What was the Command and Control Research Programme (US)?

Introduction The Command and Control Research Programme (CCRP) was an active DoD Research Programme from 1994 to 2015. It was housed within the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defence (NII) and it focused upon: It provides “Out of the Box” thinking and explores ways to help DoD take full advantage of Information Age opportunities.… Read More


What is International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium?

Introduction The International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) is one of the world’s premier scientific conferences on topics related to Command and Control (C2), from both a theoretical and practical point of view. It is the only major conference with C2 as its exclusive focus. The symposium has had papers not only… Read More

What is a Task Force?

Introduction A task force (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. Originally introduced by the United States Navy, the term has now caught on for general usage and is a standard part of NATO terminology. Many non-military organisations now create “task forces” or task groups for… Read More

What is a Senior Officer Present Afloat?

Introduction Senior Officer Present Afloat, usually referred to as SOPA, is a US Navy term to indicate the US Navy officer, with the highest ranking by rank, or number in rank, present in a harbour occupied by more than one US Navy vessel. That officer is essentially commander of all US Navy operations afloat in… Read More

What is an Officer in Tactical Command?

Introduction In NATO, the officer in tactical command (OTC) is the naval officer exercising tactical command of a group of ships in a tactical formation such as a task unit, task group, or task force. Outline Ships travelling together on a specific mission might have one of the commanding officers designated OTC. On occasion, an… Read More

What is Command by Negation?

Introduction Command by negation is a military command and control doctrine – a hybrid of command by direction and command by influence. Commonly found in the United States Navy, particularly in independent commands at sea, the doctrine is based on individual officers using their own initiative to execute actions unless the reported action receives a… Read More

What is Mission Command?

Introduction Mission command, also referred to as mission-type tactics, is a style of military command, derived from the Prussian-pioneered mission-type tactics doctrine, which combines centralised intent with decentralised execution subsidiarity and promotes freedom and speed of action, and initiative, within defined constraints (also refer to military strategy and military tactics). Subordinates, understanding the commander’s intentions,… Read More