What was the Battle of Cocos (1914)?

Introduction The Battle of Cocos was a single-ship action that occurred on 9 November 1914, after the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney (under the command of John Glossop) responded to an attack on a communications station at Direction Island by the German light cruiser SMS Emden (commanded by Karl von Müller). After the retreat of… Read More

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What was the Battle of Preveza?

Introduction The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which the Ottoman fleet defeated the allies. It occurred in the same area in the Ionian Sea as… Read More

What was the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa (1568)

Introduction The Battle of San Juan de Ulúa was a battle between English privateers and Spanish forces at San Juan de Ulúa (in modern Veracruz, Mexico). It marked the end of the campaign carried out by an English flotilla of six ships that had systematically conducted what the Spanish considered to be illegal trade in… Read More

The Significant Costs of Aircraft Carriers

What is an Aircraft Carrier? An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft. Countries with Aircraft Carriers Notwithstanding the US, other countries capable of launching jet aircraft make do with smaller and less potent vessels. Countries… Read More

Hit What…

“Hit hard, hit first, hit often.” Admiral Halsey (1882 to 1959) William Frederick Halsey, Junior, also known as Bull Halsey, was a US naval commander who led vigorous campaigns in the Pacific theatre during World War II. He was a leading exponent of warfare using carrier-based aircraft and became known for his daring tactics.

Force of Arms & Not Force of Arms…

“The goal of this kind of warfare will encompass more than merely using means that involve the force of arms to control the enemy to accept one’s own will. Rather, the goal should be to use all means whatsoever-means that involve the force of arms and means that do not involve the force of arms,… Read More

What is a “Tarpaulin” Sailor?

“In the early 16th century, the modern navies acquired officers from the ranks of enlisted sailors, who had worked their way up to command. These officers are known as “tarpaulin” sailors. They were from very modest families, but were highly experienced with ship handling and naval warfare. The respective navies of the world powers grew… Read More