Plowman and Smith (2011, p.11) state that “Training is a consistent or chronic progression of exercise sessions designed to improve physiological function for better health or sport performance.”, and therefore the two main goals for exercise training are:

  • Health-related physical fitness: a physiological state of well-being that reduces the risk of hypokinetic disease, a basis for participation in sports and vigour for the tasks of daily living.  It is composed of components representing cardiovascular-respiratory endurance, metabolism, and muscular fitness (strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility).
  • Skill-related physical fitness: this builds on health-related physical fitness and adds motor attributes (such as agility, balance, and power) and anaerobic power and capacity, as needed.  It is also known as performance, athletic or motor fitness.


Plowman, S.A. & Smith, D.L. (2011) Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance. 3rd ed. London: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.


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