What is Ex Parte Bollman (1801)?

Introduction Ex parte Bollman, 8 U.S. (4 Cranch) 75 (1807), was a case brought before the United States Supreme Court. Bollman held that the constitutional definition of treason excluded mere conspiracy to levy war against the United States. Refer to Ex Parte Milligan, Ex Parte Vallandigham, Ex Parte Merryman, Ex Parte Quirin, and Hamdi v.… Read More


What is the Peace Pledge Union?

Introduction The Peace Pledge Union (PPU) is a non-governmental organisation that promotes pacifism, based in the United Kingdom. Its members are signatories to the following pledge: “War is a crime against humanity. I renounce war, and am therefore determined not to support any kind of war. I am also determined to work for the removal… Read More

War and Parable of the Broken Window

Introduction The parable of the broken window was introduced by French economist Frédéric Bastiat in his 1850 essay “That Which We See and That Which We Do Not See” (“Ce qu’on voit et ce qu’on ne voit pas”) to illustrate why destruction, and the money spent to recover from destruction, is not actually a net… Read More

What is Meant by Preventive War?

Introduction A preventive war is an armed conflict “initiated in the belief that military conflict, while not imminent, is inevitable, and that to delay would involve greater risk.” The party which is being attacked has a latent threat capability or it has shown that it intends to attack in the future, based on its past… Read More

What is Meant by Grey Zone?

Introduction The grey-zone (also grey zone, gray zone, and gray-zone) describes the space in between peace and war in which state and non-state actors engage in competition. Refer to Proxy War and Hybrid Warfare. Brief History The concept of the grey-zone is built on existing military strategies; however, information technology has created radical new spaces… Read More

What is a Peaceworker?

Introduction A peaceworker is an individual or member of an organisation that undertakes to resolve violent conflict, prevent the rise of new violent conflicts, and rebuild societies damaged by war. The term peaceworker is usually reserved for civilian, unarmed members of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Peacework is also carried out by many armed organisations such as… Read More

An Overview of Peace Movements

Introduction A peace movement is a social movement which seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or wars) or minimising inter-human violence in a particular place or situation. They are often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Some of the methods used to achieve these goals include advocacy… Read More