A Brief Overview of Roman Military Decorations and Punishments

Introduction As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions. Decorations, Awards, and Victory Titles Crowns Imperial Titles Synonyms for “Emperor” Victory Titles Victory titles were treated as Latin cognomina and were usually the name of the… Read More

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What is Reduction In Rank

Introduction Reduction in rank may refer to three separate concepts: Brief History Reduction in rank (Latin gradus deiectio meaning position degradation) was a Roman military punishment. United States In the United States, courts-martial may adjudge reduction to any enlisted member to the lowest or any intermediate pay grade. However, a summary court-martial may not sentence… Read More

What is a Court Martial?

Introduction A court martial or court-martial (plural courts martial or courts-martial, as “martial” is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court. A court-martial is empowered to determine the guilt of members of the armed forces subject to military law, and, if the defendant is found guilty, to… Read More

What is Flogging?

Introduction Flagellation (Latin flagellum, “whip”), flogging or whipping is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, rods, switches, the cat o’ nine tails, the sjambok, the knout, etc. Typically, flogging is imposed on an unwilling subject as a punishment; however, it can also be submitted to willingly for sadomasochistic… Read More

Punisher & Sufferer…

“War is as much a punishment to the punisher as it is to the sufferer.” Thomas Jefferson (1743 to 1826) Thomas Jefferson was a draftsman of the Declaration of Independence of the United States and the nation’s first secretary of state (1789-94) and second vice president (1797-1801) and, as the third president (1801-09), the statesman… Read More

One Life…

“I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” Nathan Hale (1755 to 1776) He attended Yale University, where he graduated in 1773, and became a schoolteacher, first in East Haddam and then in New London. He joined a Connecticut regiment in 1775, served in the siege of Boston, and… Read More

Patterns of Discipline & Punishment in the Royal Navy, 1783-1815

Research Paper Title ‘Wanton and Torturing Punishments’: Patterns of Discipline and Punishment in the Royal Navy, 1783-1815. Abstract The Royal Navy during the period between the end of the American Revolutionary War and the defeat of Napoleon had a record of success that was second to none, but it has long been held that this reputation was… Read More