Who was Ernst Lindemann?

Introduction Otto Ernst Lindemann (28 March 1894 to 27 May 1941) was a German Kapitän zur See (naval captain). He was the only commander of the battleship Bismarck during its eight months of service in World War II. Lindemann joined the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) in 1913, and after his basic military training,… Read More


What was the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807)?

Introduction The Chesapeake-Leopard affair was a naval engagement off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, on 22 June 1807, between the British fourth-rate HMS Leopard and the American frigate USS Chesapeake. The crew of Leopard pursued, attacked, and boarded the American frigate, looking for deserters from the Royal Navy. Chesapeake was caught unprepared and after a… Read More

What was Operation Praying Mantis (1988)?

Introduction Operation Praying Mantis was an attack on 18 April 1988, by the United States Armed Forces within Iranian territorial waters in retaliation for the Iranian mining of the Persian Gulf during the Iran-Iraq War and the subsequent damage to an American warship. On 14 April, the guided missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts struck… Read More

Falkland Islands Annual Battle Day Commemoration

Sailors from HMS Forth took part in the Falkland Islands’ annual Battle Day for the first time. Ever since the Royal Navy defeated a German force off the islands in 1914, December 8 has been marked as a national holiday – and a day of commemoration remembering the 29 Commonwealth casualties and 1,871 German sailors… Read More

What was the Battle of Calabria (1940)?

Introduction The Battle of Calabria, known to the Italian Navy as the Battle of Punta Stilo, was a naval battle during the Battle of the Mediterranean in the Second World War. Ships of the Italian Regia Marina were opposed by vessels of the British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy. The battle occurred 30 miles… Read More

What is Raking Fire?

Introduction In (sailing) naval warfare, raking fire is fire directed parallel to the long axis of an enemy ship from ahead or astern. Background Although each shot is directed against a smaller target profile than by shooting broadside and thus more likely to miss the target ship to one side or the other, an individual… Read More

What is a Green-Water Navy?

Introduction A green-water navy is a maritime force that is capable of operating in its nation’s littoral zones and has the competency to operate in the open oceans of its surrounding region. It is a relatively new term, and has been created to better distinguish, and add nuance, between two long-standing descriptors: blue-water navy (deep… Read More