What was the Battle of Lake Trasimene (217 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought when a Carthaginian force under Hannibal ambushed a Roman army commanded by Gaius Flaminius on 21 June 217 BC, during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). It took place on the north shore of Lake Trasimene, to the east of Cortona, and resulted in a heavy defeat… Read More


What was the Third Punic War (149-146 BC)?

Introduction The Third Punic War (149-146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between Carthage and Rome. The war was fought entirely within Carthaginian territory, in modern northern Tunisia. When the Second Punic War ended in 201 BC, one of the terms of the peace treaty prohibited Carthage from waging war… Read More

What was the Second Punic War (218-201 BC)?

Introduction The Second Punic War (Spring 218 BC to 201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Refer to the First Punic War (264-241 BC) and Third Punic War (149-146 BC). For seventeen years, the two states… Read More

What was the Battle of Crotona (204 BC)?

Introduction The battle or, more precisely, the battles of Croton in 204 and 203 BC were, as well as the raid in Cisalpine Gaul, the last larger scale engagements between the Romans and the Carthaginians in Italy during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). After Hannibal’s retreat to Bruttium due to the Metaurus debacle, the… Read More

What was the Battle for Trebia (218 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was the first major battle of the Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and a Roman army under Sempronius Longus on 22 or 23 December 218 BC. It took place on the flood plain of the west bank of… Read More

What was the Mercenary War (241-238)?

Introduction The Mercenary War, also known as the Truceless War, was a mutiny by troops employed by Carthage at the end of the First Punic War (264 to 241 BC), backed by an uprising of African settlements revolting against Carthaginian control. It lasted from 241 to late 238 or early 237 BC and ended with… Read More

What were the Punic Wars (264-146 BC)?

Introduction The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage. The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome’s expansionary attitude combined with Carthage’s proprietary approach to the island. At the start of the war… Read More