What is Two-Level Game Theory?

Introduction Two-level game theory is a political model of international conflict resolution between states derived from game theory and originally introduced in 1988 by Robert Putnam. Outline Putnam had been involved in research around the G7 summits between 1976 and 1979. However, at the fourth summit, held in Bonn in 1978, he observed a qualitative… Read More

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What is Third Party Non-Violent Intervention?

Introduction Third Party Non-violent Intervention (sometimes called TPNI) refers to the practice of intervening from the outside in violent conflicts with the aim of reducing violence and allowing “space” for conflict resolution. Two common forms of intervention are as an intermediary in a negotiating capacity or, physically, by interposing one’s body between two factions. TPNI… Read More

What is a Frozen Conflict?

Introduction In international relations, a frozen conflict is a situation in which active armed conflict has been brought to an end, but no peace treaty or other political framework resolves the conflict to the satisfaction of the combatants. Therefore, legally the conflict can start again at any moment, creating an environment of insecurity and instability.… Read More

Linking Civil Conflict Sensitivity to Growing-season Drought

Research Paper Title Civil conflict sensitivity to growing-season drought. Background To date, the research community has failed to reach a consensus on the nature and significance of the relationship between climate variability and armed conflict. The researchers argue that progress has been hampered by insufficient attention paid to the context in which droughts and other… Read More

Is there a Link between Marital Conflict & Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Military Couples.

Research Paper Title Marital Conflict and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Military Couples. Background Our goal was to examine the association between marital conflict and nocturnal blood pressure dipping (NBP) in Iraq/Afghanistan healthy veterans and their partners and to determine whether sleep disturbances mediate such associations. Methods The sample consisted of 25 heterosexual couples comprised… Read More

News: Women, Feisty & Getting On

When women fight at work, it is perceived as more disruptive than a male argument – even if the circumstances are identical. University of British Columbia researchers found that people were more likely to assess a dispute as damaging to morale when it involved women. Researchers have called this the ‘catty trap’ – women become… Read More