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1.0     Introduction

This article provides an overview of the German Navy’s Special Forces Command or Kommando Spezialkräfte der Marine (KSM) selection and training process.

“During the course of the three-year training period, around 70 percent of applicants fail to make the grade. That’s actually an improvement on previous levels, which saw a washout rate of around 90 to 95 percent.” (Newdick, 2015).

Logo, KampfschwimmerCandidates can apply from any Arm or Service of the Bundeswehr, as well as civilians with no prior military experience. After an administrative check, the first physical hurdle for candidates is a visit to a recruitment centre to be assessed in the specific selection criteria for the KSM. “Around half of all applicants to the organization now come from other branches of the armed forces.” (Newdick, 2015).

Although the KSM employs a variety of personnel in Enabler and Supporter roles, there are only a small number of Operators, at approximately 130 (Newdick, 2015).

Training is rigorous and very demanding, and after passing a variety of physical and weapons test candidates will then train in collective skills such as diving, parachuting, land warfare, specialised weapons or powered boats.

“Operating in groups as small as four or five men, the Kampfschwimmer units each had a team leader, forward air controller, sniper, medic and a radio operator. Typical missions included watching convoy routes and roads, as well as gathering intelligence.” (Newdick, 2015).

From boot camp to fully operational, a candidate may undertake three and a half years of training.

Part One of this article looks at women and the KSM, then discusses the difference between tier 1 and tier 2 Special Forces (SF) and highlights the general duties of special operations forces (SOF). Part Two looks at the entry standards for the KSM, before Part Three outlines the selection and training process for a kampfschwimmer. Part Four briefly outlines the training organisations involved in the training of kampfschwimmers. Finally, Part Five provides some useful links and identifies other articles the reader may find useful.

I apologise if any of the translations are incorrect/imprecise.

1.1     Aim

The aim of this article is to describe the fundamental entry requirements, selection process and training for personnel seeking to become a member of the German Navy’s Special Forces Command.

The article details the selection and training process for Combat Swimmer (Kampfschwimmer) aspirants who will fulfil roles in the operational forces, not Supporters or Enablers who fulfil roles in the support forces.

1.2     Women and the Kommando Spezialkräfte

“The German military opened all units to women in 2001, and the KSK has also committed to recruit female elite soldiers, but so far only one woman has applied, and she failed the requirements.” (The Local, 2008). As of 2016, no women had passed the KSM selection process.

1.3     Tier 1 or Tier 2 Status

The Kommando Spezialkräfte der Marine has a mixture of Tier 1 and Tier 2 units. A ‘Tier 1’ SF unit is usually tasked with direct action. Other special operations forces (SOF) are referred to as ‘Tier 2’ units as they, usually, fulfil a supporting role for the Tier 1 units.

1.4     General Duties of Special Operations Forces

SOF personnel are required to infiltrate and exfiltrate to and from operational areas dismounted, carrying heavy loads and manipulating personal and support weapons systems and other heavy equipment. SOF personnel perform insertions and assaults on targets by:

  • Parachuting onto ground or into water;
  • Climbing ladders and cliffs;
  • Rappelling;
  • Conducting close-quarters battle (CQB); and
  • Battle drills in varying types of terrain and climatic conditions day or night.

SOF personnel are also required to board ocean vessels while they are underway from another floating or airborne platform in all sea states day or night, and where speed and stealth are imperative. These duties are performed while wearing heavy rucksack and body armour. SOF personnel perform individual CQB and detainee handling which may require the individual to:

  • Combat and detain another person using blocking strikes;
  • Disarming;
  • Lifting;
  • Pulling;
  • Ground fighting;
  • Grappling; and
  • Moving a non-compliant person.

There is no tolerance for a lapse in attention when conducting CQB and other assaults while wearing night vision goggles as well as Special Operations Insertion and Extraction (SOIE) techniques. Accurate discrimination of non-combatants and precision engagement of enemy combatants requires extreme concentration.

Similarly, high-risk roped and un-roped insertions with no redundant safety systems require constant attention. SOF personnel require the ability for continuous analysis of the situation, environment, mission aims and unique foreign societal complexities during operations.


2.0     Introduction

Diver Mike Hunt needs some help completing his In-Outs

The Bundeswehr does accept direct entry applicants, i.e. civilians with no prior military experience, for the KSM (needs verification). As a result, volunteers for the KSM may be accepted from both civilians and Bundeswehr military personnel (both officer and enlisted) from any branch of military service to serve with the KSM.

Consequently, there are three recognised pathways to become a member of the KSM:

  1. Join as a Special Operations Supporter/Enabler;
  2. Join as a Special Forces Operator (in-service transfer from any branch of military service); or
  3. Join as a Special Forces Operator (as a civilian with no prior military service).

2.1     Recruitment Centre

Recruitment for kampfschwimmer candidates is undertake at the naval base in Wihelmshaven (needs verification).

2.2     General Requirements and Eligibility for All Candidates

Subject to the requirements outlined below, all Bundeswehr officers and enlisted (other ranks) personnel are eligible to attend the KSM training programme.

General Requirements for all candidates:

  • They are German or German within the meaning of Article 116 of the Basic Law;
  • No criminal convictions;
  • Obtain approval from chain of command;
  • High school education or higher;
  • Complete basic military training;
  • Qualify for Boatswain training (the decision is made at the recruiting centre in Wilhelmshafen);
  • Pass appropriate diving medical examination (Section 2.3).
  • Pass appropriate diving screening test (Section 3.2);
  • Pass appropriate naval commando screening test (Section 3.3); and
  • Be parachute-trained or willing to undertake parachute training.

2.3     Diving Medical Examination

Yes, we still want to be Army divers

As part of the selection process for the German Navy’s Special Forces Command, individuals must attend and successfully pass a special physical screening test for both diver and naval commando candidates.

This day-long physical examination is conducted at the German Navy’s Maritime Medicine Institute (Schifffahrtmedizinisches Institut der Marine) in Kiel/Kronshagen, and includes relevant health aspects such as an eye examination, ENT, blood and urine tests, and so on.

Candidates must also undertake a simulated dive in a hyperbaric chamber and an oxygen tolerance test (breathing a gas mixture with a higher than normal proportion of oxygen), as the diving equipment used by the German Navy Special Forces uses a higher than normal oxygen to nitrogen ratio. Simplistically, an individual will tolerate the gas mixture or they will not; hence the oxygen tolerance test can be a common ‘failure’ point for candidates.

Once the candidate has completed the ‘physical’ tests they will be interviewed (aka ‘mental’ test) by a psychologist.

Successfully passing both the mental and physical tests are prerequisites for successfully passing the diving medical examination.

As I understand it, if a candidate passes the diving medical examination they will be transferred from their current unit or directly from basic training to the Ship Security Training Centre in Neustadt/Holstein for the Basic Diving Course.


3.0     Introduction

Learn to Suffer without Complaint
(Lerne Leiden, Ohne Zu Klagen!)

Badge of Frogmen, Special Forces Command of the NavyAs part of the recruitment and selection process, kampfschwimmer aspirants must successfully complete three fitness/screening tests, as outlined in Sections 3.1 to 3.3, before they even start the KSM training programme.

The purpose of the selection process (auswahlverfahren) is to assess a candidate’s character, and mental and physical suitability for a career in the KSM.

After successfully completion of the selection process, candidates will then undertake further training, lasting up to 3 years, at a variety of training centres within Germany and internationally.

During the KSM training programme, candidates should appreciate the difference between two important factors:

  1. Physical load;
  2. Psychological load.

With unstructured/informal training the physical load can be eased/ameliorated, however, the psychological load is somewhat more problematic to overcome without specialised training which candidates may not have access to; especially those straight from basic training.

One of the most important elements of the KSM training programme is the overcoming of fear, remembering that candidates will be training (and working as future Operators) in cold, dark and austere conditions within close distance of the enemy.

The KSM training programme includes, amongst others topics, swimming, diving, navigation, close combat, weapons handling and parachuting. A final exercise puts all of these skills to the test.

3.1     Basic Fitness Test

The basic fitness test (BFT) is a combination of three exercises which must be completed within 90 minutes.

  • Sprints:
    • 11 x 10 metre sprints in 60 seconds or less.
    • Score = 1100-16,667x sprint time (in seconds).
  • Hang:
    • Using a heave bar, the candidate must hang (with straight arms) for as long as possible.
    • Score = 75 + 5x hang time (in seconds).
  • Run:
    • Run 1000 metres in a maximum of 390 seconds.
    • Score = 100 + ([390 – run time in seconds] x 1.81818181).

3.2     Diving Screening Test

To qualify for the Basic Dive Course candidates must:

  • Pass the physical and psychological screening described above (Section 2.3);
  • Run 5 kilometres within a maximum of 25 minutes;
  • Swim 300 metres, fully clothed, within a maximum of 8 minutes;
  • Perform a minimum of 3 heaves;
  • Dive to a depth of 5 metres and retrieve two rings weighing 5 kg each;
  • Swim 25 metres underwater without surfacing;
  • Qualify for the (bronze) lifesaving badge; and
  • Complete the BFT.

Once admitted to the training centre at Neustadt the candidate is trained, through a demanding curriculum, to become a professional diver. The weather, the daily diving regimen and long hours of strenuous activity require a robust constitution and stress tolerance.

Successful completion of the Basic Dive Course means progression to the Special Operations Training Company to undertake Kampfschwimmer training which commences with, you guessed it, another physical fitness test.

3.3     Kampfschwimmer Entrance Test

The physical fitness test or Kampfschwimmer Entrance Exam consists of:

  • A 5 kilometre run within a maximum of 22 or 23 minutes;
  • A 1,000 metre swim within a maximum of 23 or 24 minutes;
  • Remaining submerged for a minimum of 60 seconds;
  • Swimming 30 metres underwater without surfacing (turning around halfway through);
  • Performing a minimum of 8 over-arm heaves (i.e. thumbs facing each other);
  • Bench pressing a minimum of 50Kg weight (15 repetitions) or bench press 70% of own bodyweight (10 repetitions) (not sure which); and
  • A completed BFT.

Candidates should note that the above are the minimum required to pass; on average, successful candidates will achieve much better scores/times.

Once candidates have successfully completed all of the above steps (Sections 3.1 to 3.3) they will be informed if they have been selected for the German Navy’s Basic SF training programme.

Successful completion of these steps does not imply an automatic right to progress onto the three year Kampfschwimmer training programme. Besides their physical ‘prowess’, candidates are also assessed (amongst other attributes) on their:

  • Individual resolve;
  • Mental resilience;
  • Physical resilience;
  • Teamwork; and
  • Ability to learn (quickly).

Once candidates have successfully completed the selection process, they will undertake approximately three years of training.

3.4     KSM Training Outline

As outlined in Table 1, the three year Kampfschwimmer training programme is divided into two phases of training, with each phase consisting of a number of courses.

  • Der Fachlehrgang 1 (Specialty Course 1): This 12 month programme is designed to select qualified candidates for Kampfschwimmer training and to provide them with an intensive initial training package. It consists of five consecutive stages.
  • Der Fachlehrgang 2 (Specialty Course 2): This 24 month programme is designed to provide candidates with a wide range of further skills, leadership training and professional development with the general aim of making a more rounded SF soldier.

In late 2005, for two reasons, the KSM training programme was extended from 15 months to 36 months. The first reason was due to lessons learnt from (then) recent operational experience. The second reason was due to changes in the Kampfschwimmer rank structure due to the Bundeswehr dispensing with the practice of conscription. Previously sailors with the rank of Maat (broadly equivalent to the US Navy’s Petty Officer 2nd Class) or above could serve as Kampfschwimmers.

Since 2006, the lowest serving rank within the Kampfschwimmer Company is Bootsmann (broadly equivalent to the US Navy’s Petty Officer 1st Class or Royal Navy’s Petty Officer). This required adding Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) training elements into the Kampfschwimmer training programme so that lower ranking trainees could be promoted upon completion of their SF training.

For the first (or introductory) stage of training, candidates are pushed hard both physically and psychologically through set exercises/training evolutions. The objective of these exercises is to:

  • Increase self-confidence;
  • Develop underwater skills;
  • Remove/diminish a candidate’s fear of the water; and
  • Help make them feel secure in a maritime environment.

For example, one of the exercises is known as bound swimming (Gefesseltes Schwimmen) in which the candidate, who will be wearing full combat clothing and have their hands tied behind their back and feet tied together, is ‘pushed’ into the swimming pool where they must remain (underwater) for at least 30 seconds. As I understand it, this exercise is also completed in the dark/at night. This is a controlled exercise with a number of safety measures in place such as a diver in the water next to the candidate, who will also bring the candidate to the surface on completion of the exercise.

Candidates will also become familiar with ‘Hate Week’. As well as the normal daily routine of swimming, diving and press-ups, candidates will ‘enjoy’ sleep deprivation by conducting night exercises and night runs.

Another ‘fun’ exercise is training to exit and enter a submarine through a torpedo tube (a very claustrophobic experience)!

Table 1: Outline of KSM training programme
Element/Course Description Duration
Basic Fitness Test
  • View Section 3.1
1 Day
Diving Screening Test
  • View Section 3.2
1 Day
Basic Dive Course
  • Professional diver training course
8 weeks
Kampfschwimmer Entrance Test
  • View Section 3.3.
1 Day
Der Fachlehrgang 1 (Specialty Course 1) 12 Months
Kampfschwimmervorausbildung (Hallenausbildung) – Combat Swimmer Pre-Training (Natatorium)
  • The first stage of this course is conducted in the natatorium (or indoor pool facility) and takes the candidates to their limits. This stage lays the foundation for later training in open water. Candidates swim underwater daily to prepare them for more intense dive training provided in later stages. Both time and distance underwater are recorded. During the first part of this stage the candidates practice:
    • The basics of free diving as well as diving with goggles, snorkel and fins;
    • Tactical conduct underwater; and
    • Many exercises designed to get the candidates used to operating underwater by requiring them to overcome inner barriers, develop their self-confidence and underwater skills.
  • The second stage is focused on tactical diving using the in-service closed rebreather system, which is different to diving with compressed air and requires practice. Training includes:
    • Diving under tactical conditions;
    • Emergency procedures (such as emergency ascent);
    • Jumps;
    • Exiting submarines via flooded torpedo tubes; and
    • Diving at night and nightly alert drills
    • These capabilities are a prerequisite for participating open-ocean training later.
  • In addition the sailors undergo a structured physical fitness programme which includes learning swimming techniques. This fitness training is conducted and supervised by fitness professionals assigned to the German Navy Special Operations Command.
  • Parallel to this fitness regimen, the candidates must repeat their initial physical screening test several times to document their progress.
  • Candidates will also receive training in:
    • Equipment used.
    • Dive medicine.
    • Expanded combat medic training.
    • Completion of written exam and practical assessments.
5 Weeks
Kraftbootführerschei (Boat Operations)
  • Training to operate military boats is also conducted by the training company.
  • Training includes theoretical elements such as collision avoidance rules or the basic SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) principles, as well as hands on training elements.
  • Both theoretical and practical training elements require final exams.
Sprenghelferlehrgang mit Tauchereinsatz (Underwater Demolition Assistant Training)
  • Demolition assistant training is conducted by the training company.
  • Experienced underwater mine warfare specialists train the candidates in handling and usage of explosives and detonators on land and in the water.
  • The training course includes classroom lectures and applied training.
  • Both theoretical and practical training elements require final exams.
Einsatzausbildung/Freiwasserausbildung (Operational Training/Open Water Training)
  • The second training course specifically focused on combat swimmer capabilities teaches the complete spectrum of operating in water.
  • All delivery and operating techniques are systematically introduced.
  • The emphasis is placed on underwater operations.
  • The curriculum begins with orientation exercises in port and progresses to long-distance underwater approach tactics.
  • By the end of this training course, candidates are able to approach from a distance of up to three kilometres and locate a small buoy – just a few centimetres in diameter – without surfacing.
  • Night-time dives, night-time alerts, long-distance swims and the notorious Friday runs are also hallmarks of training on this course.
  • Training concludes with a 30 kilometre run and a 30 kilometre swim.
12 Weeks
Kampfschwimmertaktikausbildung (Combat Swimmer Tactical Training)
  • This tactical training stage encompasses:
    • The basics of land warfare;
    • Close quarter combat (CQC);
    • Forced entry;
    • Opposed boarding;
    • Long-range amphibious approach via kayak or inflatable boat;
    • Ingress and egress via the Special Boat Group; and
    • Advanced hand-to-hand combat training.
  • During this stage of training candidates will live, almost, exclusively in the field and returning to barracks only on weekends.
  • Water is their constant companion.
  • A daytime or night-time orientation march is conducted daily.
  • Training concludes with a ten day field exercise shortly before Christmas.
12 Weeks
Der Fachlehrgang 2 (Specialty Course 2) 24 Months
Unteroffizerslehrgang 1/2 (NCO Academy 1/2)
  •   Junior enlisted personnel will complete NCO training at the Naval NCO Academy at Plön.
B, C, E Führerscheine (Military Driver’s License)
  •   Training to operate various categories of military vehicle is conducted at the relevant Bundeswehr driving schools.
Einzelkämpferlehrgang (EKI) (Ranger Training)
  • Delivered in Hammelburg.
  • This course teaches candidates to lead a unit cut off from friendly forces.
  • Training includes:
    • Living off the land;
    • SERE (survival, escape, resistance and evasion) training;
    • Traversing difficult terrain: and
    • Recovery by own forces.
4 Weeks
Fallschirmsprungausbildung mit Automatischer Schirmöffnung (Static Line Parachute Training)
  • Delivered by the Airborne/Airmobile School in Altenstadt.
  • The course teaches candidates static line parachute operations from aircraft operated by the Bundeswehr.
4 Weeks
Tauchereinsatzleiterschulung (Dive Operations Leadership School)
  • Trains the candidate to lead dive and reconnaissance operations.
  • Training is conducted using compressed air and rebreather systems.
  • Theoretical and practical training teaches the various search and reconnaissance techniques.
  • Trainees also learn to act as mission leader during dive operations.
  • Every Kampfschwimmer must be capable of leading small unit aquatic missions.
8 Weeks
Sprengleiterausbildung (Demolition Leader Course)
  • Delivered by the training company.
  • Experienced underwater mine warfare personnel teach candidates to lead demolitions operations above and below water.
3 Weeks
Kampfschwimmerkampftruppführer Teil 1-4 (Squad Leader Training)
  • Provides expanded training in:
    • Land warfare and firearms (reactive shooting, selective shooting);
    • Entry tactics (structures and ships);
    • Cooperative tactics with aircraft and watercraft; and
    • Mobility training (use of tactical vehicles such as the MOWAG Eagle V and Quad).
  • Candidates participate in planning and execution phases of complex and combined scenarios.
  • The goal is to impart the skills and knowledge required for real world operations, and to train the candidate to become a thinking and efficient operative capable of filtering out extraneous information and distractions.
12 Weeks
Sanitätslehrgang für spezialisierte Kräfte (SOF Combat First Responder Training)
  • Combat medicine course taught at the Special Operations Training Centre at Pfullendorf.
  • The curriculum is focused on:
    • Recognising and alleviating life-threatening conditions; and
    • Ensuring effective treatment for wounded personnel under tactical conditions.
  • In addition to emergency procedures the course covers:
    • Anatomy and physiology;
    • Pathopsychology;
    • Traumatology; and
    • Dispensing of medications.
  • Candidates are inserted into tactical scenarios and must demonstrate their theoretical and practical knowledge and skills.
  • Internationally this training is referred to as Combat First Responder B.
  • Training is conducted in accordance with the Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines.
4 Weeks
Überlebenslehrgang für spezialisierte Kräfte (SOF Survival Training)
  • Delivered by the Special Operations Training Centre.
  • Candidates are taught the basics of surviving behind enemy lines and resisting enemy interrogation.
  • The course consists of one week of theoretical and practical training, followed by a three week field exercise.
4 Weeks
Fallschirmsprungausbildung mit manueller Schirmöffnung (Advanced Parachute Training)
  • Delivered by the Airborne/Airmobile School.
  • High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) and High Altitude High Opening (HAHO) techniques are taught.
  • Candidates learn to execute HALO/HAHO jumps with full gear and additional loads, at night using night vision equipment.
4 Weeks
Luftlandeeinsatzverfahren (Airmobile Techniques)
  • Delivered by the Airborne/Airmobile School.
  • Training includes repelling/fast-roping from helicopters.
  • These techniques are required for insertion into rough terrain (e.g. mountains, forests) and onto ships.
2 Weeks
Bau von Sicherungsanlagen (Mountaineering Safety)
  • Delivered by the Mountain and Winter Warfare School in Mittenwald.
  • Candidates learn to prepare repelling stations, rope bridges and zip lines in order to safely traverse difficult terrain, and must demonstrate their proficiency in these techniques.
2 Weeks
Englisch Lehrgang (English Language)
  • An English language course at Bundeswehr schools, ending with a proficiency test.
  • Passing this language course is a prerequisite for every Bootsmann.
12 Weeks

Candidates will receive recognition of existing qualifications, meaning if they already possess qualifications which are on the training curriculum – for example if they have already graduated from the NCO course or already are certified to operate combat vehicles or boats – they are not required to repeat those courses. Whilst their candidate colleagues undertake those courses, they will be assigned to other training courses deemed pertinent to their future SF career.

There are a number of additional/alternative/complementary courses to the standard Kampfschwimmer training programme:

  • Absetzerlehrgang (Jumpmaster Training): A four week course at the Airborne/Airmobile School which trains the jumpmasters assigned to German military aircraft. Jumpmasters are responsible for the safe and successful execution of jump operations.
  • Patrol Course: A four week practical planning course conducted at the International Wing of the Special Operations Training Centre. Operational planning procedures for team level missions are taught in accordance with the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP). The course is taught in English and includes international participants.
  • Platoon Commanders Planning Course: A four week theoretical planning course conducted at the International Wing of the Special Operations Training Centre. Operational planning procedures for platoon level missions are taught in accordance with the MDMP. The course is taught in English and includes international participants.
  • Combined Joint Special Operations Planning Course: A two week theoretical planning course conducted at the International Wing of the Special Operations Training Centre. Staff level leadership procedures for special operations are taught in accordance with the MDMP. This course includes only German participants, but from all branches of service. The course is conducted in English, and ends with a final exam.
  • Rettungssanitäter/Rettungsassistent (Para Medic/Para Medic Assistant): Courses taught at military hospitals to teach emergency medical procedures. This is one of the few qualifications which service members can use professionally after leaving the military.
  • Finally, some specialised courses normally taken after graduation from Kampfschwimmer qualification can be taken early, in order to better utilise training time once assigned to the Kampfschwimmer Company.


4.0     Introduction

This section of the article provides an outline of the various stakeholders who have some input to the selection and training process for the German Navy’s Special Forces.

4.1     Training Group

The KSM Training Group (Die Gruppe Ausbildung des Kommando Spezialkräfte der Marine) is responsible for initial Frogmen training (Kampfschwimmer-Ausbildung) and ongoing training of SF and SOF personnel.

I believe Training Group’s title can also be translated as Ausbildungsinspektion (needs verification).

4.2     Special Operations Training and Development Centre

In 1979, the International Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol School (ILRRPS) was established in Weingarten, Germany (Johnson, 2009). In April 1997 the Kommando Spezialkräfte was activated and in August 1997 the ILRRPS moved to Pfullendorf, Germany (Johnson, 2009), becoming a school of the Special Operations Training Centre.

In May 2001 the ILRRPS was renamed the International Special Training Centre (ISTC) (Johnson, 2009).

In 2015, the Special Operations Training Centre (Ausbildungsu. Versuchszentrum or AVZ) was renamed the Special Operations Training and Development Centre (Volk, 2013).

As part of the Reorganisation of the German Army, the Special Operations Training and Development Centre is one of eleven major centres/schools of the Army Training Command (German Army, 2013). The Centre is commanded by a Colonel (Oberst) (OF-5) and is headquartered in Pfullendorf (Volk, 2013).

The centre is responsible for the initial (entry-level) and further (advanced) training of Special Forces and support personnel. The centre also delivers the aptitude/selection test (Eignungsfeststellungsverfahrens or EFV) for Special Forces aspirants.

“The training of special forces senior NCO candidates as well as special operations forces and personnel providing direct tactical support to special forces is conducted at the Specialised Operations Training Centre in Pfullendorf. Special Forces training and the support of exercises focusing on mission fulfilment in the context of national risk prevention complements the catalogue of tasks. Analogous international training is conducted at the attached International Special Training Centre.” (German Army, 2013, p.62).


5.0     Summary

The German Navy’s Special Forces branch is open to all male and female commissioned and enlisted personnel of the Bundeswehr. German Navy Special Forces training seeks to attract determined, highly-motivated, intelligent, reliable and physically fit individuals to serve with the Kommando Spezialkräfte der Marine community. This article provides the basic information to allow individuals to make an informed judgement before applying for KSM training.

5.1     Useful Publications

5.2     Useful Links

5.3     References

German Army (2013) The Reorientation of the German Army. Second Updated Edition. Strausberg: German Army. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.deutschesheer.de/portal/a/heer/!ut/p/c4/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP3I5EyrpHK9jNTUIr3c0pySzNzUlMxEvZT88ryc_MSUYv2CbEdFAF0-8l8!/. [Accessed: 18 July, 2016].

Johnson, J. (2009) International Special Training Center and NATO Celebrate 30 Years of Teaching Special Forces. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.army.mil/article/23818/international-special-training-center-and-nato-celebrate-30-years-of-teaching-special-forces/. [Accessed: 28 July, 2016].

Newdick, T. (2015) German Combat Divers are Busy on Land and Underwater: The Kommando Spezialkräfte is One of Berlin’s Most Elite Units. Available from World Wide Web: https://warisboring.com/german­combat­divers­are­busy­on­land­and­underwater­7c6cd8ad56ef#.gxvscho1a. [Accessed: 01 August, 2016].

The Local (2008) German Special Forces Offer Cash to Recruits. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.thelocal.de/20080629/12773. [Accessed: 18 July, 2016].

Volk, S. (2013) Neue Soldaten und Neuer Name fuer Kasernenstandort Pfullendorf. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.suedkurier.de/region/linzgau-zollern-alb/pfullendorf/Neue-Soldaten-und-neuer-Name-fuer-Kasernenstandort-Pfullendorf;art372570,6397414. [Accessed: 28 July, 2016].