What was the Second White Terror (1815-1816)?

Introduction The Second White Terror (French: Terreur blanche de 1815) occurred in France in 1815-1816, following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo (18 June 1815) and the enthronement of Louis XVIII as King of France after the Hundred Days. Suspected sympathizers of the French Revolution (including former Jacobins), Republicans, Bonapartists and, to… Read More


What was the First White Terror (1794-1795)?

Introduction The White Terror (French: Terreur Blanche) was a period during the French Revolution in 1795 when a wave of violent attacks swept across much of France. The victims of this violence were people identified as being associated with the Reign of Terror – followers of Robespierre and Marat, and members of local Jacobin clubs.… Read More

What is a Demi-Brigade?

Introduction A demi-brigade (English: Half-brigade) is a military formation used by the French Army since the French Revolutionary Wars. The Demi-brigade amalgamated the various infantry organisations of the French Revolutionary infantry into a single unit. Each one was headed by a chef de brigade. The term “Demi-brigade” was chosen to avoid the feudal ancien régime… Read More

What is Sardinia Day (Sardinia)?

Introduction Sardinia’s Day (Sardinian: sa die de sa Sardigna; Sassarese: la dì di la Sardigna; Gallurese: la dì di la Saldigna; Algherese: lo dia de la Sardenya; Italian: il giorno della Sardegna), also known as Sardinian people’s Day (Italian: Giornata del popolo sardo), is a holiday in Sardinia commemorating the Sardinian Vespers occurring in 1794-1796.… Read More

What was the Battle of Fishguard (1797)?

Introduction The Battle of Fishguard was a military invasion of Great Britain by Revolutionary France during the War of the First Coalition (Refer to French Revolutionary Wars). The brief campaign, on 22-24 February 1797, is the most recent landing on British soil by a hostile foreign force, and thus is often referred to as the… Read More

Income Tax and War

Introduction An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) in respect of the income or profits earned by them (commonly called taxable income). Income tax generally is computed as the product of a tax rate times the taxable income. Taxation rates may vary by type or characteristics of the taxpayer and… Read More

What was the Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise (1800)?

Introduction The Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise, also known as the Machine infernale plot, was an assassination attempt on the First Consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, in Paris on 24 December 1800 (Refer to French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars). It followed the conspiration des poignards of 10 October 1800, and was one of many… Read More