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PART ONE: BACKGROUND

1.0     Introduction

Canadian Armed Forces (2)This article provides an overview of the Basic Military Qualification – Land (BMQ-L) and Basic Military Officer Qualification – Land (BMOQ-L) courses received by non-commissioned members (NCMs) and commissioned officers, respectively, of the Canadian Army or Armée Canadienne.

The Canadian Army is one of three elements/branches of military service that make up the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) or Forces Armée Canadiennes (FAC), the other two being the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) and the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).

After non-commissioned members (NCMs) and commissioned officers have completed their basic training, Basic Military Qualification (BMQ) or Basic Military Officer Qualification (BMOQ) respectively, they will move on to what is termed environmental training.

Whereas, the BMQ/BMOQ courses are common to all members of the Canadian Army, RCAF and the RCN regardless of trade, environmental training is specific to the element/branch of military service the individual is joining.

Unless otherwise stated Reserve Forces refers to the Primary Reserve.

In Part One, this article will provide a description of the BMQ-L and BMOQ-L courses, when they are delivered and who they are for, before outlining their position in the training paradigm of the CAF. Part Two will outline the organisation of training, meaning what training establishments deliver the training and where. Part Three will describe the various iterations of the BMQ-L and BMOQ-L which differ for Regular Forces and Reserve Forces. Finally, Part Four will provide a summary, as well as some useful links and publications before providing a list of references.

1.1     What is the Basic Military Qualification – Land Course?

BMQ Land Mod 2, Canadian ArmyEach element of the CAF has their own environmental (Phase 2) training common to all personnel that join that element/branch of military service.

For the Canadian Army, this environmental training is known as the Basic Military Qualification – Land (BMQ-L) course and Basic Military Officer Qualification – Land (BMOQ-L) for NCMs and officers respectively. The two courses develop skills and knowledge common to all Canadian Army jobs, covering training specific to operating on the ground.

The BMQ-L and BMOQ-L have been described as ‘Infantry for non-Infantry trades’ and are designed to help personnel function effectively in the field by undertaking more in-depth physical training, weapons handling and tactical manoeuvres specific to the Canadian Army

The BMQ-L course used to be known as the Soldier Qualification (SQ), and is also abbreviated to BMQ Land, BMQL, BMQ-L and BMQ (L).

The RCN and the RCAF have their own versions of environmental training. Recruits on the RCN version learn about naval history, watch keeping and firefighting duties, and other skills required at sea. Recruits on the RCAF version (NCMs and officers) learn about the history of the Air Force, evolutions in aviation technology, and Air Force customs and traditions.

There is no such thing as BMQ (N) or BMQ (AF).

1.2     When Does The BMQ-L/BMOQ-L Take Place?

Within the training paradigm of the CAF, the BMQ-L and BMOQ-L courses are scheduled immediately after BMQ/BMOQ but before occupational (trade) training (Section 1.4).

However, depending on when courses are scheduled within the training year, trainees may undertake occupational training first and then the BMQ-L course.

Some trades, for example the Infantry, may undertake what can be termed a ‘combined course’. Recruits undertake DP1 Infantry which encompasses a number of Infantry-specific courses, including BMQ-L and occupational training.

As I understand it, the military training centre an Infantry soldier attends is dependent on their Regiment:

  • The Royal 22e Régiment in Valcartier, Quebec (Section 2.2).
  • Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry in Wainwright, Alberta (Section 2.3).
  • The Royal Canadian Regiment in Meaford, Ontario (Section 2.4).

1.3     Who Is the BMQ-L/BMOQ-L Course For?

The BMQ-L course is (theoretically) mandatory for all trades in the Canadian Army. However, it is optional for musicians. Personnel from the ‘purple trades’, aka healthcare/medical, may also attend this course.

1.4     Developmental Period One

In the training paradigm of the CAF, the BMQ/BMOQ courses fall within Developmental Period 1 (DP1), the first of five periods, which focuses on the skills and knowledge required for entry level employment and further training.

In addition to the BMQ/BMOQ, DP1 includes environmental and occupational qualifications (aka Phase 2 Employment Training), and second language training as required. After completing DP1, military personnel are deemed occupationally employable at an introductory level.

Theoretically, at least, DP1 training is conducted in the following order:

  • CAF Common Training, e.g. BMQ or BMOQ;
  • Army/Navy/Air Force Specific Training (aka Environmental Training), e.g. BMQ-L/BMOQ-L; and
  • Occupational Training, e.g. military police trade training.

Progression to DP2 occurs when the trainee joins a unit and leaves the Basic Training List.

Some courses have colloquial names replacing their formal titles, as the below Infantry officer examples show:

  • Phase I: BMOQ.
  • Phase II: BMOQ-L.
  • Phase III: Infantry Officer Development Period 1.1, 14 week Dismounted Infantry Platoon Commander’s course.
  • Phase IV: Infantry Officer Development Period 1.2, Mechanised Infantry Platoon Commander.

PART TWO: ORGANISATION OF TRAINING

2.0     Introduction

The BMQ-L/BMOQ-L is delivered by a number of military training centres (Sections 2.2 to 2.7). The training centre a recruit attends is, typically, based on their trade (mainly for Regular Force) and/or unit location (mainly for Reserve Force).

Although training is usually delivered by one of the training centres, it can be delivered by a franchised local unit (Scott, 2012).

The general rule for Reserve Force trainees is to stay within their respective division/brigade for training. Exceptions include backfilling a vacancy held by another division because the trainees unit has more applicants than positions granted.

In 2005, the CAF had (Chief Review Services, 2005, p.I/VI):

“…approximately 9,829 person years dedicated to training, in over 70 schools in more than 40 locations.”

2.1     Canadian Forces Individual Training and Education System

Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), Land Force Doctrine & Training System (LFDTS)The CAF uses a systems approach to determine what tasks are to be taught, which is known as the Canadian Forces Individual Training and Education System (CFITES).

CFITES can be described as a management framework designed to optimise the quality and quantity of individual training and education IT&E), while minimising the resources dedicated to IT&E programmes.

Drilling down, CFITES is a structured analytical approach to determining the customer requirement and how to deliver the end product. Strategic guidance to operations drives the determination of what is needed. Based on a needs assessment and analysis of the occupation, the customer determines the requirement, or the tasks to be performed.

After the needs assessment defines the desired end result, a training organisation’s role is to develop, implement, and maintain the respective training programmes. A six-phase systems approach model governs each programme. The phases are:

  • Phase 1: Analysis;
  • Phase 2: Design;
  • Phase 3: Development;
  • Phase 4: Conduct;
  • Phase 5: Evaluation; and
  • Phase 6: Validation.

A training organisation works through this process for every course in concert with the various stakeholders who have a vested interest in the training outcome.

The six phases of CFITES manifest in the 10+ volume Manual of Individual Training and Education (A-P9 Series) which describes the various steps in the development of a training programme.

2.2     2nd Canadian Division Training Centre

The 2nd Canadian Division Training Centre is located at 2nd Canadian Division Support Base Valcartier, which is in Courcelette, Quebec. The 2nd Canadian Division Training Centre was previously known as the Land Force Quebec Area Training Centre (LF QATC).

The training centre is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4) and assisted by the Regimental Sergeant Major, a Chief Warrant Officer (OR-9). The training centre is divided into five elements, each commanded by a Major (OF-3): HQ, 3 training companies; and a service company.

Other key personalities include:

  • Deputy Commanding Officer, a Major (OF-3);
  • Chief Instructor, a Major (OF-3).
  • Standards Warrant Officer, Warrant Officer (OR-7);
  • Training Warrant Officer/Sergeant Major, Master Warrant Officer (OR-8).

“2 Cdn Div TC is responsible for providing basic training for certain military occupations and basic leadership training for non-commissioned officers for 2nd Canadian Division / Joint Task Force (East) (2 Cdn Div / JTF (E)).” (Canadian Army, 2016).

The training centre also provides training for Reserve Force officers (Canadian Army, 2016).

Training delivered at the training centre is divided into three terms, as highlighted in Table 1.

Table 1: Courses delivered at 2nd Canadian Division Training Centre
Term Courses
Individual Training Summer Term (ITST) During ITST, the following courses are delivered to the Reserve Force:

  • Basic Military Qualification – Primary Reserve (BMQ-P Res);
  • Basic Military Qualification – Land (BMQ-L);
  • Developmental Period 1 (DP1) Infantryman (the Royal 22e Régiment);
  • DP1 Artillery;
  • DP1 Crewman;
  • DP1 Signals; and
  • Basic Military Officer Qualification – Land (BMOQ-L).
Individual Training Fall Term (ITFT) During the ITFT and ITWT, the following courses are delivered to the Regular Force:

  • BMQ-L;
  • DP1 Infantryman; and
  • DP1 Artillery.
Individual Training Winter Term (ITWT)
Source: Canadian Army, 2016

“It should be noted that some courses are sometimes combined and are attended by trainees from both the Reserve Force and the Regular Force. In addition, some courses for the Regular Force are sometimes given at the same time as those for the Reserve Force, during ITST.” (Canadian Army, 2016).

During ITST, trainees are accommodated at a dedicated camp, ‘Camp Vimy’, which also has medical care, command and logistics support for approximately 2,000 personnel. RCN Reserve Force trainees also undertake their basic training here.

The Canadian Army also use the terms TC autumn individual training (TAII) and winter (THII) individual training for ITFT and ITWT respectively.

Personnel posted as instructors at the training centre, either temporarily or permanently, are required to complete 3 days of preparatory training, divided into three parts.

  • Part 1: Online training via the Defence Learning Network (DLN);
  • Part 2: Instructors are taught how to administer trainees’ files, standards relating to weapons handling and inspection of trainees; and
  • Part 3: Instructors are assessed on lessons and lesson assessment.

2.3     3rd Canadian Division Training Centre

The 3rd Canadian Division Training Centre is located in Wainwright, Alberta. The 3rd Canadian Division Training Centre was previously known as the Land Force Western Area Training Centre (LF WATC).

The training centre is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4) and assisted by the Regimental Sergeant Major, a Chief Warrant Officer (OR-9). The training centre is divided into seven elements, each commanded by a Major (OF-3): HQ, 4 training companies; an administration company; and a standards section.

Although the training centre has a presence across the western area, the primary training location is Wainwright. Training delivered at Wainwright, Alpha Company, includes DP1 Infantry for soldiers of the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI), the Royal Canadian Regiment (RCR) and 3rd Cdn Div Primary Reserve infantry units.

Delta Company, located at Edmonton, delivers the BMQ-L for Combat Service Support (CSS) trainees.

2.4     4th Canadian Division Training Centre

4th Canadian Division Training CentreThe 4th Canadian Division Training Centre, formerly known as the Meaford Tank Range, is located in Meaford, Ontario. The 4th Canadian Division Training Centre was previously known as the Land Force Central Area Training Centre (LF CATC).

The training centre is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), who is assisted by a Chief Warrant Officer (OR-9). The CATC trains, on average, 600 personnel per week.

The Canadian Army (2015) states:

“The primary training is directed to basic Soldier Qualification skills pertaining to the combat arms, primarily field craft, offensive and defensive operations, weapons handling drills and the tactics techniques and procedures on employing these skills in a combat setting.”

Note: Notice the use of the term Solider Qualification!

2.5     5th Canadian Division Training Centre

The 5th Canadian Division Training Centre is located at CFB Gagetown in Oromocto, New Brunswick. The 5th Canadian Division Training Centre was previously known as the Land Force Atlantic Area Training Centre (LF AATC).

The training centre was established in April 1996 following the reorganisation of the Canadian Army’s Armour Battle School, Gagetown was first established as a training facility in 1958 (Army Technology, 2016).

The training centre is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (OF-4), who is assisted by a Chief Warrant Officer (OR-9). The training centre is divided into eight elements, each commanded by a Major (OF-3): HQ, 5 training companies; an administration company; and a standards section.

2.6     Canadian Army Combat Training Centre

Canadian Army Combat Training Centre (CTC)The Canadian Army’s Combat Training Centre is one of five formations of the Canadian Army Doctrine and Training Centre. The centre is headquartered at 5th Canadian Division Support Base Gagetown in Oromocto, New Brunswick.

The Combat Training Centre is commanded by a Colonel (OF-5) who is assisted by a Chief Warrant Officer (OR-9).

The Combat Training Centre is the centre of excellence for Canadian Army individual training. The centre consists of:

  1. The Canadian Army Trials and Evaluation Unit;
  2. The Artillery School;
  3. The Infantry School;
  4. The Tactics School;
  5. The Armour School;
  6. The Canadian Forces Land Advance Warfare Centre located at 8 Wing Canadian Forces Base Trenton, Ontario.
  7. The Canadian Forces School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering at Canadian Forces Base Borden;
  8. The Canadian Forces School of Communications and Electronics at Canadian Forces Base Kingston; and
  9. The Canadian Forces School of Military Engineering at 5th Canadian Division Support Group Gagetown are also part of Combat Training Centre.

2.7     Canadian Army Infantry School

The Canadian Army’s Infantry School is one of eight school’s that make up the Canadian Army’s Combat Training Centre.

The role of the Infantry School is deliver training to all land operations officers, infantry leaders, and specialised training for infantry/combat arms leaders.

2.8     Post Recruit Education and Training Centre

Iraq 2005The Post Recruit Education and Training Centre (PRETC) is located at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Borden, Ontario.

The PRETC was established in response to an increase in recruitment (Forester, 2003) and delivers training to trainees awaiting occupational training, essentially acting as a holding unit until vacancies arise on trade training courses. The official term for trainees is Personnel Awaiting Training (PAT).

As well as delivering ‘in-house’ training, the PRETC also facilitates on-the-job training/experiences for trainees. Training within the PRETC concentrates on three skills: life; outdoor; and the military. These skills are developed through, for example, rappelling, rock climbing, outdoor adventure and canoeing.

Military-orientated programmes include ranges, search and rescue (SAR) and military history. The SAR programme is 3 weeks in duration and culminates in a 2 day exercise. The military history programme, focussing on World War II, is used to instil a sense of pride and identity for the young soldiers.

“While a CMP [Chief of Military Personnel] directive stipulates that the waiting period should not last more than 90 days, we noticed during our visits that some candidates were at the PRETC for longer periods. Figures dated February 10, 2009, indicate that 31% of PRETC candidates had been there for more than a year.” (OCOL, 2015, p.9).

PART THREE: OUTLINE OF TRAINING

3.0     Introduction

Like all military courses delivered by military organisations, the syllabus, training aids and location will evolve. The BMQ-L and BMOQ-L courses are no different.

In recent years there have been a number of changes to the BMQ-L. Obvious changes such as programme titles (Soldier Qualification (SQ) and Basic Infantry Qualification (BIQ)) and less obvious such as opening access to all personnel which the BMQ-L iteration was designed to facilitate.

A more contemporary change (2015-2016) is the one noted for the Infantry with the introduction of the ‘Delta Package’, more of which is noted in Section 3.2.

This part of the article looks at the Regular Force and Reserve Forces BMQ-L courses, as well as the BMOQ-L courses.

3.1     Regular Forces BMQ-L Course

“One of the most remarkable experiences I endured was the three consecutive field exercises which happened on my B.M.Q-Land course.” (Fan, 2015, p.25).

SENTA (2)The Regular Forces BMQ-L course is usually delivered directly following the BMQ course and consists of more advanced weapons and field training than the BMQ course. It teaches trainees how to be an Infantry Section Commander regardless of trade.

In broad terms the BMQ-L covers five topics:

  • Army Physical Fitness;
  • Dismounted Offensive and Defensive Operations;
  • Reconnaissance Patrolling;
  • Advanced Weapons Handling; and
  • Individual Field Craft.

The BMQ-L training programme (dated March 2015) is 20 days in duration (not calendar days) and covers the following performance objectives (POs):

  • PO 001: Engage Targets with the 5.56mm LMG.
  • PO 002: Engage Targets with the 7.62mm GPMG in the Light Role.
  • PO 003: Engage Targets with the SRAAW (L).
  • PO 004: Throw Fragmentation Grenades.
  • PO 005: Communicate with Tactical Communications Equipment.
  • PO 006: Perform Personal and Casualty Extraction from an Explosive Threat Area.
  • PO 007: Execute Offensive Operations.
  • PO 008: Execute Defensive Operations as a Rifleman in a Section.
  • PO 009: Execute Enabling Operations.

Trainees will be introduced to the ‘delights’ of sleep deprivation facilitated by day and night operations, facilitated through three field training exercises (FTX).

Royal Marines Lance Corporals on exercise in the hills of Sennybridge Wales, during the 11 week Junior Command Course.FTX 1 introduces trainees to the ‘field life’ of a soldier. FTX 1 includes:

  • Constructing hoochies (basha in the UK vernacular, a cover to keep you warm/dry(ish));
  • Advanced weapons handling;
  • Land navigation;
  • Use of support equipment, such as night vision goggles and binoculars;
  • Battle procedures; and
  • Development of teamwork and leadership skills.

FTX 2 introduces trainees to the ‘delights’ of sleep deprivation. FTX 2 includes:

  • Trench digging/shell scrapes and fire trenches;
  • Land navigation;
  • Sentry duty;
  • Reconnaissance patrols; and
  • Section/platoon attacks.

The course also has a number of physical training (PT) sessions which include loaded marches, combat PT and running.

The BMQ-L may also include extra days for winter warfare training.

3.2     Reserve Forces BMQ-L Course

US Army Special Forces, Green Beret (12)The Reserve Forces BMQ-L course is delivered at a number of military training centres or franchised local units (Sections 2.2 to 2.7). The course is also known as the Basic Military Qualification – Land (Primary Reserve) or BMQ-L (PRes).

The course has, in general, the same training syllabus/aims as the Regular Forces BMQ-L. The course was formerly 20/21 training days, but is now only 12 or 14 training days (needs verification).

As I understand it, the training syllabus is changing for the Infantry with the introduction of the ‘Delta Package’ to replace the BMQ-L.

Once Infantry recruits have completed the BMQ, they will move onto DP1 Infantry and complete the Delta Package as well as other supplemental training during the year. During this training trainees will cover everything taught on the BMQ-L course plus their Infantry training. Supplemental training will cover what is taught on the Regular Force DP1 Infantry course but is not taught on the Reserve Force one due to time constraints.

The course is delivered on a number of different timescales, and options may include:

  • Summer Training: The Reserve Forces recognise that a large number of new recruits are high school students and as such courses typically start at the end of the high school exam period.
  • Winter Training: Typically commencing in January, with training delivered every second weekend.
  • Co-op Training: High school co-op course (typically in the summer months).

3.3     Regular Forces BMOQ-L Course

US Army Special Forces, Green Beret (8)The Regular Forces Basic Military Officer Qualification – Land (BMOQ-L) is a five module course delivered over 10 weeks. It is sometimes referred to as Phase II (Section 1.4). The course is delivered at CFB Gagetown (Section 2.6).

The BMOQ-L teaches officers how to be an Infantry Section Commander regardless of trade. Although some might argue officers do not perform the role of Section Commander, the course provides them with insight into the role and some advanced skills.

Ultimately, the aim of the course is to provide junior officers with the basic skills required to survive and fight in the battlefield environment by introducing them to offensive and patrolling operations, and participating in section defensive operations.

Trainees will learn field craft, navigation, mine awareness and aircraft/vehicle recognition skills. They will operate Army weapons, (rifle, machine gun and grenade), and communication systems. They will also learn how to plan platoon operations and to conduct conventional small arms firing ranges. The physical fitness programme will be demanding but gradual and will culminate with a 13 kilometre march, carrying kit, at the end of the course.

Following on from the BMOQ-L, Infantry officers will attend DP1 Infantry Officer (Section 1.4). This is another long course that turns a young officer into a qualified Platoon Commander, a bit like being a Section Commander, but controlling over three times as many soldiers.

The BMOQ-L follows the same training syllabus as the BMQ-L, with the modules including:

  • BMOQ-L Module 1: Land navigation.
  • BMOQ-L Module 2: Weapons (C7 refresher, C9, grenades and 9mm).
  • BMOQ-L Module 3: offensive/defensive techniques, aka section attacks, trench digging and defensive battle and retreat.
  • BMOQ-L Module 4: Reconnaissance patrol.
  • BMOQ-L Module 5: Instruction, PT and lessons (theory and practical).

As with the BMQ-L, the course may include extra days for winter warfare training.

As I understand it, the BMOQ-L modules 1, 2 and 5 can be completed in any order but must be completed before modules 3 and 4 (completed in that order). For example 5, 1, 2 3, 4 or 2, 5, 1, 3, 4.

3.4     Reserve Forces BMOQ-L Course

The Reserve Forces BMOQ-L follows the same outline as the Regular Forces BMOQ-L (as above), and is also delivered at CFB Gagetown (Section 1.4).

PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS

4.0     Summary

The BMQ-L and BMOQ-L is common to all members of the Canadian Army regardless of trade.

Both streams of military qualification have the same basic training syllabus and consist of more advanced weapons and field training than the BMQ or BMOQ courses.

The course provides trainees with the basic skills required to survive and fight in the battlefield environment by introducing them to offensive and patrolling operations, and participating in section defensive operations.

This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for service with the CAF on either the BMQ-L or BMOQ-L training programmes.

4.1     Useful Links

4.2     Useful Publications

  • Defence Administrative Orders and Directives (DAODs):
    • DAOD 5002-0 – Military Personnel Requirements and Production.
    • DAOD 5031-1 – Canadian Forces Military Equivalencies Programme.
    • DAOD 5031-2 – Individual Training and Education Strategic Framework.
    • DAOD 5031-8 – Canadian Forces Professional Development.
    • DAOD 5039-6 – Delivery of Training and Education in Both Official Languages.
  • Manual of Individual Training and Education (A-P9 Series), sits within the Canadian Forces Individual Training and Education System (CFITES):
    • Volume 1: Introduction/Description (A-P9-050-000/PT-001).
    • Volume 1(1): Supplement – CFITES Glossary (A-P9-050-000/PT-Z01).
    • Volume 2: Needs Assessment (A-P9-050-000/PT-002).
    • Volume 3: Analysis of Instructional Requirements (A-P9-050-000/PT-003).
    • Volume 4: Design of Instructional Programmes (A-P9-050-000/PT-004).
    • Volume 5: Development of Instructional Programmes (A-P9-050-000/PT-005).
    • Volume 6: Conduct of Instructional Programmes (A-P9-050-000/PT-006).
    • Volume 7: Evaluation of Learners (A-P9-050-000/PT-007).
    • Volume 8: Validation of Instructional Programmes (A-P9-050-000/PT-008).
    • Volume 9: Quantity Control in Individual Training and Education Programmes (A-P9-050-000/PT-009).
    • Volume 10: Managing Individual Training and Education in Projects (A-P9-050-000/PT-010).
    • Volume 11: Evaluation of Instructional Programmes (A-P9-050-000/PT-011).
    • Volume 11(1): Supplement – Evaluation and Validation Techniques (A-P9-050-000/PT-Z11).
    • Volume 12: Canadian Forces Military Equivalencies Programme (CFMEP), Prior Learning Assessment (A-P9-050-000/PT-012).
    • Volume 13: Administration of Individual Training and Education (IT&E), Establishments and Programmes (A-P9-050-000/PT-013).
    • Volume 14: Resource Management in IT&E: Costing Model and Procedures.
  • Academic/Research:
  • Annual Military Occupation Review (AMOR).

4.3     References

Army Technology (2016) Canadian Forces Base Gagetown, Canada. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.army-technology.com/projects/canadian-forces-base-gagetown/. [Accessed: 16 June, 2016].

Canadian Army (2015) Who Are We. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/en/4-canadian-division-training-centre/meaford.page. [Accessed: 16 June, 2016].

Canadian Army (2016) About Us. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/en/2-cdn-div-training-center/index.page. [Accessed: 16 June, 2016].

Chief Review Services (2005) Evaluation of Military Individual Training and Education – Final Report. Ottawa: Department of National Defence.

Fan, A. (2015) To All Men and Women Who Have Proudly Served in the Canadian Armed Forces. The Duke: Journal of the British Columbia Regiment. 2(4), May 2015, pp.25-26. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.bcregiment.com/wp-content/uploads/The-Duke-May-2015.pdf. [Accessed: 13 June, 2016].

Forester, H. (2003) Borden Key to Recruitment Drive. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.muskokaregion.com/news-story/3606430-borden-key-to-recruitment-drive/. [Accessed: 16 June, 2016].

OCOL (Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages) (2015) Linguistic Audit of the Individual Training and Education System of the Canadian Forces, Department of National Defence. VII Analysis of Findings and Recommendations. June 2010, pp.9. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.ocol-clo.gc.ca/en/pages/vii-analysis-findings-and-recommendations. [Accessed: 16 June, 2016].

Scott, G. (2012) Canada’s Newest Soldiers. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.castanet.net/news/Central-Okanagan/75706/Canada-s-newest-soldiers. [Accessed: 16 June, 2016].

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