What is a Frozen Conflict?

Introduction In international relations, a frozen conflict is a situation in which active armed conflict has been brought to an end, but no peace treaty or other political framework resolves the conflict to the satisfaction of the combatants. Therefore, legally the conflict can start again at any moment, creating an environment of insecurity and instability.… Read More

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What is War?

Introduction War is an intense armed conflict [see note below] between states, governments, societies, or paramilitary groups such as mercenaries, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterised by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars… Read More

Are Armed-conflict Risks Enhanced by Climate-related Disasters in Ethnically Fractionalised Countries?

Research Paper Title Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalised countries Abstract Social and political tensions keep on fueling armed conflicts around the world. Although each conflict is the result of an individual context-specific mixture of interconnected factors, ethnicity appears to play a prominent and almost ubiquitous role in many of them. This overall state… Read More