What was the Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD)?

Introduction The Year of the Five Emperors was 193 AD, in which five men claimed the title of Roman emperor: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus, and Septimius Severus. This year started a period of civil war when multiple rulers vied for the chance to become Caesar. The political unrest began with the murder… Read More

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What was the Year of the Six Emperors (238 AD)?

Introduction The Year of the Six Emperors was the year 238 AD, during which six men were recognised as emperors of Rome. Refer to the Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD) and the Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD). Background Maximinus Thrax The emperor at the beginning of the year was Maximinus Thrax,… Read More

What was the Pisonian Conspiracy (65 AD)?

Introduction The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso in AD 65 was a major turning point in the reign of the Roman emperor Nero (reign 54-68 AD). The plot reflected the growing discontent among the ruling class of the Roman state with Nero’s increasingly despotic leadership, and as a result is a significant event on the… Read More

What was the Battle of Bedriacum (69 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69) near the village of Bedriacum (now Calvatone), about 35 kilometres (22 miles) from the town of Cremona in northern Italy. The fighting in fact took place between Bedriacum and Cremona, and the battles are sometimes called… Read More

What was the Battle of Forum Gallorum (43 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Forum Gallorum was fought on 14 April 43 BC between the forces of Mark Antony, and legions loyal to the Roman Senate under the overall command of consul Gaius Pansa, aided by his fellow consul Aulus Hirtius. The untested Caesar Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) guarded the Senate’s camp. The battle… Read More

What was the Battle of Mutina (43 BC)?

Introduction The Battle of Mutina took place on 21 April 43 BC between the forces loyal to the Senate under Consuls Gaius Vibius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, supported by the legions of Caesar Octavian, and the Caesarian legions of Mark Antony which were besieging the troops of Decimus Brutus. The latter, one of Caesar’s assassins,… Read More

What is a Roman Ovation?

Introduction The ovation (Latin: ovatio from ovare: to rejoice) was a form of the Roman triumph. Ovations were granted when war was not declared between enemies on the level of nations or states; when an enemy was considered basely inferior (e.g. slaves, pirates); or when the general conflict was resolved with little or no danger… Read More