What is a ‘Fleet in Being’?

Introduction In naval warfare, a “fleet in being” is a naval force that extends a controlling influence without ever leaving port. Were the fleet to leave port and face the enemy, it might lose in battle and no longer influence the enemy’s actions, but while it remains safely in port, the enemy is forced to… Read More


What are Fifth Dimension Operations?

Introduction The Fifth Dimension of Warfare complements the four classical dimensions: land, sea, air, and space. It was enunciated in 1995 as information operations. Core US Military Doctrine This is part of core US military doctrine, that recognises at least five dimensions, or ‘domains of warfare’ for which it is responsible: The origin of the… Read More

What is Urban Warfare?

Introduction Urban warfare is warfare in urban areas such as towns and cities. Urban combat differs from combat in the open at both the operational and the tactical levels. Complicating factors in urban warfare include the presence of civilians and the complexity of the urban terrain. Urban combat operations may be conducted to capitalise on… Read More

A Brief Overview of the Principles of War

Introduction Principles of war are rules and guidelines that represent truths in the practice of war and military operations. The earliest known principles of war were documented by Sun Tzu, circa 500 BCE, as well as Chanakya in his Arthashastra circa 350BCE. Machiavelli published his “General Rules” in 1521 which were themselves modeled on Vegetius’… Read More

What is Meant by ‘Sea Denial’?

Introduction Sea denial is a military term/strategy describing attempts to deny the enemy’s ability to use the sea without necessarily attempting to control the sea for its own use. Definition and General Concept It is a parallel concept to sea control. According to Milan Vego, “sea denial can be described as preventing partially or completely… Read More

An Overview of Naval Strategy

Introduction Naval strategy is the planning and conduct of war at sea, the naval equivalent of military strategy on land. Naval strategy, and the related concept of maritime strategy, concerns the overall strategy for achieving victory at sea, including the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition of naval forces by which a… Read More

What was Kantai Kessen?

Introduction The Decisive Battle Doctrine (艦隊決戦, Kantai Kessen, “naval fleet decisive battle”) was a naval strategy adopted by the Imperial Japanese Navy prior to the Second World War. The theory was derived from the writings of American naval historian Alfred Thayer Mahan. In the Decisive Battle Doctrine the Japanese navy would win a war by… Read More