1960s. Each commando trainee would be carrying 30lb (13.6kg) of equipment. However, as the equipment became soaked with water and sweat this weight increased to at least 40lb (18kg). Each trainee would carry a self loading rifle (SLR) which weighed approximately 10lb (4.5kg); and thus loaded the trainee would be up against the following challenges:
- A six-mile (9.65km) Speed March: 60 minutes for RMYOs, recruits and AACC.
- A nine-mile (14.4km) Speed March: 90 minutes for RMYOs, recruits and AACC; followed by a troop attack exercise.
- The Endurance Course, plus a four-mile (6.4km) run back to camp: 73 minutes for recruits and AACC, and 70 minutes for RMYOs. Trainees would finish by firing on the 25-metre range.
- The Tarzan Course: 5 minutes for recruits and AACC, and 4.5 minutes for RMYOs.
- The Tarzan Course and Assault Course: 13 minutes for recruits and AACC, and 12.5 minutes for RMYOs.
- A 30 foot (9m) Rope Climb: although there was no time limit it was expected to be completed in a few minutes.
- A 30-mile (48km) ‘YOMP’: 8 hours for recruits and AACC, and 7 hours for RMYOs.
- Battle Swimming Test: no time limit. The trainee jumped into the pool wearing full kit, swam for 50m (164ft), trod water for 2 minutes, took off his kit and handed it to a trainee on the side of the pool, and trod water for another 2 minutes. At no time could the trainee touch the side of the pool.
At the start of the 21st century the tests facing a trainee have changed little since their inception. By 2013 a trainee, carrying a rifle (9lb, 4.1kg) and equipment (21lb, 9.5kg), would face the following Battle Physical Test (Bottom Field) and Commando Tests:
- Battle Physical Test (in order):
- 30 foot (9m) rope climb: no time limit (but expected to be completed in a few minutes).
- Bottom Field assault course: 5 minutes for recruits and AACC, and 4.5 minutes for RMYOs.
- 200 metre fireman’s carry: 90 seconds for recruits, AACC and RMYOs carrying partner and their equipment and rifle.
- Full regain: over the water tank and no time limit (but expected to be completed in a few minutes).
- Battle Swimming Test: enter water from height, breast stroke 30m, remove webbing (10lb, 4.5kg) plus rifle (9lb, 4.1kg)) and tread water for remainder of 3 minutes.
- Criteria Tests (undertaken during the course, and must be passed to progress):
- 4-mile (6.4km) Speed March: as a formed body carrying rifle (9lb) and equipment (21lb, 9.5kg) in 40 minutes for recruits, AACC and RYMOs.
- 6-mile (9.6km) Speed March: as a formed body carrying rifle (9lb) and equipment (21lb, 9.5kg) in 60 minutes for recruits, AACC and RYMOs.
- 12-mile (19.3km) Load Carry: as a formed body carrying rifle (9lb) and equipment (70lbs, 31kg) in 4 hours and 40 minutes for recruits, AACC and RMYOs.
- Commando Tests (in order):
- The Endurance Course: trainees will work their way through two miles (3.2km) of tunnels (including a short underwater tunnel called the sheep dip and an extremely narrow tunnel called the smartie tube), pools, streams, bogs and woods. This is then followed by 4-mile (6.4km) run back to CTCRM after which the trainee must pass a shooting test by firing on the 25-metre range (must achieve 6 out of 10 shots on target or re-do the whole test!). The endurance course is run in groups of 3 and the 4-mile run back to camp is solo. The time limit is 73 minutes for recruits and AACC, and 70 minutes for RMYOs.
- Tarzan Assault course (including Bottom Field assault course): an aerial slide, ropes course and 30 foot wall to be completed in 13 minutes for recruits and AACC, and 12.5 minutes for RMYOs. Watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEygmSm91AA for a bird’s eye view of the Tarzan course.
- 9-mile (14.5km) Speed March: 90 minutes for recruits, AACC and RMYOs.
- The 30-mile (48.2km) March: a march, ‘YOMP’, across Dartmoor to be completed in 8 hours for recruits and AACC (with Staff directing/navigating), and 7 hours for RMYOs (directing/navigating for themselves).
The tests are completed on consecutive days in week 31 for recruits, week 8 for AACC, and week 41 for RMYOs. Under normal circumstances the schedule for the Commando Tests would run as follows:
- Thursday (AM): endurance course
- Friday (AM): Tarzan aerial assault course
- Friday (PM): Tarzan aerial assault course (1st retest)
- Monday (AM): 9-mile speed march (9MSM)
- Tuesday (All day): 30-miler
- Wednesday: retests as required in the following order: 9MSM; endurance course; Tarzan aerial assault course (2nd retest); and 30-miler.
Recruits who require retests may end up conducting them solo, notwithstanding the PTI.
|Videos of the Royal Marines Commando Tests|
Notes on the Above Tests
- Speed Marching: speed marching is an important element of commando training. Commando operations will often require rapid movement to and from the objective. Speed is an essential weapon for commando units which can offset their numerical or material inferiority by the surprise created by arriving suddenly at unexpected times and places. Consequently, from the 1940s commandos have always emphasised the need for marching. In training at least, speed marches are not tactical exercises. They are conducted in a manner which would be impossible if the enemy were in the vicinity. Troops march along roads with no concern for their exposure to enemy fire.
- Rope Work (Tarzan course & 30 foot Rope Climb): rope-work is designed to test the courage, agility and determination of trainees. There was a direct operational reason for their original inclusion in the course. On operations in the Second World War, commandos carried with them a six foot rope with a toggle and loop on it. These toggle ropes could be strung together and used to scale cliffs or cross rivers and they were in fact used for these purposes in the course of campaigns in the Second World War. It was essential that prospective commandos be adept at their use. Rope-work also assists the commandos operationally in another way. Further, rope-work is intellectually important. It opens up the potential for different kinds of movement over and across spaces which are initially deemed impassable.
- Endurance Course: The endurance course requires total immersion and the crossing of several pools, one of them chest deep in winter. On the bottom field, many trainees fall into the tank on failed regains and the tank itself has become a standard disciplinary measure. Trainees are immersed frequently in training and although immersions do not strictly improve the physical fitness of the trainee, immersion in cold water is one of the most effective ways of undermining human morale. Being cold and wet is, or can be, an extremely demoralising experience. Consequently, although not directly contributing to the fitness of trainees, the immersions which they endure develops and tests fortitude. The tank and the water tunnels are an important way of instilling this fortitude. Since they are likely to be cold and wet on amphibious or mountain operations, trainees must be inured to it at CTCRM.
Royal Marines Wet/Dry Routine
The Wet/dry routine is a system the Royal Marines use to make sure they always have a dry set of clothes when operating in field conditions and is particularly important when the weather is cold. To ensure that personnel keep a set of dry clothing, whenever they are out of their sleeping bag to conduct a sentry or duty, they put on their wet rig (clothing) back on; this ensures personnel always have a dry set of clothing to sleep in. Most people do not enjoy doing this routine but it is a sign of professionalism and may save your life one day.
Royal Marines Kit Muster
Each morning on exercise trainees have to complete a kit muster (i.e. layout your kit for an inspection). Every single piece of equipment (including your rifle stripped down) from your Bergen (rucksack) and webbing must be placed on top of your poncho (shelter) (Figure 3). Each piece of equipment must be presented in a clean and serviceable condition. Although instructors give verbal correctional advice, disciplinary measures are given for those trainees who fail to achieve the appropriate standard (e.g. forward rolls in the mud followed by burpees).
Figure 3: Kit muster
Another Perspective: Training, Inspections and Parades
If you would like to read some interesting, if not thought-provoking, articles on military inspections, parades and basic training then view:
- Military Inspections: What’s The Point?: http://www.vexen.co.uk/military/inspections.html
- Army Basic Training: Weeding Out The Weak: http://www.vexen.co.uk/military/weeding_out_the_weak.html
- Military Drill: Its Theory and Purpose: http://www.vexen.co.uk/military/drill.html
- Occupational Stress & the Outcome of Basic Military Training (Jackson et al., 2011)
- Identifying & Understanding Factors Associated with Failure to Complete Infantry Training among British Army Recruits (Kiernan, 2011)
- Recruiting & Retention of Military Personnel (NATO, 2007)
- Royal Marines Costs per Individual (2014-05-29)
- Royal Marines Officer R&S & Training (2014-06-12)
- Royal Marines Pass Rates (2014-11-14)
Listed below are some links which the reader may find useful:
- A very thorough document ‘Informed Choice? Armed Forces Recruitment Practice in the United Kingdom’ written by David Gee in 2007 and available from: http://www.informedchoice.org.uk/informedchoice/informedchoiceweb.pdf.
- Official MoD website: http://www.gov.uk/organisations/ministry-of-defence
- Official Royal Marines website: http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/The-Fleet/The-Royal-Marines/
- Royal Marines on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=royal+marines&sm=3
- Official Royal Marines Facebook website: https://www.facebook.com/RoyalMarinesRecruitment
- Official CTCRM WordPress website: http://ctcrm.wordpress.com/
- Read the 2011 document ‘The Royal Marines Vision: Think Commando’ which explains the role and force of 3 Commando Brigade following the SDSR @ http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/About-the-Royal-Navy/~/media/Files/Navy-PDFs/About-the-Royal-Navy/Royal%20Marines%20Vision.pdf. [Accessed: 17 February, 2014].
- Ofsted’s latest (5th) inspection report ‘Welfare and Duty of Care in Armed Forces Initial Training 2013’ @ http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/welfare-and-duty-of-care-armed-forces-initial-training-2013.
British Army (2016) Ground Close Combat Roles Open To Women. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.army.mod.uk/news/28632.aspx. [Accessed: 08 August, 2016].