What is Crossing the T in Naval Warfare?

Introduction Crossing the T or capping the T is a classic naval warfare tactic used from the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries in which a line of warships crosses in front of a line of enemy ships to allow the crossing line to bring all their guns to bear while it receives fire from… Read More


What is Hull-Down?

Introduction In sailing and warfare, hull-down means that the upper part of a vessel or vehicle is visible, but the main, lower body (hull) is not; the term hull-up means that all of the body is visible. The terms originated with sailing and naval warfare in which the curvature of the earth causes an approaching… Read More

What is a Task Force?

Introduction A task force (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. Originally introduced by the United States Navy, the term has now caught on for general usage and is a standard part of NATO terminology. Many non-military organisations now create “task forces” or task groups for… Read More

What is an Officer in Tactical Command?

Introduction In NATO, the officer in tactical command (OTC) is the naval officer exercising tactical command of a group of ships in a tactical formation such as a task unit, task group, or task force. Outline Ships travelling together on a specific mission might have one of the commanding officers designated OTC. On occasion, an… Read More

What was the Largest Naval Battle in History?

Introduction The “largest naval battle in history” is a disputed title between adherents of varying criteria which include the numbers of personnel and/or vessels involved in the naval battle, the total displacement of the vessels involved and sometimes the significance and/or implications of the battle. While battles fought in modern times are comparatively well-documented, the… Read More

What was the London Naval Treaty (1936)?

Introduction The Second London Naval Treaty was an international treaty signed as a result of the Second London Naval Disarmament Conference held in London, the United Kingdom. The conference started on 09 December 1935 and treaty was signed by the participating nations on 25 March 1936. Refer to Washington Naval Treaty (1922) and London Naval… Read More

What was the London Naval Treaty (1930)?

Introduction The London Naval Treaty, officially the Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armament, was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States that was signed on 22 April 1930. Seeking to address issues not covered in the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, which had created tonnage limits for… Read More