What was the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)?

Introduction The Haitian Revolution (French: Révolution haïtienne [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ ajisjɛ̃n]; Haitian Creole: Revolisyon ayisyen) was a successful insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign state of Haiti. The revolt began on 22 August 1791, and ended in 1804 with the former colony’s independence. It involved blacks, mulattoes, French, Spanish, and… Read More


What was the Siege of Corfu (1798-1799)?

Introduction The Siege of Corfu (October 1798 to March 1799) was a military operation by a joint Russian and Turkish fleet against French troops occupying the island of Corfu. Part of the Second War of the Coalition (1798-1802). Background Refer to rule in the Ionian Islands (1797-1799) and Russo-Ottoman Alliance (1799). By the Treaty of… Read More

What was the Invasion of Curacao (1800)?

Introduction The Invasion of Curaçao in 1800 during the French Revolutionary Wars was launched by French forces against the Batavian Republic. The French had landed on the island on 22 July, and on 05 September attacked and captured a fort protecting the town of Willemstad, Curaçao. The American consul sent for help, and on 10… Read More

What was the Battle of Kaiserlautern (1793)?

Introduction The Battle of Kaiserslautern (23 May 1794) saw an army from the Kingdom of Prussia and Electoral Saxony led by Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf fall upon a single French Republican division under Jean-Jacques Ambert from the Army of the Moselle. The Prussians tried to surround their outnumbered adversaries but most of the French… Read More

What was the Second Battle of Wissembourg (1793)?

Introduction The Second Battle of Wissembourg from 26 December 1793 to 29 December 1793 saw an army of the First French Republic under General Lazare Hoche fight a series of clashes against an army of Austrians, Prussians, Bavarians, and Hessians led by General Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser. There were significant actions at Wœrth on 22… Read More

What was the First Battle of Wissembourg (1793)?

Introduction In the First Battle of Wissembourg (13 October 1793), part of the French Revolutionary Wars, an Allied army commanded by Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser attacked the French Army of the Rhine under Jean Pascal Carlenc. After an ineffectual resistance, the French army abandoned its fortified line behind the Lauter River and retreated toward Strasbourg… Read More

Patterns of Discipline & Punishment in the Royal Navy, 1783-1815

Research Paper Title ‘Wanton and Torturing Punishments’: Patterns of Discipline and Punishment in the Royal Navy, 1783-1815. Abstract The Royal Navy during the period between the end of the American Revolutionary War and the defeat of Napoleon had a record of success that was second to none, but it has long been held that this reputation was… Read More