Introduction Opposition to World War I included socialist, anarchist, syndicalist, and Marxist groups on the left, as well as Christian pacifists, Canadian and Irish nationalists, women’s groups, intellectuals, and rural folk. The socialist movements had declared before the war their opposition to a war which they said could only mean workers killing each other in… Read More
What were Military Service Tribunals?
Introduction Military Service Tribunals were bodies formed by borough, urban district and rural district councils to hear applications for exemption from conscription into the British Army during the First World War. Background Although not strictly recruiting bodies, they played an important part in the process of conscription. Tribunals were published as part of the Derby… Read More
What is Zivildienst?
Introduction Zivildienst is the German denomination for the alternative civilian service for conscripted persons who are conscientious objectors to fulfil their national service, typically in the fields of social work (e.g. hospitals, retirement homes, emergency medical services) and, although rarely, environmental protection, agriculture, and public administration. As such, it is exempt from the general ban… Read More
South Korea & Conscientious Objectors
“Lim jae-sung is a mild-mannered lawyer in his thirties with a fondness for monogrammed shirts and human-rights cases. Owing to South Korea’s strict military-service laws, he is also a convicted criminal with a prison record. Mr Lim refused to serve in the army after becoming involved with the anti-war movement sparked by the dispatch of… Read More
The Two Types of Conscientious Objector
The Armed Forces of the United States of America (USA) place conscientious objectors into two categories: Class 1-O; and Class 1-A-O. Conscientious Objector Class 1-O A member who, by reason of conscientious objection, sincerely objects to participation in military service of any kind in war in any form. Conscientious Objector Class 1-A-O A member who,… Read More
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