What was the Battle of Lake Trasimene (217 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought when a Carthaginian force under Hannibal ambushed a Roman army commanded by Gaius Flaminius on 21 June 217 BC, during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). It took place on the north shore of Lake Trasimene, to the east of Cortona, and resulted in a heavy defeat… Read More

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What was the Aetolian War (191-189 BC)?

Introduction The Aetolian War (191-189 BC) was fought between the Romans and their Achaean and Macedonian allies, and the Aetolian League and their allies the kingdom of Athamania. The Aetolians had invited Antiochus III the Great to Greece, who came, but after his defeat by the Romans returned to Asia. This left the Aetolians and… Read More

What was the Achaean War (146 BC)?

Introduction The Achaean War of 146 BC was fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek Achaean League, an alliance of Achaean and other Peloponnesian states in ancient Greece. It was the final stage of Rome’s conquest of mainland Greece, taking place just after the Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC). Rome and Achaea had been… Read More

What was the Battle of Mutina (193 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Mutina was fought in 193 BC, near Mutina, between the Roman Republic and the Boii. Background The Roman army won the battle. The battle marked the total defeat of the Boian Gauls, but since consul Lucius Cornelius Merula’s victory cost the Romans dear, and his officers accused him of negligence on… Read More

What was the Battle of Forum Gallorum (43 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Forum Gallorum was fought on 14 April 43 BC between the forces of Mark Antony, and legions loyal to the Roman Senate under the overall command of consul Gaius Pansa, aided by his fellow consul Aulus Hirtius. The untested Caesar Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) guarded the Senate’s camp. The battle… Read More

What was the Battle of Mutina (43 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Mutina took place on 21 April 43 BC between the forces loyal to the Senate under Consuls Gaius Vibius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, supported by the legions of Caesar Octavian, and the Caesarian legions of Mark Antony which were besieging the troops of Decimus Brutus. The latter, one of Caesar’s assassins,… Read More

What is a Roman Ovation?

Introduction The ovation (Latin: ovatio from ovare: to rejoice) was a form of the Roman triumph. Ovations were granted when war was not declared between enemies on the level of nations or states; when an enemy was considered basely inferior (e.g. slaves, pirates); or when the general conflict was resolved with little or no danger… Read More