What was the Salvadoran Civil War (1979-1992)?

Introduction The Salvadoran Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil de El Salvador) was a twelve year period of civil war in El Salvador that was fought between the government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), a coalition or “umbrella organisation” of left-wing groups. A coup on 15 October 1979 followed by… Read More


Yes or No: Attempts to Regulate Autonomous Weapons are Failing?

In the 16 July 2022 issue of the New Scientist, it was reported that attempts to regulate autonomous weapons would likely fail. Between March and July 2022, the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) – Group of Governmental Experts on emerging technologies in the area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (GGE on LAWS) held various… Read More

What was Operation Halo (2004)?

Introduction Operation Halo was the Canadian Forces contribution of 500 personnel and 6 CH-146 Griffon helicopters to Haiti in March 2004 as part of the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti to assist in stabilising the country following February’s 2004 Haitian coup d’état. Refer to Operation Hestia (2010) and peacekeeping. Outline Though originally mandated for… Read More

What are Military Operations Other Than War?

Introduction Military operations other than war (MOOTW) focus on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crises. The phrase and acronym were coined by the US military during the 1990s, but it has since fallen out of use. The UK military has crafted an equivalent or alternate term,… Read More

What is Peacemaking?

Introduction Peacemaking is practical conflict transformation focused upon establishing equitable power relationships robust enough to forestall future conflict, often including the establishment of means of agreeing on ethical decisions within a community, or among parties, that had previously engaged in inappropriate (i.e. violent) responses to conflict. Peacemaking seeks to achieve full reconciliation among adversaries and… Read More

What is Peacekeeping?

Introduction Peacekeeping comprises activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths, as well as reduces the risk of renewed warfare. Within the United Nations (UN) group of nation-state governments and organisations, there is a general understanding that at the international level, peacekeepers monitor and… Read More

What is the Organisation for Security and Co-Operation in Europe?

Introduction The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world’s largest regional security-oriented intergovernmental organisation with observer status at the United Nations. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and free and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field… Read More