Who was Wolfgang Luth?

Introduction Wolfgang Lüth (15 October 1913 to 14 May 1945) was the second most successful German U-boat captain of World War II. His career record of 46 merchant ships plus the French submarine Doris sunk during 15 war patrols, with a total tonnage of 225,204 gross register tons (GRT), was second only to that of… Read More

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Who was W.G.G. Duncan Smith?

Introduction Group Captain Wilfrid George Gerald Duncan Smith, DSO & Bar, DFC & Two Bars, AE (28 May 1914 to 11 December 1996) was a Royal Air Force flying ace of the Second World War. He was the father of Iain Duncan Smith, a Member of Parliament (MP) since 1992 and Leader of the Conservative… Read More

What was the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act 1939?

Introduction The Emergency Powers (Defence) Act 1939 was emergency legislation passed just prior to the outbreak of World War II by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to enable the British Government to take up emergency powers to prosecute the war effectively. It contained clauses giving the government wide powers to create Defence Regulations which… Read More

What are Defence Regulations (UK)?

Introduction During the Second World War Defence Regulations were a fundamental aspect of everyday life in the United Kingdom. They were emergency regulations passed on the outbreak of war and during it to give the government emergency powers to prosecute the war. Two Acts of Parliament were passed as enabling legislation to allow the Defence… Read More

What was Defence Regulation 18B?

Introduction Defence Regulation 18B, often referred to as simply 18B, was one of the Defence Regulations used by the British Government before and during World War II. The complete name for the rule was Regulation 18B of the Defence (General) Regulations 1939. It allowed the internment without trial of people suspected of being actively opposed… Read More

What was the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)?

Introduction The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española) was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, of the communist and syndicalist variety, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists,… Read More

What Was Fuhrer Directive N.30?

Introduction Führer Directive No. 30 (German: Weisung Nr. 30) was a directive issued by German dictator Adolf Hitler during World War II. It ordered German support for Iraq’s Arab nationalists, who were fighting the British. Background Refer to 1941 Iraqi coup d’état and Anglo-Iraqi War (1941). Führer Directive No.30 dealt with German intervention in support… Read More