What were the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)?

Introduction The Napoleonic Wars (18 May 1803 to 20 November 1815, and preceded by the French Revolution (1792-1802)) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions. It produced a brief period of French domination over… Read More

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What was the Froberg Mutiny (1807)?

Introduction The Froberg mutiny was a mutiny within the British armed forces staged between 04 and 12 April 1807 at Fort Ricasoli, on the island of Malta, then a British Protectorate, by the Froberg Regiment. The regiment had been formed using dubious methods, with personnel recruited from various nationalities in Albania and the Ottoman Empire.… Read More

What were the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802)?

Introduction The French Revolutionary Wars (French: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 20 April 1792 until 27 March 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution (and would lead to the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)). They pitted France against Great Britain, the Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, Russia, and several… Read More

What was the Battle of Elchingen (1805)?

Introduction The Battle of Elchingen, fought on 14 October 1805, saw French forces under Michel Ney rout an Austrian corps led by Johann Sigismund Riesch. This defeat led to a large part of the Austrian army being invested in the fortress of Ulm by the army of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France while other formations… Read More

What was the Second Siege of Zaragoza (1808-1809)?

Introduction The Second Siege of Zaragoza was the French capture of the Spanish city of Zaragoza (also known as Saragossa) during the Peninsular War. It was particularly noted for its brutality. Background As a part of the Dos de Mayo (02 May) uprising the city had already successfully resisted a first siege from 15 June… Read More

What was the Louisiana Purchase (1803)?

Introduction The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane ‘Sale of Louisiana’) was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, or approximately eighteen dollars per square mile, the United States nominally acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi (2,140,000 km2; 530,000,000… Read More

What was the Battle of Hohenlinden (1800)?

Introduction The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. A French army under Jean Victor Marie Moreau won a decisive victory over the Austrians and Bavarians led by Archduke John of Austria. After being forced into a disastrous retreat, the allies were compelled to request an armistice that… Read More