What was the Pyrrhic War (280-275 BC)?

Introduction The Pyrrhic War (280-275 BC) was a war fought by Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus. Pyrrhus was asked by the people of the Greek city of Tarentum in southern Italy to help them in their war with the Roman Republic. A skilled commander, with a strong army fortified by war elephants (which the Romans… Read More


What was the Battle of Crotona (204 BC)?

Introduction The battle or, more precisely, the battles of Croton in 204 and 203 BC were, as well as the raid in Cisalpine Gaul, the last larger scale engagements between the Romans and the Carthaginians in Italy during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). After Hannibal’s retreat to Bruttium due to the Metaurus debacle, the… Read More

What was a Colonia?

Introduction A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of a Roman city. It is also the origin of the modern term colony. Characteristics The Roman Republic, having no standing army, used to plant bodies of… Read More

What was the Battle for Trebia (218 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was the first major battle of the Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and a Roman army under Sempronius Longus on 22 or 23 December 218 BC. It took place on the flood plain of the west bank of… Read More

What was the Battle of Allia (390 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of the Allia was a battle fought c. 390 BC between the Senones (a Gallic tribe who had invaded northern Italy) and the Roman Republic. The battle was fought at the confluence of the Tiber and Allia rivers, 11 Roman miles (16 km, 10 miles) north of Rome. The Romans were routed and… Read More

What was the Battle of Philippi (42 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar’s assassination, Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia. The Second Triumvirate declared the civil war ostensibly to avenge… Read More

What was the Treaty of Lutatius (241 BC)?

Introduction The Treaty of Lutatius was the agreement of 241 BC, amended in 237 BC, between Carthage and Rome which ended the First Punic War after 23 years of conflict. Most of the fighting during the war took place on, or in the waters around, the island of Sicily and in 241 BC a Carthaginian… Read More