Who was Parkash Singh?

Introduction Major Parkash Singh VC (31 March 1913 to 23 March 1991) was a Sikh Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Biography Parkash Singh was born on 31 March 1913 in Sharikar… Read More


What is the Remembrance Day of the Latvian Legionnaires?

Introduction Remembrance Day of the Latvian Legionnaires (Latvian: Leģionāru piemiņas diena), often known simply as Legionnaire Day (Leģionāru diena) or 16 March (16. marts) in Latvia, is a day when soldiers of the Latvian Legion, part of the Waffen-SS, are commemorated. From 1998 until 2000, it was officially recognised as a “Remembrance Day for Latvian… Read More

What was War Plan Orange?

Introduction War Plan Orange (commonly known as Plan Orange or just Orange) is a series of United States Joint Army and Navy Board war plans for dealing with a possible war with Japan during the years between the First and Second World Wars (refer to US Colour-Coded War Plans). It failed to foresee the significance… Read More

What was War Plan Red?

Introduction War Plan Red, also known as the Atlantic Strategic War Plan, was one of the colour-coded war plans created by the United States Department of War during the interwar period of 1919-1939, covering scenarios related to a hypothetical war with the British Empire (the “Red” forces, likely in reference to the Red Ensign). Many… Read More

What was War Plan Gray?

Introduction War Plan Gray was a plan for the United States to invade the Azores Islands in 1940-1941 given the possibility of Germany seizing the islands. Gray is one of the many colour-coded war plans created in the early 20th century. On 22 May 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt directed the US Army and Navy… Read More

What was the Plan Dog Memo (1940)?

Introduction The Plan Dog memorandum was a 1940 American government document written by Chief of Naval Operations Harold Stark. It has been called “one of the best known documents of World War II.” Confronting the problem of an expected two-front war against Germany and Italy in Europe and Japan in the Pacific, the memo set… Read More

Who was Van T. Barfoot?

Introduction Van Thomas Barfoot (born Van Thurman Barfoot; 15 June 1919 to 02 March 2012) was a United States Army officer and a recipient of the United States military’s highest decoration – the Medal of Honour – for his actions in World War II. Early Life Barfoot was born on 15 June 1919, in Edinburg,… Read More