An Overview of the Flight and Expulsion of Germans between 1944-1950

Introduction During later stages of World War II and post-war period from 1944 to 1950, Germans fled and were expelled to present-day Germany from Eastern Europe, which led to de-Germanisation there. The idea to expel the Germans from the annexed territories was proposed by Winston Churchill, in conjunction with the Polish and Czechoslovak exile governments… Read More

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What was Wiedergutmachung?

Introduction The German word Wiedergutmachung after World War II refers to the reparations that the German government agreed to pay in 1953 to the direct survivors of the Holocaust, and to those who were made to work at forced labour camps or who otherwise became victims of the Nazis. The sum would amount, through the… Read More

What was Operation Black Tulip (1945)?

Introduction Operation Black Tulip was a plan proposed in 1945, just after the end of World War II, by Dutch minister of Justice Hans Kolfschoten to forcibly deport all Germans from the Netherlands. The operation lasted from 1946 to 1948 and in total 3,691 Germans (15% of the German residents in the Netherlands) were deported.… Read More

An Overview of the Dutch Annexation of German Territory after WWII

Introduction At the end of World War II, plans were made in the Netherlands to annex German territory as compensation for the damages caused by the war. In October 1945, the Dutch state asked Germany for 25 billion guilders in reparations. In February 1945 it had already been established at the Yalta Conference that reparations… Read More

What was the Morgenthau Plan?

Introduction The Morgenthau Plan was a proposal to eliminate Germany’s ability to wage war following World War II by eliminating its arms industry and removing or destroying other key industries basic to military strength. This included the removal or destruction of all industrial plants and equipment in the Ruhr. It was first proposed by United… Read More

What was the Mutual Defence Assistance Act (1949)?

Introduction The Mutual Defence Assistance Act (MDAA) was a United States Act of Congress signed by President Harry S. Truman on 06 October 1949. For US Foreign policy, it was the first US military foreign aid legislation of the Cold War era, and initially to Europe. The Act followed Truman’s signing of the Economic Cooperation… Read More

What was the Marshall Plan (US)?

Introduction The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Programme, ERP) was an American initiative enacted in 1948 to provide foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $13 billion (equivalent of about $115 billion in 2021) in economic recovery programmes to Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing an… Read More