What is Hybrid Warfare?

Introduction Hybrid warfare is a theory of military strategy, first proposed by Frank Hoffman, which employs political warfare and blends conventional warfare, irregular warfare and cyberwarfare with other influencing methods, such as fake news, diplomacy, lawfare and foreign electoral intervention. By combining kinetic operations with subversive efforts, the aggressor intends to avoid attribution or retribution.… Read More

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What is a Rearguard?

Introduction A rearguard is that part of a military force that protects it from attack from the rear, either during an advance or withdrawal. The term can also be used to describe forces protecting lines, such as communication lines, behind an army. Even more generally, a rearguard action may refer idiomatically to an attempt at… Read More

Who was J.F.C. Fuller?

Introduction Major General John Frederick Charles “Boney” Fuller CB CBE DSO (01 September 1878 to 10 February 1966) was a senior British Army officer, military historian, and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. With 45 books and many articles, he was a highly prolific author whose… Read More

What is a Battle of Annihilation?

Introduction Annihilation is a military strategy in which an attacking army seeks to entirely destroy the military capacity of the opposing army. This strategy can be executed in a single planned pivotal battle, called a “battle of annihilation”. A successful battle of annihilation is accomplished through the use of tactical surprise, application of overwhelming force… Read More

What is Targeted Killing?

Introduction Targeted killing is defined as a form of killing carried out by governments. Some analysts believe that it is a modern euphemism for the assassination (prominent premeditated killing) of an individual by a state organisation or institution outside a judicial procedure or a battlefield. Since the late 20th century, the legal status of targeted… Read More

What is an Invasion?

Introduction An invasion is a military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory owned by another such entity, generally with the objective of: Conquering; Liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; Forcing the partition of a country; Altering the established government or gaining concessions from said… Read More

Wrong Place, Right Leader…

“It was indeed seldom that [Southern] officers were guilty of cowardice upon the field of battle; but they were often in the wrong place, fighting as common soldiers, when they should have been directing others.” General Stonewall Jackson (1924 to 1863) Stonewall Jackson, byname of Thomas Jonathan Jackson, was a Confederate general in the American… Read More