What is the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty?

Introduction The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear tests, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996, but has not entered into force, as eight specific nations have not ratified the treaty. Brief History The… Read More

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What is Exercise Spade Fork?

Introduction Federal Emergency Plan D-Minus was a plan developed by the United States of America (US) in the 1950’s to guide the federal government in the immediate aftermath of a catastrophic nuclear attack. Plan D-Minus was part of the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness, which also included Mobilisation Plan C (providing direction for federal planning… Read More

What is the Psychophysiological Response to the use of Nuclear, Biological & Chemical Equipment with Military Tasks?

Research Paper Title Psychophysiological response to the use of nuclear, biological and chemical equipment with military tasks. Background The current military training requires the development and optimization of different strategies to improve performance in extreme conditions as well as the possible risk of suffering attacks with chemical and/ or radioactive substances. It turns out mandatory… Read More

Learning period…

“They’ll be no learning period with nuclear weapons. Make one mistake an you’re going to destroy nations.” Robert McNamara (1916 to 2009) Robert Strange McNamara was the US Secretary of Defence from 1961 to 1968 who revamped Pentagon operations and who played a major role in the nation’s military involvement in the Vietnam War.

Thinking of Atoms…

“The unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking, and we thus drift toward unparalleled catastrophes.” Albert Einstein (1879 to 1955) Albert Einstein was a German-born physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the… Read More

Force of Arms & Not Force of Arms…

“The goal of this kind of warfare will encompass more than merely using means that involve the force of arms to control the enemy to accept one’s own will. Rather, the goal should be to use all means whatsoever-means that involve the force of arms and means that do not involve the force of arms,… Read More

What is the Number of Nuclear Detonations?

Between 1945 and 2018, there have been “2450 nuclear detonations” (Holmes, 2018, p.46). “…the origins of Greenpeace, which started life in Vancouver as a protest against the US nuclear test on Amchitka Island, Alaska, in 1971.” (Holmes, 2018, p.46). Reference Holmes, B. (2018) The Art of Remembering. New Scientist. 05 May 2018, p.46.