Determined or Useless…

“Determined leadership is vital throughout all echelons of command. Nowhere is it more important than in the higher ranks. Generals who become depressed when things are not going well, who lack the “drive” to get things done, and who lack the resolution, the robust mentality and the moral courage to see their plan through to… Read More


What is a Bailey Bridge?

Introduction A Bailey bridge is a type of portable, pre-fabricated, truss bridge. It was developed in 1940-1941 by the British for military use during the Second World War and saw extensive use by British, Canadian and US military engineering units. A Bailey bridge has the advantages of requiring no special tools or heavy equipment to… Read More

What was the Munich Agreement?

Introduction The Munich Agreement (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; German: Münchner Abkommen) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Slovak: Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded at Munich on 30 September 1938, by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic, and the Kingdom of Italy. It provided “cession to Germany of the Sudeten… Read More

Minds, Machines & People…

“Machines don’t fight wars. People do, and they use their minds.” Colonel John R. Boyd (1927-1997) A United States Air Force fighter pilot and Pentagon consultant of the late 20th century, whose theories have been highly influential in the military, sports, business, and litigation. Boyd inspired the Lightweight Fighter programme (LWF) that produced the successful… Read More

Bomb Destruction: Is There A Social Impact?

“In 1949, [Fred Charles] Ikle left his studies in Chicago and travelled through bombed-out Germany. The war hadn’t touched his family directly, and he wanted to know how people coped with devastation on such a massive scale. One of the cities he visited, Hamburg, had suffered roughly the same number of casualties as Nagasaki [target… Read More

Military Operations: Pursuing Utopia!

“Normally, there is no ideal solution to military problems; every course has its advantages and disadvantages. One must select that which seems best from the most varied aspects and then pursue it resolutely and accept the consequences. Any compromise is bad.” (Rommel, 1953, p.201). Field-Marshal Erwin Rommel (the Desert Fox), World War I junior officer… Read More

Military Gamble or Strategical/Tactical Boldness

“It is my experience that bold decisions give the best promise of success. But one must differentiate between strategical or tactical boldness and a military gamble. A bold operation is one in which success is not a certainty but which in case of failure leaves one with sufficient forces in hand to cope with whatever… Read More