Introduction The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) is an American federal institution tasked with promoting conflict resolution and prevention worldwide. It provides research, analysis, and training to individuals in diplomacy, mediation, and other peace-building measures. Following years of proposals for a national “peace academy”, the USIP was established in 1984 by Congressional legislation signed… Read More
Not Just for War: Peace Education
Introduction Peace education is the process of acquiring values, knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviours to live in harmony with oneself, others, and the natural environment. There are numerous United Nations (UN) declarations and resolutions on the importance of peace. Ban Ki Moon, UN Secretary General, dedicated the International Day of Peace 2013 to peace education… Read More
What is Peace Direct?
Introduction Peace Direct is a charity based in London, England which supports grassroots peacebuilders in areas of conflict. Peace Direct focuses on supporting grassroots peacebuilders who are local to the conflict and have a clear vision of what needs to be achieved. Peace Direct funds this work, promotes it and learns from it. The current… Read More
What is Peacebuilding?
Introduction Peacebuilding is an activity that aims to resolve injustice in nonviolent ways and to transform the cultural and structural conditions that generate deadly or destructive conflict. It revolves around developing constructive personal, group, and political relationships across ethnic, religious, class, national, and racial boundaries. The process includes violence prevention; conflict management, resolution, or transformation;… Read More
What is Two-Level Game Theory?
Introduction Two-level game theory is a political model of international conflict resolution between states derived from game theory and originally introduced in 1988 by Robert Putnam. Outline Putnam had been involved in research around the G7 summits between 1976 and 1979. However, at the fourth summit, held in Bonn in 1978, he observed a qualitative… Read More
What is Third Party Non-Violent Intervention?
Introduction Third Party Non-violent Intervention (sometimes called TPNI) refers to the practice of intervening from the outside in violent conflicts with the aim of reducing violence and allowing “space” for conflict resolution. Two common forms of intervention are as an intermediary in a negotiating capacity or, physically, by interposing one’s body between two factions. TPNI… Read More
What is a Frozen Conflict?
Introduction In international relations, a frozen conflict is a situation in which active armed conflict has been brought to an end, but no peace treaty or other political framework resolves the conflict to the satisfaction of the combatants. Therefore, legally the conflict can start again at any moment, creating an environment of insecurity and instability.… Read More
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