Indispensable Personality…

“The personality of the general is indispensable; he is the head, he is the all, of an army. The Gauls were not conquered by the Roman Legion, but by Caesar. It was not before the Carthagenian soldiers that Rome was made to tremble, but before Hannibal. It was not the Macedonian phalanx which penetrated into… Read More

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What is the National Guard (France)?

Introduction The National Guard (French: Garde nationale) is a French military, gendarmerie, and police reserve force, active in its current form since 2016 but originally founded in 1789 during the French Revolution. For most of its history the National Guard, particularly its officers, has been widely viewed as loyal to middle-class interests. It was founded… Read More

What was the Second Siege of Zaragoza (1808-1809)?

Introduction The Second Siege of Zaragoza was the French capture of the Spanish city of Zaragoza (also known as Saragossa) during the Peninsular War. It was particularly noted for its brutality. Background As a part of the Dos de Mayo (02 May) uprising the city had already successfully resisted a first siege from 15 June… Read More

What was the Louisiana Purchase (1803)?

Introduction The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane ‘Sale of Louisiana’) was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, or approximately eighteen dollars per square mile, the United States nominally acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi (2,140,000 km2; 530,000,000… Read More

What was the Battle of Hohenlinden (1800)?

Introduction The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. A French army under Jean Victor Marie Moreau won a decisive victory over the Austrians and Bavarians led by Archduke John of Austria. After being forced into a disastrous retreat, the allies were compelled to request an armistice that… Read More

What is Canning?

Introduction Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container (jars like Mason jars, and steel and tin cans). Canning provides a shelf life that typically ranges from one to five years, although under specific circumstances, it can be much longer. A freeze-dried canned… Read More

What was the Pomeranian War (1805-1810)?

Introduction The Pomeranian War, or Franco-Swedish War, was the first involvement by Sweden in the Napoleonic Wars. The country joined the Third Coalition in an effort to defeat France under Napoleon Bonaparte. Background In 1803 Britain had declared war on France, at this time Sweden had remained neutral together with the Nordic countries Denmark-Norway and… Read More