What was the Second Siege of Zaragoza (1808-1809)?

Introduction The Second Siege of Zaragoza was the French capture of the Spanish city of Zaragoza (also known as Saragossa) during the Peninsular War. It was particularly noted for its brutality. Background As a part of the Dos de Mayo (02 May) uprising the city had already successfully resisted a first siege from 15 June… Read More

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What was the Louisiana Purchase (1803)?

Introduction The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane ‘Sale of Louisiana’) was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, or approximately eighteen dollars per square mile, the United States nominally acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi (2,140,000 km2; 530,000,000… Read More

What was the Battle of Hohenlinden (1800)?

Introduction The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. A French army under Jean Victor Marie Moreau won a decisive victory over the Austrians and Bavarians led by Archduke John of Austria. After being forced into a disastrous retreat, the allies were compelled to request an armistice that… Read More

What was the Pomeranian War (1805-1810)?

Introduction The Pomeranian War, or Franco-Swedish War, was the first involvement by Sweden in the Napoleonic Wars. The country joined the Third Coalition in an effort to defeat France under Napoleon Bonaparte. Background In 1803 Britain had declared war on France, at this time Sweden had remained neutral together with the Nordic countries Denmark-Norway and… Read More

What was the Anglo-Russian War (1807-1812)?

Introduction During the Napoleonic Wars, the Anglo-Russian War (02 September 1807 to 18 July 1812) was the phase of hostilities between Great Britain and Russia after the latter signed the Treaty of Tilsit that ended its war with France. Anglo-Russian hostilities were limited primarily to minor naval actions in the Baltic Sea and Barents Sea.… Read More

What was the Finnish War (1808-1809)?

Introduction The Finnish War (Swedish: Finska kriget, Russian: Финляндская война, Finnish: Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from 21 February 1808 to 17 September 1809. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian… Read More

What was the Anglo-Swedish War (1810-1812)?

Introduction During the Napoleonic Wars until 1810, Sweden and Great Britain were allies in the war against Napoleon. As a result of Sweden’s defeat in the Finnish War and the Pomeranian War, and the following Treaty of Fredrikshamn and Treaty of Paris, Sweden declared war on Great Britain. The bloodless war, however, existed only on… Read More