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Last Updated: 28 March, 2016
This article is structured as follows:
- Part 01: Introduction
- Part 02: Entry Standards and Applications
- Part 03: Outline of the US Navy SWCC Selection and Training Process
- Part 04: Miscellaneous
PART ONE: BACKGROUND
US Navy Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewmen (SWCC, pronounced swick), officially known as Special Warfare Boat Operators (SB), are Tier 2 forces (i.e. undertake support action) and are trained at the US Navy’s Special Warfare Centre (NSWCEN).
These Naval Commandos constitute an important element of the US Naval Special Warfare Command (NSW or NAVSPECWARCOM) Special Operations Forces (SOF) community, which is the naval component of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).
Each year approximately 240 candidates (mainly US Navy Sailors) are given the opportunity to attend US Navy SWCC training. Although numbers vary, approximately 120 will succeed and join the approximately 755 active duty and 50 Reserve US Navy SWCCs.
The role of a US Navy SWCC is sea-duty intensive, with approximately 70% of their time spent in operational roles and 30% in shore/instructional/staff-related roles.
Historically, SWCC operators have worked mostly in coastal and river areas, but their missions at times may include non-maritime environments.
From boot camp to first deployment, a US Navy SWCC will undertake approximately one year of training.
The US Navy SWCC training process prepares candidates for the missions they may undertake as a qualified SWCC. SWCCs support and perform maritime special operations in open ocean, littoral, and riverine environments. SWCCs are experts in:
- Maritime special operations tactics;
- Small unit leadership;
- Detailed mission planning;
- Cultural awareness;
- Advanced weapons tactics;
- Depot level maintenance;
- Tactical communications;
- Advanced craft operations and preventive and corrective maintenance;
- Long-range, over the horizon, and riverine navigation;
- Tactical combat medicine; and
- Intelligence operations.
Candidates who achieve the SWCC specialist qualification have proved that they have excelled in the operation of naval special warfare combatant-craft, and are formally recognised as fully trained in combat support to maritime special operations. The SWCC qualification is based on demonstrated knowledge of navigation, communications, engineering, weapons, deck systems and tactical operations of naval special warfare combatant-craft.
In times of armed conflict and war US Navy SWCC personnel are required to operate in small parties in enemy controlled territory. Operations of this nature require individuals of courage and high morale who are self-disciplined, intelligent, reliable, determined and physically fit, and who possess mental, moral and physical stamina. These units will operate in support of conventional forces, Special Forces or independently. Principle roles are:
- Conducting maritime insertions/extractions of US Navy SEALS and other SOF.
- Collecting information and intelligence on enemy military installations in coastal areas.
- Performing parachute/helicopter insertion operations in support of missions.
- Supporting military and civilian law enforcement agencies.
The US Navy SWCCs as part of the US military’s SOF community provide support to the US Navy SEALs and other SOF units and personnel. During peacetime, overseas deployments for training are frequent though usually of (relatively) short duration; this is balanced by greater stability for families who are able to remain in locally situated Service accommodation.
It must be emphasised that a candidate must be physically fit at the beginning of the US Navy SWCC training process if they are to stand any chance of success. The course requires far greater expenditure of physical energy than is normally required in other peace time training. It is essential that candidates arrive fully fit, carrying no injuries and with a sound grasp of basic navigational techniques and swimming techniques.
The aim of this article is to describe the fundamental entry requirements, selection process and training for personnel seeking to serve as a US Naval Special Warfare Boat Operator, aka US Navy SWCC.
1.2 Women and the US Navy SWCCs
From January 2016, in accordance with current US Federal Government policy on the employment of women in the US military, service as a Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewman is open to both male and female volunteers (Pellerin, 2015).
1.3 Brief History
Today’s SWCC trace their roots to the motor torpedo boat squadrons of World War II, and especially from the Vietnam-era mobile support teams (MSTs) of the Naval Special Warfare Boat Support Units (BSUs).
In February 1964, Boat Support Unit One (BSU-1) was established under Naval Operations Support Group, Pacific, to operate patrol torpedo fasts (PTFs, aka naval attack craft) and other high-speed craft conducting special operations and coastal patrol and interdiction (CP&I).
Late in 1964, the first PTFs arrived in Danang, Vietnam.
In 1965, BSU-1 began training Vietnamese patrol craft fast (Swift Boat) crews to conduct CP&I. As the Vietnam mission expanded, additional Naval Special Warfare craft, tactics, and training evolved, including insertion, extraction, and fire support for US Navy SEAL operations. BSU-1 crews formed into MSTs deployed with and supported every SEAL platoon engaged in Vietnam.
Naval Special Warfare combatant craft units were reorganised twice in the 1970s and again in 1994. In 1994, the organisational structure included:
- Special Boat Units (SBUs) Eleven (SBU–11) and Twelve (SBU–12) under Special Boat Squadron One (SBR–1) (West Coast).
- SBU-20 and SBU–22 (East Coast) under SBR-2 (East Coast).
- SBU-11 was disestablished in September 1997.
During Operation EARNEST WILL in the Persian Gulf from 1987 to 1989, SBUs operated 65-foot patrol boat (PB) MK III craft from the Hercules and Wimbrown VII. The PBs conducted extensive patrol and interdiction operations in the Northern Persian Gulf.
On 01 April 1994, the SWCC enlisted warfare specialty was established allowing the Naval Special Warfare force to retain highly trained boat crews rather than have them return to the fleet after one tour.
In 2001, the SWCC breast insignia was approved.
During October 2002, the three remaining SBUs (12, 20 and 22) were re-designated as Special Boat Teams (SBTs),
In October 2006, the US Navy established the Special Warfare Boat Operator (SB) rating allowing personnel to stay in Naval Special Warfare field for their entire career.
PART TWO: ENTRY STANDARDS AND APPLICATIONS
Unlike the UK model of SF, the US Navy accepts direct entry applicants, i.e. civilians with no prior military experience. As a result, volunteers for US Navy SWCC Selection may be accepted from both US civilians and US military personnel (both officer and enlisted) from any branch of military service to serve with the US Navy’s SWCC Teams.
Consequently, there are three recognised pathways to becoming a US Navy SWCC:
- Enlist as a civilian;
- Enlist while in the US Navy and apply for a transfer; or
- Enlist from another Branch of Military Service.
There are also a number of pre-requisite tests that candidates must pass (discussed in Sections 2.5 to 2.11 below) in order to progress their application.
The US Navy SWCC recruiting process is overseen by two SEAL and SWCC Scout Teams, West Coast Team which is based out of San Diego, California, and the East Coast Team which is based out of Little Creek, Virginia. The SEAL and SWCC Scout Team is commanded by the Director, a US Navy Captain (OF-5) (McNatt, 2014).
2.1 Enlist as a Civilian
Table 1 provides an outline of the enlistment process for civilians.
|Table 1: Enlist as a Civilian|
|1||Visit Local US Navy Recruiter||
|2||Get a US Navy Contract||
|3||Get a US Navy SWCC Contract||
2.2 Enlist While in the US Navy and Apply for a Transfer
Table 2 provides an overview of the enlistment process for Active Duty US Navy personnel wishing to transfer to the US Navy SWCC. US Navy Reservists are eligible to apply for US Navy SWCC training.
|Table 2: Enlist While in the US Navy and Apply for a Transfer|
|1||Notify Your Command||
|2||Notify Special Warfare Command||
|3||Pass a PST||
|4||Apply (if pass PST)||
|5||Prepare for the Naval Special Warfare Preparatory Course||
For precise criteria, candidates should consult ‘MILPERSMAN 1220-400: Special Warfare Boat Operator (SB) Rating, Change 32, 02 August 2010’ located in the Useful Documents section at the end.
2.3 Enlist from another Branch of Military Service
Table 3 provides an overview of the enlistment process for US military personnel from another branch of military service wishing to transfer to the US Navy SWCCs.
|Table 3: Enlist from another Branch of Military Service|
|1||Visit Local US Navy Recruiter||
|2||Separate from Current Branch of Service||
|3||Military Entrance Processing Station (MEPS)||
|4||Take a PST||
|5||Get a US Navy SWCC Contract||
2.4 US Navy Officers and Warrant Officers
- Both commissioned officers and enlisted (other ranks) personnel can undertake US Navy SEAL training.
- Only enlisted personnel can undertake Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewmen (SWCC) training.
- SWCC rates (typically ranking from E-4 to E-9) can rise to the rank of Warrant Officer, with the first Chief Warrant Officer being commissioned in October 2003.
- SWCC personnel and units are commanded by US Navy SEAL officers.
2.5 US Navy SWCC Entry Standards
A potential US Navy SWCC candidate is assessed through:
- Pre-enlistment medical screening.
- Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB): used to assess a candidate’s mental sharpness and ability to learn.
- Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT): used to assess a candidate’s mental sharpness and ability to learn.
- Computerised-Special Operations Resilience Test (C-SORT): used to screen a candidate’s maturity and mental resilience.
- SEAL Physical Screening Test (PST).
2.6 Pre-Enlistment Medical Screening
As well as the general physical examination requirements (scroll down to Section 5.2) required by the US Navy, there are also additional steps to be undertaken by US Navy SWCC candidates.
These steps can be seen in Table 2, Step 4, above.
2.7 Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery
Detailed information on the ASVAB can be found here (scroll down to Section 5.1).
The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) is used to assess a candidate’s mental sharpness and ability to learn, and is typically conducted at a Military Entrance Processing Station (MEPS). The standard ASVAB contains the following subtests:
- Word Knowledge (WK)
- Arithmetic Reasoning (AR)
- Mechanical Comprehension (MC)
- Shop Information (SI)
- Automotive Information (AI)
- Electronics Information (EI)
- Mathematics Knowledge (MK)
- General Science (GS)
- Paragraph Comprehension (PC)
- Assembling Objects (AO)
- Verbal Expression (VE) – a scaled combination of WK+PC
An additional line score, Coding Speed (CS), should be requested at MEPS, and the score can be included in the calculation to determine eligibility for the US Navy SWCC programme. If the CS line score is not taken, only one set of line scores can be used to determine eligibility.
A candidate must score the following on the ASVAB:
- VE + AR = a minimum score of 103 and MC = a minimum score of 51
If a candidate does not achieve the minimum score, they will:
- If not in the US Navy: complete more studying and re-take the test.
- If in the US Navy: The US Navy College offer ASVAB preparation courses which can be taken prior to a re-test.
If a candidate’s score is close to the minimum and they are considered a particularly strong candidate, they may be eligible for a waiver (although not if their MC score is more than 5 points below the minimum). It must be noted that waivers are granted on a case-by-case basis. A candidate’s PST scores and the strength of their overall application package will be assessed in order to decide on eligibility.
2.8 Armed Forces Qualification Test
Detailed information on the AFQT can be found here (scroll down to Section 5.1).
Four of the ASVAB subtests are combined to form the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). It measures general cognitive ability and is composed of verbal and mathematics subtests.
AFQT results are returned as percentiles from 1-99. A score of a 50 would mean a candidate was in the 50th percentile, or have an average score. The US Navy requires an AFQT score of at least 35.
2.9 Computerised-Special Operations Resilience Test
The Computerised-Special Operations Resilience Test (C-SORT) is used to screen a candidate’s maturity and mental resilience (aka mental toughness), and can only be taken once.
The C-SORT includes multiple sections designed to assess a prospective candidate’s abilities in three areas:
- Performance strategies: test for capabilities such as an individual’s goal-setting, self-talk and emotional control.
- Psychological resilience: focuses on assessing several other areas like an individual’s acceptance of life situations and the ability to deal with cognitive challenges and threats.
- Personality traits.
The scores on each section of C-SORT are combined into a band score on a scale of one to four, with four indicating highest level of mental resilience and one being the lowest level of mental resilience.
To determine eligibility for the US Navy SWCC programme, the C-SORT band score is combined with the candidate’s PST run and swim times. Individuals who have low C-SORT and slow combined run and swim times are not offered US Navy SWCC contracts.
Although candidates cannot retake C-SORT, they can retake their delayed entry programme qualifying PST and demonstrate their motivation by improving their PST score (in particular the run and swim times). Individuals improving their PST score may then increase their C-SORT band, and thus qualify for a US Navy SWCC contract.
2.10 US Navy SWCC Physical Screening Test
To receive a US Navy SWCC contract, or even be remotely considered, a candidate must achieve a minimum pass in the US Navy SWCC Physical Screening Test (PST), as outlined in Table 4 below.
|Table 4: US Navy SWCC Physical Screening Test|
|Exercise||Minimum Pass||Optimum Pass||Time Limit||Rest Period|
|500 Yard Swim||13.00||9.30||13.00||10 minutes|
|Press-ups||50||80||2 minutes||2 minutes|
|Sit-ups||50||75||2 minutes||2 minutes|
|Heaves||6||15||2 minutes||10 minutes|
|1.5 Mile Run||12.00||10.30||10.30||N/A|
For details on swim technique (Combat Side Stroke) see the Useful Documents Section at the end of the article.
The qualifying PST must be administered by a Naval Special Warfare coordinator or mentor. Prospective candidates can increase their chances of being selected for Basic Crewman Training and succeeding in training by having optimum PST scores or better.
“In fiscal year 2014, the average in-fleet SEAL or SWCC candidate who was selected did more than 22 pullups [heaves] in his PST, said NSW recruiting directorate commanding officer Capt. Duncan Smith last year,” (Myers, 2015).
2.11 Other Requirements
- Candidates must be from 17 to 30 years old.
- Waivers for individuals aged 31 to 34 are available for highly qualified candidates.
- Must be correctable to 20/25.
- Uncorrected vision must be at least 20/70 in the worst eye and 20/40 in the best.
- Colour blindness is disqualifying.
- Candidates must be US citizens.
- Security Clearance:
- Applicants must be able to obtain a secret security clearance.
“Despite the bare minimum requirements, applicants in each monthly pool compete against each other for a limited number of spots, so the selection ends up with a curve. Of hundreds of thousands who contact NSW recruiting every year, maybe 10,000 work with a recruiter to prepare, and less than 700 will end up cleared for training, Smith said.” (Myers, 2015).
PART THREE: OUTLINE OF THE US NAVY SWCC SELECTION AND TRAINING PROCESS
3.0 US Navy SEAL Selection and Training Phases
Special Warfare Boat Operator selection, aka US Navy SWCC training pipeline, is the selection and training process for candidates wishing to join the US Navy’s SWCC community.
Once (Phase 1) recruit training has been successfully completed, and other (Phase 2) training for in-fleet and in-service transfers, all US Navy SWCC candidates will undertake four distinct stages of training.
During this training candidates are taught the fundamentals of naval special warfare through a combination of formal US Navy schooling and on the job training. The four stages of training include:
- Stage 1: Special Warfare Boat Operator Preparatory Course.
- Stage 2: NSW Orientation.
- Stage 3: Basic Crewman Training.
- Stage 4: Crewman Qualification Training.
Stages 1 to 3 provide a candidate with their basic and intermediate SWCC skills and stage 4 (Section 3.4) consists of advanced SWCC skills.
3.1 Stage 1: Special Warfare Boat Operator Preparatory Course
The Special Warfare Boat Operator Preparatory Course (NSW Prep) is delivered by the Naval Special Warfare Preparatory School located at Naval Station Great Lakes, Illinois. This stage of training is/has also been known as SWCC Prep, Pre-SWCC and Pre-Indoctrination. The course is led by the Officer in Charge (OIC), a Master Chief Petty Officer (OR-9).
The NSW Prep course was officially established on 07 February 2008 (SOCNET, 2007; ShadowSpear, 2008), having been piloted the previous summer, and was designed to increase the chances of candidates during the training process. Of the 250 candidates who started before the course was officially established, 33 left (ShadowSpear, 2008).
This course is between 5 and 9 weeks in duration and covers the physical and psychological preparation for SWCC training. Essentially, this phase of training acts as a link between basic training and the SWCC course, as many individuals will suffer from detraining as a consequence of the naval basic training process.
NSW Prep can be divided into three distinct elements:
- Check-in: conducted in week 1 and includes administration, physical/medical assessments and course introduction.
- Conditioning: conducted over 4-8 weeks and includes group physical training (determined by ability level), daily academic instruction and progress tracking.
- Testing and transfers which includes exit standards, PST, review board and ship to BCT.
This phase of training starts with a PST, as described above, and ends with a modified PST, as outlined in Table 5 below.
|Table 5: Modified US Navy SWCC Physical Screening Test|
|Exercise||Minimum Pass||Time Limit|
|1000 Yard Swim (with fins)||22.30 minutes or less||22.30 minutes|
|3 Mile Run (with pants and shoes)||24 minutes or less||24 minutes|
Candidates who do not pass the longer, more intense test are removed from training and reclassified to other jobs in the US Navy, or maybe moved to another class.
Instruction involves a variety of teaching methods including group instruction, classroom-based and practical. The School utilises US Navy Recruit Training Command pools, indoor and outdoor tracks and other facilities in and around Naval Station Great Lakes. The School’s staff and curriculum are under the Naval Special Warfare Centre.
- Physical training which includes:
- Swimming (basic swimming techniques).
- Running (principles of running and running fundamentals).
- Strength and conditioning (plyometrics).
- Basic underwater skills.
- Group calisthenics.
- Academic training which includes:
- SWCC ethos.
- Core values (military heritage (aircraft, ships, honours and courtesies) and sexual assault, harassment, fraternisation and discrimination training).
- Exercise science (injury prevention, stretching, rest and recovery, hypothermia related injuries and heat related injuries).
- Nutrition (supplements).
- Mental toughness.
- Military training which includes:
- Basic military training (knot tying and operational risk management).
- Berthing (military pay system, military rights and responsibilities, and moral, welfare and recreation).
- Personnel inspections.
- Phased liberty (leave and liberty policies).
- Professional development (principles of team building, cycle of achievement, goal setting and alcohol and its effects).
3.2 Stage 2: NSW Orientation
The NSW Orientation, also known as Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) Orientation, is delivered by the US Naval Special Warfare Centre located at Coronado, California. This stage of training is also known as SWCC Indoctrination or just Indoctrination.
This course is 3 weeks in duration and covers the physical and psychological preparation for Basic Crewman Training (BCT). This training involves becoming ‘familiar’ with the obstacle course, swimming practice and teamwork.
Instruction involves a variety of teaching methods including group instruction, classroom-based and practical. NSW Orientation is delivered in three elements:
- Week 1: This week involves administration and check-in, including equipment issue and administrative indoctrination. Candidates will undertake two initial runs and two initial obstacle courses run-throughs.
- Week 2: This is known as orientation week and involves learning the routine, skills and standards required, practicing the skills required for BCT entry, and also ‘safe student’ learning and practical of high-risk evolutions.
- Week 3: This is known as test week and involves BCT Entry Standards.
3.3 Stage 3: Basic Crewman Training
This stage of training is delivered by the US Naval Special Warfare Centre located at Coronado, California.
During these 7-weeks, candidates will undertake timed runs, swimming (pool, bay and ocean) and calisthenics, as well as enjoying the obstacle course. The intensity of candidate performance increases each week.
Training during this stage consists of physical fitness, water safety skills and basic crewmember skills, including basic navigation and small boat seamanship.
The ultimate test of the candidates’ physical and mental fortitude comes during a 3-day period known as ‘The Tour.’ This 51-hour period includes a navigation, boat tactics, and swimming evolution with little sleep and constant exposure to the elements. Candidates must demonstrate teamwork and mental tenacity.
Completion of BCT requires proficiency in coxswain skills, over-the-horizon navigation, small-craft tactics, weapons, communications, maritime insertion and extraction, and coastal patrol and interdiction.
On completion of BCT, successful candidates advance to Crewman Qualification Training.
3.4 Stage 4: Crewman Qualification Training
Crewman Qualification Training (CQT) is 17-weeks in duration and is delivered by the US Naval Special Warfare Centre located at Coronado, California.
During this stage of training, candidates advance to intermediate levels of seamanship and navigation. They will also be introduced to various weapons and communications systems.
Candidates become proficient in marksmanship and close quarter combat, seamanship, maritime navigation, communications, engineering, waterborne patrolling, mobility and combat casualty care (first aid). Physical training during CQT continues to increase in preparation for the requirements of the operational Special Boat Teams, which they will join once they successfully complete the course.
They also receive an introduction into the Naval Special Warfare Mission Planning Cycle; a demanding exercise in a practical environment where candidates apply all the skills acquired throughout training. This involves the conduct a full-evolution training exercise mission, from the initial tasking to launch point, combat objective, and final debriefing. In the course of mission planning, briefing and execution, candidates apply all the skills, tactics and techniques they have acquired during training.
Candidates also attend the 3-week NSW SERE (Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape) course prior to deployment.
Graduates of CQT are designated as Special Warfare Boat Operators, authorised to wear the SWCC insignia, and assigned to a Special Boat Team.
Upon completing these (not inconsiderable) requirements, trainees receive their SWCC Badge, designating them as qualified US Navy SWCCs. They are subsequently assigned to a Special Boat Team to begin preparing for their first deployment.
At this point successful candidates will be awarded the SWCC Navy Enlisted Classification (NEC) 5350.
Obligated Service, Return of Service in the UK vernacular, is 36 months from completion of ‘A’ school class graduation date and awarding of the 5350 NEC or until completion of previous obligated service, whichever is greater.
3.6 SWCC Badge
The US Navy Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewman insignia, or Specail Warfare Boat Operator (SB) Badge, is a military qualification badge which was first conceived in 1996, although the design was not approved for wear until 2001.
The SB rating badge is all black, and consists of an Anchor crossed diagonally by a Flintlock Pistol and Cutlass.
3.7 SWCC Navy Enlisted Classifications
Enlisted SWCC personnel are designated by Navy Enlisted Classification (NEC) codes per their qualifications:
- NEC 5350: Basic Special Warfare Boat Operator (Student)
- NEC 5351: Reserve Special Warfare Boat Operator.
- NEC 5352: Special Warfare Boat Operator (SWCC)
- NEC 5392: Naval Special Warfare Medic.
Refer to NAVPERS 18068F Volume II in the Useful Documents Section at the end for further details on NEC codes.
3.8 Post-Graduation and Skill Training
Initial training (within the first 2-years of graduation) that SWCC may undertake includes:
- 1-week Navy Parachute Line Static Course.
- 22-week Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Special Operations Tactical Paramedic (SO-TP) (5392).
- 6-week NSW Communications Course.
- 2-week NSW Photographic Image Capture (PIC).
- 5-week NSW Small Arms Organizational Level Maintenance Technician (NSW Armorer) (9536).
- 4-week Navy Parachute Free Fall Course.
- 1-day High Altitude Parachutist Physiology (HAPPS).
- 4-week Naval Special Operations Parachute Rigger (7353).
- 1 to 2-week Kamewa Mechanical & Electronics Basic/Advanced.
- 2-week Caterpillar Diesel Technician (4305).
- 2-week Outboard Engine Mechanic (4313).
- 1 to 2-week American Sailing Association.
- 2-day Chapman Powerboat Certification.
- 1-week Explosive Demo Driver Course.
PART FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS
US Navy SWCC training is open to all male and female enlisted personnel of the US military. US Navy SWCC training seeks to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the US Navy’s Special Boat Teams. This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for US Navy SWCC training.
4.1 TV Documentaries
First aired in August 2010, ‘Surviving the Cut’ was a 12-part, two season series for the Discovery Channel that followed elite and special forces trainees from across the US military during their training programmes.
Season 2, Episode 1 ‘Naval Special Warfare Combatant Craft Basic’, first aired in July 2011, followed trainees during their first phase of SWCC training. The training lasted 5-weeks and successful candidates then advanced to the next and final phase of training – SWCC Advanced.
Season 2, Episode 6 ‘SWCC Special Warfare Combatant Craft Crewman (Advanced)’, first aired in August 2011, followed trainees during their final phase of training. The candidates faced hostile water rescue tests, brutal team building events and small boat operations in extreme conditions.
A fascinating insight, and eye-opening experience, into the selection and training process for one of the US military’s Special Operations Forces units. You WILL feel the pain after watching the physical and mental challenges these candidates are faced with.
4.2 Useful Documents
The following documents can be found within the various websites listed in the Useful Links Section below.
- The US Navy Enlisted Occupational Classifications System (NEOCS):
- NAVPERS 18068F, Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower and Personnel Classifications and Occupational Standards, Volume I, Navy Enlisted Occupational Standards. October 2015.
- NAVPERS 18068F, Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower and Personnel Classifications and Occupational Standards, Volume II, Navy Enlisted Classifications. October 2015.
- US Navy Recruiting Manual – Enlisted, COMNAVCRUITCOMINST 1130.8J, Volume II – Eligibility Requirements. Change 8, 27 May 2011.
- Manual of the Medical Department (MANMED). NAVMED P-117, Chapter 15, Article 15-105. Change 139, 24 January 2012.
- US Navy Diving Manual. Revision 6, 15 April 2008.
- OPNAV Instruction 1160.8A, Selective Reenlistment Bonus (SRB) Programme. 30 January 2007.
- BUPERS Instruction 1430.16F, Advancement Manual for Enlisted Personnel of the US Navy and US Navy Reserve. 02 November 2007.
- OPNAV Instruction 5350.4D, Navy Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention and Control. 04 June 2009.
- OPNAV Instruction 1414.5, Enlisted Naval Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewman (SWCC) Specialist Qualification Programme (2000-10-03); superseded by OPNAV Instruction 1414.9.
- OPNAV Instruction 1414.9, Navy Enlisted Warfare Qualification Programmes (2010-08-10).
- US Navy Defence Joint Military Pay System (DJMS) Procedures Training Guide (PTG) (Offline). 18 December 2015.
- Available from World Wide Web: https://dfas4dod.dfas.mil/systems/djms/djms2/index.htm. [Accessed: 02 February, 2016].
- MILPERSMAN 1220-100: Navy Diver (ND) Rating, Change 43, 30 May 2013.
- MILPERSMAN 1220-200: Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Rating, Change 45, 14-11-2013.
- MILPERSMAN 1220-300: Special Warfare Operator (SO) Rating, Change 47, 01 April 2014.
- MILPERSMAN 1220-400: Special Warfare Boat Operator (SB) Rating, Change 32, 02 August 2010.
- MILPERSMAN 1220-410: SEAL/EOD/SWCC/DIVER/AIRR Physical Screening Test Standards & Procedures, Change 42, 06 January 2013.
- Naval Special Warfare Combat Side Stroke (CSS) Guide (2014-03).
- NAVPERS 1306-92 – Special Programmes Screening.
4.3 Useful Books and Magazines
Bahmanyar, M. (2005) Elite 113 – US Navy SEALs. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
Darby, M.J. (2004) Mind Games. All Hands: Magazine of the U.S. Navy. August 2004, pp.14-23. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.navy.mil/ah_online/department_arch2004.html. [Accessed: 08 February, 2016].
Ethos: Magazine of US Naval Special Warfare: http://www.sealswcc.com/navy-seals-ethos-magazine.html#.VriYOFh4aM8
Liptak, E. (2014) Elite 203: World War II Navy Special Warfare Units. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
McNab, C. (2013) America’s Elite: US Special Forces from the American Revolution to the Present Day. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
4.4 Useful Links
- MacDill Air Force Base: http://www.macdill.af.mil/
- US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM): http://www.socom.mil/
- Naval Special Warfare Command (NAVSPECWARCOM):
- NSW Family:
- New website: https://www.nswwarriorandfamily.org/Pages/default.aspx
- Former website: https://www.nswfamily.org/
- US Navy SEALs and SWCC:
- US Navy Personnel Command:
- Enlisted Community Managers: http://www.public.navy.mil/bupers-npc/enlisted/community/specwarops/Pages/default.aspx
- Enlisted Detailing: http://www.public.navy.mil/bupers-npc/enlisted/detailing/seal/Pages/default2.aspx
- Officer Community Managers: http://www.public.navy.mil/bupers-npc/officer/communitymanagers/Unrestricted/nsw/Pages/default.aspx
- Officer Detailing: http://www.public.navy.mil/bupers-npc/officer/Detailing/specwar/Pages/default.aspx
- US Naval Small Craft Instruction and Technical Training School (NAVSCIATTS): http://www.public.navy.mil/nsw/NAVSCIATTS/html/index.html
- John C Stennis Space Centre (SSC): http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/home/
- US Navy Careers: http://www.navy.com/careers/special-operations/
- Navy SEAL Foundation: http://www.navysealfoundation.org/
- Coronado: http://www.welcometocoronado.com/coronados-navy/navy-seals/
- US Navy SEAL Museum: http://www.navysealmuseum.org/
- SEAL-NSW Family Foundation: http://www.sealnswff.org/
- Naval Special Warfare Unit 2: https://www.soceur.eucom.mil/Pages/Nsw2
- Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC): http://www.nrotc.navy.mil/special_warfare.html
- Military Academies:
- United States Naval Academy (USNA): http://www.usna.edu/Admissions/Career-Opportunities/Special-Operations-and-Special-Warfare.php
- United States Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA): https://www.usmma.edu/academics/departments/naval-special-warfare
- Navy Installations Command (CNIC):
- Commander, Navy Installations Command (CNIC): https://www.cnic.navy.mil/regions/cnrsw/installations/navbase_coronado.html
- Naval Station Great Lakes: www.cnic.navy.mil/GreatLakes/
Feickert, A. (2013) U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress. Washington: Congressional Research Service
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