What is the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty?

Introduction The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear tests, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996, but has not entered into force, as eight specific nations have not ratified the treaty. Brief History The… Read More


What is Exercise Spade Fork?

Introduction Federal Emergency Plan D-Minus was a plan developed by the United States of America (US) in the 1950’s to guide the federal government in the immediate aftermath of a catastrophic nuclear attack. Plan D-Minus was part of the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness, which also included Mobilisation Plan C (providing direction for federal planning… Read More

Thinking of Atoms…

“The unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking, and we thus drift toward unparalleled catastrophes.” Albert Einstein (1879 to 1955) Albert Einstein was a German-born physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the… Read More

Nuclear: 200,000 Bombs & 30 Countries…

“But then I would remember what Weinmann-Smith told me: there is at least enough nuclear material in the world to make 200,000 bombs, and the International Atomic Energy Agency speculates that 30 countries have the capability to do so.” (Whyte, 2018, p.13). Reference Whyte, C. (2018) Huntig Potential Nuclear Bombs. New Scientist. 04 August 2018,… Read More