“Without harmony in the state, no military expedition can be undertaken; without harmony in the army, no battle array can be formed.” Wu Zi (440 to 381 BC) Sun Tzu’s Art of War is one of the most famous Chinese texts. What is often not realised is that there are a number of other equally… Read More


Disperse & Concentrate…

“The highest generalship is to compel the enemy to disperse his army, and then to concentrate superior force against each fraction in turn.” George Henderson (1854 to 1903), paraphrasing Sun Tzu from the Art of War Colonel George Francis Robert Henderson CB, was a British Army officer and military author. He saw service in India,… Read More

PSYOP Evaluation: Misunderstanding Affects Effectiveness

Discussion Paper Title Falling Short in Measures of Effectiveness. Extract “PSYOP [psychological operations] has been an integral part of military operations since the world’s earliest documented battles, with the first cases being cited as occurring over 3,000 years ago. The idea of understanding, and ultimately exploiting, the motivations and vulnerabilities of an enemy in order… Read More

Fighting Without Fighting…

“Weapons are ominous tools to be used only when there is no alternative.” Sun Tzu, The Art of War “In ”Behind China’s Threats” (front page, March 7), you note that China’s military options for attacking Taiwan ”remain limited and impractical.’ There are other means to victory, as taught by the ancient Chinese military strategist Sun… Read More