What was the International Authority for the Ruhr?

Introduction The International Authority for the Ruhr (IAR) was an international body established in 1949 by the Western Allies to regulate the coal and steel industries of the Ruhr area in West Germany. Its seat was in Düsseldorf. The Ruhr Authority was set out in the communiqué issued on 07 June 1948, after the London… Read More


Detested in…

“We always have been, we are, and I hope that we always shall be detested in France.” Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769 to 1852) Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of… Read More

Enemies & Allies…

“Wars teach us not to love our enemies, but to hate our allies.” W.L. George (1882 to 1926) Anglo-French writer: born of British parents, but grew up in Paris and did not learn English until the age of twenty. Chiefly known for his popular fiction, which included feminist, pacifist, and pro-labour themes.