What is Active Service (UK)?

Introduction Under section 48(1) of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 “active service” is defined as service in: “a. an action or operation against an enemy (within the meaning given by section 374 of the Armed Forces Act 2006 (c. 52)),b. an operation outside the British Islands for the protection of life or property, orc.… Read More


What was the McGovern-Hatfield Amendment (1970)?

Introduction The McGovern-Hatfield Amendment (alternatively, Hatfield-McGovern Amendment) was a proposed amendment to an appropriations bill in 1970 during the Vietnam War that, if passed, would have required the end of United States military operations in the Republic of Vietnam by 31 December 1970 and a complete withdrawal of American forces halfway through the next year.… Read More

What was the Case-Church Amendment (1973)?

Introduction The Case-Church Amendment was legislation attached to a bill funding the US State Department. It was approved by the US Congress in June 1973 that prohibited further US military activity in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia unless the president secured Congressional approval in advance. Refer to Cooper-Church Amendment and McGovern-Hatfield Amendment. Background This ended direct… Read More

What was the Cooper-Church Amendment?

Introduction The Cooper-Church Amendment was introduced in the United States Senate during the Vietnam War. The amendment sought to cut off all funding to American war efforts in Cambodia. Its proposal was the first time that Congress had restricted the deployment of troops during a war against the wishes of the president. Refer to Case-Church… Read More

What was the Foreign Military Sales Act of 1971 (US)?

Introduction The Foreign Military Sales Act of 1971, Pub.L. 91–672, 84 Stat. 2053, enacted 12 January 1971, was created as an amendment to the Foreign Military Sales Act of 1968. The Act of 1971 established declarations to promote international peace and national security for economic, political, and social progress. The declaration provided coordination for international… Read More

What is the Foreign Military Sales Act of 1968 (US)?

Introduction The Foreign Military Sales Act of 1968, Pub.L. 90–629, 82 Stat. 1320-2, enacted 22 October 1968, was supplemental legislation to the Arms Control and Disarmament Act of 1961 and the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. The Act discloses the United States commitment and sustainment to a world free from the dangers of armaments and… Read More

What was the Goldwater-Nichols Act?

Introduction The Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defence Reorganisation Act of 04 October 1986 Pubic Law 99–433, (signed by President Ronald Reagan), made the most sweeping changes to the United States Department of Defence since the department was established in the National Security Act of 1947 by reworking the command structure of the US military. It increased… Read More