What was the Dawes Plan (1924)?

Introduction The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was a plan in 1924 that successfully resolved the issue of World War I reparations that Germany had to pay. It ended a crisis in European diplomacy following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles. The plan provided for… Read More


What was the Lausanne Conference (1932)?

Introduction The Lausanne Conference was a 1932 meeting of representatives from the United Kingdom, Germany, and France that resulted in an agreement to suspend World War I reparations payments imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. Refer to Dawes Plan (1924). Background Held from 16 June to 09 July 1932, it was named for… Read More

What was the Young Plan (1929)?

Introduction The Young Plan was a programme for settling Germany’s World War I reparations. It was written in August 1929 and formally adopted in 1930. It was presented by the committee headed (1929-1930) by American industrialist Owen D. Young, founder and former chairman of Radio Corporation of America (RCA), who, at the time, was a… Read More

An Overview of World War I Reparations

Introduction Following the ratification of article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles at the conclusion of World War I, the Central Powers were made to give war reparations to the Allied Powers. Each of the defeated powers was required to make payments in either cash or kind. Because of the financial situation in Austria, Hungary,… Read More

What were the Rhineland Bastards?

Introduction Rhineland Bastard (German: Rheinlandbastard) was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe Afro-Germans, believed fathered by French Army personnel of African descent who were stationed in the Rhineland during its occupation by France after World War I. There is evidence that other Afro-Germans, born from unions between German men and African women… Read More

An Overview of War Children

Introduction War children are those born to a native parent and a parent belonging to a foreign military force (usually an occupying force, but also military personnel stationed at military bases on foreign soil). Having a child by a member of a belligerent force, throughout history and across cultures, is often considered a grave betrayal… Read More

Who was Louise Thuliez (French Resistance Fighter)?

Introduction Louise Thuliez (12 December 1881 to 10 October 1966) was a French schoolteacher, resistance fighter during World War I and World War II and author. Life and Career Thuliez was born in Preux-au-Bois, northern France on 12 December 1881. When World War I broke out, Thuliez was working as a teacher in Saint-Waast-la Vallée.… Read More