What is a Bomber Stream?

Introduction The bomber stream was a saturation attack tactic developed by the Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command to overwhelm the nighttime German aerial defences of the Kammhuber Line during World War II. Refer to Combat Box. The Kammhuber Line consisted of three layers of zones of about 32 km long (north–south) and 20 km… Read More


What was the Big Wing?

Introduction The Big Wing, also known as a Balbo, was an air fighting tactic proposed during the Battle of Britain by 12 Group commander Air Vice-Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory and Acting Squadron Leader Douglas Bader. In essence, the tactic involved meeting incoming Luftwaffe bombing raids in strength with a wing-shaped formation of three to five squadrons.… Read More

What was a Combat Box?

Introduction The combat box was a tactical formation used by heavy (strategic) bombers of the US Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. The combat box was also referred to as a “staggered formation”. Its defensive purpose was in massing the firepower of the bombers’ guns, while offensively it concentrated the release of bombs… Read More

What are Interposing Tactics?

Introduction Interposing Tactics is tactical concept, developed under Terrorist Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, to explain a tactical action where a small-scale action takes place between two combatants, where one manoeuvres into interposition or interjection within a tactical situation, and disrupts the action or activity, of the opponent. Origin In the game of chess, for example,… Read More

What are Mimicking Operations?

Introduction Mimicking operations is a tactical concept, developed under Terrorist Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, to explain a form of deception, commonly used by terrorists in their attacks. The concept is commonly used in military tactical modelling and scientific simulation; and is connected to the idea of shielding friendly forces (as well as foes) from detection… Read More

What is Mouse-Holing?

Introduction Mouse-holing is a tactic used in urban warfare in which soldiers create access to adjoining rooms or buildings by blasting or tunnelling through a wall. The tactic is used to avoid open streets since advancing infantry, caught in enfilade, are easily targeted by machine-gun and sniper fire. Another purpose is to reach enemy troops… Read More

What is Situation Awareness?

Introduction Situational awareness or situation awareness (SA) is the understanding of an environment, its elements, and how it changes with respect to time or other factors. Situational awareness is important for effective decision making in many environments. It is formally defined as: “the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time… Read More